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PROVERBS, 

CHIEFLY  TAKEN   FROM   THE 
.  >   . 

ADAGIA  OF  ERASMUS, 

WITH  EXPLANATIONS; 

.AX  I)  rURTIIEK   ILLUSTRATED  BY  CORRESPONDING 
EXAMPLES  FROM  THE 

SPANISH,  ITALIAN,  FRENCH  &  ENGLISH 
LANGUAGES. 

i 
BY  ROBERT  BLAND,  M.D.  F.S.A. 


VOL.  I. 


LONDON : 

PRINTED  FOR  T.  EGERTON,  MILITARY  LIBRARY, 
WHITEHALL. 

1814. 


London:  Printed  by  C.  RowortU, 
Bell-yaru,  Temple-bar^ 


Stack 

TO 

^ofo^   3| 
JAMES  BINDLEY,  ESQ.  F.  s.  A. 

COMMISSIONER  OF  STAMPS. 


AS  this  Work  is  indebted  to  your  revisal  for 
much  of  its  correctness,  permit  me  to  present 
to  you,  in  its  amended  form,  what  you  have 
so  indulgently  supported  when  its  imperfec- 
tions were  more  numerous.  Whether  I  con- 
sider you  as  a  friend,  whom  I  most  esteem, 
or  as  a  scholar  best  acquainted  with  this  my 
favourite  subject,  I  feel  equally  happy  in  an 
opportunity  of  thus  publicly  subscribing 
myself 

Your  obliged 

and  obedient  Servant, 

ROBERT  BLAND. 

Leicester  Square,  London, 
January  1st,  1814. 

2028670 , 


PREFACE. 


THE  greater  part  of  the  Proverbs  contained 
in  these  volumes,  are  taken  from  the  edition 
of  the  Adaffia,  published  by  Henry  Stevens  in 
the  year  1550,  in  folio;  but  in  the  explication 
of  them,  it  was  found  to  be  not  unfrequently 
expedient,  to  deviate  from  the  plan  followed, 
and  from  the  explanations  given  in  that  cele- 
brated publication.  The  reason  for  this  will 
best  appear,  by  giving  a  short  history  of  that 
work,  and  by  relating  some  peculiarities  in 
the  life  of  the  author. 

Erasmus,  who  contributed  largely  to  the 
restoration  of  letters  in  Europe,  bestowed  no 
small  portion  of  labour  in  collecting  together, 
and  explaining  the  proverbs  which  he  found 
scattered  in  the  early  Greek  and  Roman 
writers.  The  first  edition  of  his  collection 
A  3  was 


VI  „        PREFACE. 

was  published  at  Paris,  in  the  year  1500, 
Erasmus  being  then  thirty-three  years  of  age. 
As  the  work  was  received  with  avidity,  it  M'as 
frequently  reprinted  in  the  life  time  of  the 
author,  and  each  time  with  additions,  until 
the  number  of  the  proverbs  exceeded  four 
thousand. 

The  credit  the  work  then  obtained,  has 
never  been  diminished ;  it  still  stands  unri- 
valled, and  has  been  the  medium  through 
which  the  greater  part  of  the  adages  have 
been  introduced  into  almost  every  country  in 
Europe.  But  though  they  have  by  this  means 
been  introduced  into  this,  and  other  countries, 
and  many  of  them  so  incorporated,  as  to  be 
in  as  frequent  use,  as  those  that  arfe  natives, 
yet  they  are  no  where,  as  far  as  I  know,  ac- 
companied with  commentaries,  or  explanations, 
similar  to  those  given  by  Erasmus,  although 
such  explanations  seem  necessary  to  make 
them  generally  understood. 

The  brevity  and  conciseness  of  proverbs, 
in  which  their  excellence  in  a  great  measure 
consists,  renders  them  often  obscure,  and  of 
difficult  comprehension,  "  Siquidem/'  Eras- 
mus 


PREFACE.  V 

mus  says,  "  Aclagia,  ceu  gemmul«,  quod  mi- 
nuta  sint,  fallunt  nonnunquam  venantis  ocu- 
los,  ni  acrius  intendas,"  the  latent  sense  of 
them,  like  small  sparks  of  diamonds,  not  un- 
frequently  escaping  the  sight,  if  not  diligently 
sought  for,  and  even  when  found,  he  goes  on 
to  say,  they  are  of  themselves  of  little  beauty, 
or  lustre,  deriving  the  principal  part  of  their 
value  from  the  manner  of  setting  or  using 
them. 

The  method  that  seems  to  have  been  fol- 
lowed by  Erasmus,  in  making  this  collection, 
was  to  note  every  adage  he  met  with  in  the 
course  of  his  studies,  and  as  the  same  sentence 
occurred  in  different  authors,  to  observe  the 
sense  in  which  it  was  used  by  each  of  them. 
He  was  hence  enabled  to  enrich  his  work  with 
quotations  from  many  of  the  earliest  Greek 
and  Roman  writers,  and  if  not  to  refer  each 
of  the  adages  to  its  original  author,  at  the 
least  to  name  the  earliest  book  in  which  it 
occurred.  Of  these  quotations,  though  many 
of  them  are  of  exquisite  beauty,  and  curiosity, 
but  a  sparing  use  has  been  made  in  the  present 
collection,  the  places  of  them  being  more 
A  4  usually 


Vlll  PREFACE. 

usually  supplied  by  passages  from  later  writers. 
Similar  proverbs  are  also  here  frequently  given 
in  the  Spanish,  Italian,  French,  and  English 
languages. 

It  has  been  before  observed,  that  Erasmus 
contributed  largely  to  the  revival  of  letters, 

O       «/  * 

but- he  was  no  less  assisting  in  promoting  the 
reformation  in  religion,  \vhich  began  in  his 
time.  The  influence  the  clergy  had  obtained 
over  the  minds  of  the  laity,  had  made  them 
rich  and  powerful,  which  producing  their 
usual  effects,  idleness  and  voluptuousness, 
a  very  large  portion  of  them  had  become 
openly  dissolute  and  profligate.  Against  these 
vices,  Erasmus  was  perpetually  declaiming, 
not  sparing  the  higher  orders  in  the  church, 
who  were,  perhaps,  the  first  in  vice,  as  in 
dignity.  In  his  humorous  and  satvrical  de- 

35  «.  ~ 

clamation,  Glorias  Encomium,  or  the  Praise 
of  Folly  ;  in  his  dialogues,  and  letters,  and  in 
his  prefaces  to  his  editions  of  the  Works  of 
the  Fathers,  he  lets  no  opportunity  pass,  of 
exposing  and  censuring  the  debaucheries  and 
crimes  of  the  monks  and  the  clergy.  In  the 
work,  the  subject  of  the  present  dissertation, 

wherever 


PREFACE.  IX 

wherever  the  sense  of  the  adage  would  bear  it, 
similar  strictures  are  abundantly  scattered. 

By  these  censures  so  frequently  passed  on 
the  conduct  of  the  clergy,  the  minds  of  the 
people  were  prepared  to  receive  the  more 
serious  and  heavy  charges,  preferred  against 
them  by  Luther,  of  having  corrupted  and 
perverted  the  Scriptures.  Hence  it  was  cur- 
rently said,  "  that  Erasmus  laid  the  egg,  con- 
taining the  germ  of  the  Reformation,  and 
Luther  hatched  it."  This  gave  great  offence, 
and  may  be  reckoned  among  the  reasons  why 
though  his  works  were  universally  read  and 
admired,  and  procured  him  the  patronage  of 
persons  of  the  highest  rank,  who  were  lavish 
in  their  professions  of  friendship,  and  fre- 
quently sent  him  presents,  as  testimonies  of 
their  attachment,  yet  he  could  never  obtain 
from  them  such  preferment,  as  would  make 
him  independent.  It  must  be  confessed,  as 
he  intimates  in  one  of  his  letters  to  his  friend 
Barbirius,  that  he  was  of  too  open  a  dispo- 
sition, and  apt  to  give  offence  by  speaking 
too  freely.  "  Et  ut  ingenue,  quod  verum  est 
tfitear,"  he  says,  "sum  natura  propensior  ad 

jocos, 


X  PREFACE. 

jocos,  quam  fortasse  deceat,  et  linguae  libe- 
rioris,  quam  nonnunquam  expediat." 

The  enmity  these  strictures  had  excited, 
remained  long  after  his  death,  "  and  the  di- 
vines had  influence  enough  with  Pope  Paul  the 
fourth,"  Jortin  tells  us,  "  to  have  the  Book  of 
Adages  condemned.  But  the  Fathers  of  the 
Council  of  Trent,  taking  into  consideration 
the  usefulness  of  the  work,  ordered  Paul  us 
Manutius  to  revise  it,  and  strike  out  every 
thing  that  was  offensive."  This  garbled  edi- 
tion was  printed  at  Florence,  in  1575,  without 
the  name  of  the  author.*  Fortunately,  the 
original  work  had  been  too  often  printed,  and 
was  too  generally  disseminated  to  be  by  this 
means  suppressed. 

With  the  censures,  however,  on  the  monks 
and  clergy,  and  with  various  other  strictures, 
alluding  to  circumstances  which  have  long 
ceased  to  exist,  we  have  no  concern.  The 
places  of  them  are  here  supplied  by  reflections 
and  observations  of  a  more  general  nature, 
and  better  adapted  to  the  present  times. 

*  A  copy  of  this  edition  was  sold  in  the  sale  of  the  late 
Duke  of  Roxborough's  library,  in  May  1S12,  lor  .£1  -18-0. 

Having 


PREFACE.  XI 

Having  given  this  account  of  the  sources 
whence  the  adages  here  treated  are  taken,  it 
may  not  be  thought  improper  to  add  some 
general  observations  on  the  nature  of  prover- 
bial sentences.  A  proverb  may  be  defined,  a 
short  figurative  expression  or  sentence,  cur- 
rently used,  commending  or  reproving  the 
person  or  thing  to  which  it  is  applied,  and 
often  containing  some  moral  precept,  or  rule, 
for  our  conduct  in  life.  Loose  as  this  defini- 
tion may  appear  to  be,  it  is  not  sufficiently  so 
to  embrace  every  form  of  speech  that  has  been 
admitted  by  Erasmus,  and  our  countryman 
Ray,  as  proverbs.  A  few  examples  may  make 
this  more  intelligible.  A  proverb  frequently 
consists  with  them  in  a  simple  comparison. 
Of  this  kind  are,  '•  As  tall  as  the  monument," 
"As  swift  as  Achilles,"  "As  crafty  as  Ulysses," 
"  As  cunning  as  a  fox."  All  that  is  required  in 
forming  this  species  of  adage  is,  that  the  per- 
son or  thing  used  as  a  comparison  be  generally 
known,  or  reputed  ^to  possess  the  property 
attributed  to  it.  Of  another  kind,  as  proceed- 
ing from  observations  on  the  diversities  in 
the  dispositions  and  tempers  of  men,  are 

"  Quot 


Xll  PREFACE. 

"  Quot  homines  tot  sentential,"  many  men, 
many  minds.  "  Parva  leves  capiunt  animos," 
"  Light  minds  are  pleased  with  trifles,"  and 
"  Suus  cuique  mos  est."  Each  man  has  his 
peculiarities  or  manners,  by  which,  in  fact, 
they  are  not  less  distinguished  from  others, 
than  by  their  faces  and  figures.  Of  a  higher 
kind  are  those  containing  some  moral  precept, 
or  rule,  for  our  conduct  in  life,  as,  "Feras  non 
culpes  quod  vitari  non  potest,"  what  can't  be 
cured  must  be  endured."  "  Homini  ne  fidas, 
nisi  cum  quo  modium  salis  absumpseris,"  trust 
no  man  until  you  have  eaten  a  peck  of  salt 
with  him  ;  that  is,  until  you  have  known  him 
so  long,  that  you  might  have  eaten  a  peck  of 
salt  with  him.  "  Mus  non  fidit  uni  antro,'' 
the  mouse  does  not  trust  to  a  single  passage 
by  which  it  may  escape,  if  attacked.  No 
man  should  engage  all  his  property,  or  so 
much  as  might  materially  injure  him,  if  it 
should  be  lost  in  one  vessel,  or  on  a  single 
project;  "he  should  take  care  to  have  two 
strings  to  his  bow."  These  specimens  may  be 
sufficient  to  shew  the  nature  of  proverbial 
phrases,  and  in  some  degree,  the  kind  of  elu- 
cidation here  attempted. 

As 


PREFACE,  Xllt 

As  the  source  whence  the  adages  are  taken 
is  shewn  to  be  ample,  it  may  be  thought  that 
a  much  larger  collection  might  have  been 
given  than  is  here  produced  ;  "  At  boni  vena- 
tons  est  plures  feras  capere,  non  omnes,"  a 
good  sportsman  is  not  expected  to  take  alt  the 
game  he  may  start.  It  might  not  have  been 
difficult,  perhaps,  had  that  been  thought  ex- 
pedient, to  have  considerably  increased  the 
number ;  but  short  as  this  collection  may  ap- 
pear, there  will  be  found  in  it,  under  various 
heads,  observations  applying  to  all  the  ordi- 
nary occurrences  and  situations  in  life;  which 
will  be  the  more  readily  listened  to,  it  may  be 
expected,  as  they  contain  the  sentiments 
transmitted  clown  to  us  from  the  earliest  ages 
of  the  most  celebrated  sages  and  philosophers. 
Should  it  be  urged,  that  many  of  the  observa- 
tions are  such  as  would  occur  to  every  well 
educated  and  sensible  man,  let  those  to  whom 
they  are  superfluous  pass  them  over,  they 
were  not  written  for  them  ;  "  those  who  are 
well  need  not  a  physician,  but  those  who  are 
sick :"  yet  even  to  them  it  may  not  be  a  matter 
of  total  indifference  to  learn  that  so  many  of 

the 


XIV  PREFACE. 

the  adages  and  forms  of  speech  in  daily  use 
among  us  are  derived  from  the  Grecians,  and 
that  the  origin  of  them  may  be  traced  back 

CJ  v 

for  two  thousand  and  more  years.  But  should 
they  reject  them  altogether,  the  work  may 
still  have  its  utility :  the  young  and  inexpe- 
rienced may  find  in  it  that  information,  which 
those  more  advanced  in  life  cannot,  or  ought 
not,  to  want;  it  may  lead  them  to  consult  the 
books  from  which  the  quotations  are  taken, 
many  of  them  not  commonly  put  into  their 
hands,  and  to  pay  more  attention  than  is 
usually  done  to  the  languages  of  modern 
Europe,  which  will  be  equally  pleasant  and 
bene6cial ;  and  from  the  present  posture  of 
affairs,  it  may  be  expected  that  the  countries 
where  they  are  spoken  will  be  soon  opened  to 
us  :  and  though  the  mass  of  the  people  in 
one  of  those  countries  have  shewn  themselves, 
in  the  course  of  the  dreadful  revolution  that 
has  taken  place  there,  to  be  so  frivolous,  in- 
significant, and  mischievous  as  to  promise 
little  advantage  from  mixing  too  intimately 
with  them,  yet  there  are  not  wanting  a  suffi- 
cient number  of  intelligent  persons  among 

them 


PREFACE.  XV 

them  to  make  a  communication  with  them 
desirable.  It  may  be  hoped  also  that  the 
misery  they  have  for  so  many  years  suffered, 
may  have  the  effect  of  producing  an  alteration 
in  their  character.  No  symptom  however  of 
such  a  change,  it  should  be  observed,  has  yet 
appeared,  notwithstanding  the  losses  their 
country  has  sustained  and  the  degradation  of 
their  ruler:  a  circumstance  which  should  be 
well  noted  here,  and  prove  a  caution  to  our 
people  from  flocking  over  to  that  country, 
should  the  door  be  again,  for  a  short  time, 
opened,  as  they  did  on  a  former  occasion,  to 
their  own  destruction  and  to  the  disgrace  of 
our  national  character.  It  should  also,  and 
will,  it  may  be  expected,  lead  our  people  of 
all  ranks  to  have  so  much  respect  for  them- 
selves and  regard  for  the  honour  of  their 
country,  as  to  shew  no  slavish  servility  to. 
their  envoys  and  ambassadors,  that  we  may 
not  again  be  insulted  with  the  humiliating 
spectacle  of  British  subjects  harnessed  to  the 
chariot  of  aliens,  and  I  doubt,  I  must  say,  of 
enemies  to  the  country.  Had  such  a  scene 
been  acted  at  Greece  or  Rome,  the  parties 

would 


PREFACE. 

would  never  again  have  been  acknowledged 
as  citizens  ;  they  would  have  been  banished, 
perhaps  sold  as  slaves,  or  even  forfeited  their 
lives. 

Thus  far  I  have  endeavoured  to  shew  the 
reader  what  he  is  to  expect  in  these  volumes; 
it  may  not  be  so  easy,  perhaps,  satisfactorily 
to  explain,  why  I  have  undertaken  what  seems 
so  alien  to  my  profession  ; 

"  Tantumne  ab  re  tua  est  otii  tibi, 

Aliena  ut  cures,  ea  quae  nihil  ad  te  attinent  ?;> 

Have  I  so  much  leisure,  it  may  be  asked, 
from  my  own  employment,  that  I  should  en- 
gage in  a  business  which  might  so  much  more 
properly  be  handled  by  those  whose  peculiar 
duty  it  is  to  give  lessons  in  morality  ?  and  yet 
this  may  not,  on  consideration,  be  deemed 
totally  averse  to  the  business  of  the  physi- 
cian ;  for  as  many  diseases,  almost  all  of  the 
chronic  kind,  are  brought  on  and  perpetuated 
by  irregularity  of  living  and  over  indulgence 
of  our  passions,  should  any  persons  on  read- 
ing what  is  here  said  on  those  subjects,  con- 
taining the  opinions  of  the  earliest  and  best 
writers,  be  led  to  correct  their  vicious  habits, 

one 


PREFACE.  XVI 

one  source  of  those  maladies  would  be  cut  off, 
and  they  would  become  both  less  frequent 
and  less  fatal. 

It  may  not  be  improper,  before  concluding 
this  address,  to  apprise  the  reader,  that  a  de- 
sign of  this  kind  was  once  in  the  contemplation 
of  Dr.  Johnson,  as  appears  by  the  list  of  works 
he  had  proposed  undertaking,  given  by  Mr. 
Boswell  at  the  end  of  his  life.  In  what  man- 
ner it  would  have  been  executed  by  him  can- 
not be  conjectured,  doubtless  in  a  way  supe- 
rior to  that  in  which  it  is  treated  here;  and  had 
it  been  accomplished,  it  would  have  superseded 
the  present  attempt :  that  a  writer  of  his  emi- 
nence had  even  entertained  the  idea  of 
such  a  work,  must  be  thought  to  give  an  ad- 
ditional degree  of  credit  to  the  design  itself. 

No  attempt  has  been  made,  it  will  be  ob- 
served, to  arrange  the  proverbs  in  classes,  or 
even  to  place  them  alphabetically.  Their 
number  was  found  to  be  too  inconsiderable 
for  classification  ;  and  as  an  Index  is  given, 
the  reader  will  be  enabled  to  find  what  he 
looks  for  as  readily  as  if  they  had  been  placed 
in  alphabetical  order. 

b 


PROVERBS, 

8$c.     $c.     #c. 


Amicorum  communia  omnia. 

AMONG  friends  all  things  should  be  in  com- 
mon. Erasmus  thought  he  could  not  begin 
his  Collection  better  than  with  this  apo- 
thegm, which  is  of  great  antiquity,  and  much 
celebrated,  and  for  the  same  reason  it  is  here 
placed  first.  Nothing  is  so  frequent  in  our 
mouths,  nor  is  any  thing  less  common  than 
such  a  conjunction  of  minds  as  deserves  the 
name  of  Friendship.  "  When  a  friend  asks, 
there  is  no  to-morrow,"  for  he  is  another  self. 
"  Ne  ay  major  espejo,  que  el  amigo  viejo." 
Like  a  glass  he  will  discover  to  you  your  own 
defects ;  and  "  mas  vale  buen  amigo,  que 
pariente  primo,"  a  good  friend  is  better  than 
a  near  relation.  A  man,  the  Italians  say, 
without  friends  is  like  a  body  without  a  soul. 

*/ 

"  Chi  si  trova  senz'  amici,  e  come  un  corpo 
senz'  anima."    The  French,  by  a  very  delicate 
B  phrase,  > 


(     2     ) 

phrase,  denominate  friendship  love  that  is 
without  wings,  "  L'amitie"  est  1'amour  sans 
ailes,"  meaning  that  it  should  be  a  permanent 
affection,  and  not  easily  to  be  obliterated. 
"  Ova  d'un  ora,  pane  d'un  di,  vino  d'un 
anno,  amico  di  trenta,"  that  is,  eggs  of  an 
hour,  bread  of  a  day,  wine  of  a  year,  but  a 
friend  of  thirty  years  is  best;  and  "  Azeyte, 
y  vino,  y  amigo  antiguo,"  oil,  wine,  and 
friends  improve  by  age.  Friendship,  Mon- 
taigne says,  "  unlike  to  love,  which  is 
weakened  by  fruition,  grows  up,  thrives,  and 
increases  by  enjoyment;  and  being  of  itself 
spiritual,  the  soul  is  reformed  by  the  practice 
of  it."  And  according  to  Sallust,  "  Idem 
velle  et  nolle,  ea  demum  firma  amicitia  est," 
to  have  the  same  desires  and  dislikes,  to  love 
or  hate  the  same  persons,  is  the  surest  test  of 
friendship.  But  instances  of  such  exalted 
friendship,  if  they  do  exist,  are  very  rare. 
"  Tantum  ego  fucorum,  tantum  perfidiae  in 
hominum  arnicitiis  reperio,  non  in  his  modo 
vulgaribus,  verurn  his  quoque  quas  Pyladeas 
vocant,  ut  mihi  jam  non  libeat  novarum  peri- 
culum  facere" — I  find  so  much  dissembling, 

says 


(     3     ) 

says  the  good  Erasmus,  so  much  perfidy 
among  friends,  not  only  those  between  whom 
there  subsists  only  a  slight  intimacy,  but  those 
connected,  as  it  would  seem,  by  the  strongest 
ties  of  affection,  that  I  have  altogether  given 
up  the  search  after  such  a  phenomenon.  The 
same  writer,  at  a  more  advanced  stage  of  his 
life,  and  as  the  result  of  long  experience,  says, 
"  Quin  in  totum,  e6  degenerarunt  hominum, 
mores,  ut  hodie,  cygnus  niger,  aut  corvus  al- 
bus,  minus  rarus  sit  avis,  quam  fidelisamicus." 
In  short,  men  are  become  so  degenerate,  (a 
complaint  that  has  been  made  in  every  age,) 
that  a  black  swan,  or  a  white  crow,  are  not  so 
rarely  to  be  met  with  as  a  faithful  friend. 
And  another  writer  says,  "  We  talk  of  friend- 
ship as  of  a  thing  that  is  known,  and  as  we 
talk  of  ghosts — but  who  has  seen  either  the  one 
or  the  other  !"  "  Friendship,"  Lord  Verulam 
says,  "  easeth  the  heart  and  cleareth  the  un- 
derstanding, making  clear  day  in  both;  partly 
by  giving  the  purest  counsel,  apart  from  our 
interest  and  prepossessions,  and  partly  by  al- 
lowing opportunity  to  discourse;  and  by  that 
discourse  to  clear  the  mind,  to  recollect  the 
B  2  thoughts, 


(     4     ) 

thoughts,  to  see  how  they  look  in  words; 
whereby  men  attain  that  highest  wisdom, 
which  Dionysius,  the  Areopagite,  saith  '  is  the 
daughter  of  reflection.'"  Spenser  gives  a  beau- 
tiful description  of  three  kinds  of  affection,  to 
women,  to  our  offspring,  and  to  our  friend, 
and  gives  the  preference  to  the  latter. 

'  For  natural  affection  soon  doth  cess. 
And  quenched  is  with  Cupid's  greater  flame  ; 
But  faithful  friendship  doth  them  both  suppress, 
And  them  with  mastering  discipline  doth  tame, 
Through  thoughts  aspiring  to  eternal  fame. 
For  as  the  soul  doth  rule  the  earthly  mass, 
And  all  the  service  of  the  body  frame, 
So  love  of  soul  doth  love  of  body  pass, 
No  less  than  purest  gold  surmounts  the  meanest  brass." 


Ne  gustdris  quibus  nigra  est  Cauda. 

It  is  not  known  who  was  the  Author  of 
this  enigmatical  sentence,  prohibiting  to  eat 
what  has  a  black  tail ;  that  which  is  sweet  to 
the  taste,  but  leaves  a  sense  of  bitterness  when 
swallowed.  The  interpretation  seems  to  be, 
hold  no  intimate  connection  with  persons  of 
bad  fame,  nor  do  any  thing  of  which  you 

may  repent  on  reflection. 

Ne 


Ne  cumis  Dextram  injeceris. 

Offer  not  your  hand  to  any  one  with  whom 
you  may  casually  associate.  This  is  in  fact 
only  an  extension  of  the  sense  of  the  first 
apothegm,  by  which  we  were  admonished 
not  lightly,  or  unadvisedly,  to  admit  any  one 
to  an  intimacy,  "  for  with  your  hand  you 
should  give  your  heart."  "  Deligas  enim 
tantum  quern  diligas,"  you  should  chuse  as 
friends  only  such  persons  as  are  worthy  of 
your  love,  and  when  you  have  found  such,  as 
Polonius  advises  his  son  Laertes, 

"  Grapple  them  to  thy  soul  with  hooks  of  steel," 

for  "  amicus  est  magis  necessarius  quam  ignis 
et  aqua,"  a  friend  is  more  necessary  to  us  than 
fire  and  water,  without  which,  we  know,  we 
cannot  even  exist.  From  a  want  of  making 

O 

this  selection,  and  of  being  well  acquainted 
with  the  characters  of  the  persons  whom  we 
admit  to  this  intimacy,  arises  the  frequent 
complaint  of  the  perfidy  of  friends.  "  Qui 
sibi  amicus  est,  scito  hunc  amicum  omnibus 
esse,"  he  who  is  a  friend  to  himself  is  a  friend 
B  3  to 


(     6    ) 

to  every  one  to  whom  he  professes  to  be  so. 
If  tli is  apothegm  of  Seneca  should  not  be 
admitted  to  its  full  extent,  it  will  at  the  least 
be  allowed,  that  he  who  is  not  a  friend  to  him- 
self, should  not  be  expected  to  be  a  friend  to 
any  one  besides.  For  how  should  a  man  be 
a  friend  to  strangers,  who  neglects  what  is 
necessary  for  the  comfortable  subsistence  of 
himself  and  family  ?  In  short,  to  be  a  friend 
it  is  necessary  that  a  man  should  shew  him- 
self to  be  a  reasonable  and  a  good  moral  man, 
fulfilling  his  duty  to  God,  to  his  country,  and 
to  himself.  Such  a  man,  to  adopt  the  lan- 
guage of  Montaigne,  "  is  truly  of  the  cabinet 
council  of  the  Muses,  and  has  attajned  to  the 
height  of  human  wisdom."  If  these  rules  in 
the  choice  of  our  friends  be  followed,  few  per- 
sons will  have  reason  to  complain  of  their 
faithlessness.  If  it  should  be  said  that  such 
characters  are  rare,  it  then  follows,  that  there 
are  but  few  persons  with  whom  we  should 
enter  into  that  close  intimacy  which  is  desig- 
nated by  the  term  friendship. 


Cor 


(    7     ) 

Cor  ne  edito. 

Let  not  care  corrode  and  gnaw  your  heart, 
lest  you  should  fall  into  a  state  of  despon- 
dency, and  to  avenge  some  disappointment  or 
trouble,  throw  away  all  the  blessings  you  en- 
joy, and  with  them  your  life.  To  this  pur- 
port the  Psalmist,  "  Fret  not  thyself,  lest  thou 
be  moved  to  do  evil."  "  Por  mucho  madru- 
gar,  no  aman6ce  mas  aina."  The  Spaniards 
say,  early  rising  makes  it  not  day  the  sooner, 
or  too  much  anxiety  and  care  will  not  enable 
you  the  sooner  to  obtain  your  point;  and  the 
Italians,  "  cento  carre  di  pensieri,  non  paga- 
ranno  un'  oncia  di  debito,"  an  hundred  cart- 
loads of  care  will  not  pay  an  ounce  of  debt. 
"  Cura  facit  canos,"  care  brings  gray  hairs, 
and  "  care,"  we  say,  "  killed  the  cat."  But 
who  is  without  care,  or  can  escape  its  fangs  ! 
"  Man  that  is  born  of  a  woman  is  of  short  con- 
tinuance, and  full  of  trouble;  all  his  days  are 
sorrow,  and  his  travels  grief,  his  heart  also 
taketh  not  rest  in  the  night."  And  "  you 
may  as  soon,"  Burton  says,  "  separate  weight 
from  lead,  heat  from  fire,  moistness  from  wa- 
B  4  ter, 


(     8     ) 

ter,  and  brightness  from  the  sun,  as  misery, 
discontent,  care,  calamity,  and  danger  from 
man."  Such  being  the  state  of  man,  and  as 
we  are  assured,  "  that  it  is  as  natural  for  him 
to  suffer,  as  for  sparks  to  fly  upwards,"  we 
should  bear  our  afflictions  with  patience,  by 
which  alone  the  heaviest  of  them  will  be  in 
some  degree  softened,  and  appeased.  "  Si 
gravis  brevis,  si  longus  levis."  If  the  pain  be 
very  severe,  it  cannot  last ;  if  it  be  moderate 
and  of  longer  duration,  it  may  be  borne. 
"  Nullum  est  malum  majus,  quam  non  posse 
ferre  malum,''  no  greater  misfortune  can 
happen  to  us,  than  not  to  be  able  to  bear 
misfortune. 


Ignem  ne  Gladio  fodito. 

Do  not  stir  the  fire  with  a  sword,  do  not 
irritate  an  angry  person;  rather  endeavour  to 
sooth  and  appease  him,  and  take  some  more 
convenient  opportunity  for  reproof.  When 
no  longer  under  the  influence  of  passion,  he 
may  hear  and  be  benefited  by  your  remon- 
Strances. 

A  Fabis 


(    9    ) 

A  Fabis  abstineto. 

Abstain  from  beans,  was  an  admonition  of 
Pythagoras  to  his  followers;  meaning  by  that 
to  exhort  them  not  to  interfere  in  the  election 
of  magistrates,  in  which,  it  should  seem,  there 
was  the  same  heat  and  contention,  the  same 
violence  and  confusion  as  too  often  occur 
among  us,  when  persons  are  elected  to  places 
of  honour,  or  profit.  The  electors  among  the 
Athenians  were  used  to  poll,  or  give  their 
suffrages,  by  putting  beans,  instead  of  white 
or  black  stones  as  on  other  occasions,  into  a 
vase  placed  for  the  purpose.  Pythagoras  also 
admonishes,  "  when  the  wind  rises,  to  worship 
the  echo,"  that  is  in  times  of  tumult  and  dis- 
sension, to  retire  into  the  country,  the  seat  of 
the  echo. 


Arctum  Aniilum  ne  gestato. 

Do  not  wear  a  ring,  or  a  shoe,  we  say,  that 
is  too  tight,  which  may  impede  you  in  walk- 
ing, or  in  any  other  actions.  Metaphorically, 
do  not  by  imprudence  waste  your  property, 

and 


and  contract  debts,  which  will  lead  to  the  loss 
of  your  liberty;  neither  pay  so  much  defe- 
rence to  the  opinions  of  others,  as  to  embrace 
them  implicitly,  without  first  submitting  them 
to  a  careful  examination.  Persons  who  are 
so  tractable  are  said  "  to  be  led  by  the  nose," 
and  of  such,  artful  men  do  not  fail  to  take 
advantage.  Also,  be  not  ready  to  bind  your- 
selves by  vows,  or  oaths,  to  do,  or  to  refrain 
from  any  act  If  the  thing  be  proper  in  it- 
self, you  will  have  sufficient  incentive  to  do 
it,  without  laying  such  obligations  or  restric- 
tions upon  yourself;  the  necessity  for  which 
can  only  arise  from  imbecility,  or  inconstancy 
of  mind,  which  you  should  rather  endeavour 
to  cure  than  to  indulge. 


Tollenti  Onus  auxiliare,  de.ponenti  mquaquam. 

Assist  those  who  are  willing  to  receive  in- 
struction, and  aid  those  who  endeavour,  but 
have  not  strength,  to  bear  the  load  that  is  im- 
posed on  them.  First  put  thy  shoulder  to  the 
wheel,  and  should  thy  utmost  exertions  prove 

inef- 


(  11  ) 

ineffectual,  then  call  upon  the  Gods,  and  they 
will  help  thee. 
"  But  they  're  not  wishings,  or  base  womanish  prayers 

Can  draw  their  aid,  but  vigilance,  counsel,  action, 

Which  they  will  be  ashamed  to  forsake. 

Tis  sloth  they  hate,  and  cowardice." 

"  A  quien  madruga,  Dios  le  ayoucla,"  the 
Spaniards  say,  God  assists  those  who  rise  early 
in  the  morning,  that  is,  those  who  are  indus- 
trious ;  and  the  French  to  the  same  purport, 
"  Aide  toi  et  Dieu  t'aidera,"  help  yourself  and 
God  will  help  you.  "  Industry,"  we  say,  "  is 
Fortune's  right  hand,  and  frugality  her  left." 


Qua  uncis  sunt  un^uibus  ne  nutrias. 

Q 

Do  not  feed,  or  take  under  your  roof  ani- 
mals of  ferocious  and  savage  dispositions,  that 
have  sharp  and  crooked  claws.  Do  not  che- 
rish a  snake  in  your  hosom,  or  enter  into 
friendship  with  crafty  and  deceitful  persons. 
"  Otez  un  vilain  du  gibet,  il  vou's  y  mettra," 
save  a  thief  from  the  gallows,  and  he  will  cut 
your  throat.  "  Cria  el  cuervo,  y  sacarte  ha 
Jos  ojos,"  breed  up  a  crow  and  he  will  tear  out 

your 


your  eyes.  Ingratitude  and  the  unyielding 
bent  of  nature  were  typified  by  the  Greeks 
under  the  elegant  representation  of  a  goat 
giving  suck  to  the  whelp  of  a  wolf,  with  a 
subscription,  which  has  been  thus  rendered. 

"  A  wolf  reluctant  with  my  milk  I  feed, 
Obedient  to  a  cruel  master's  will; 
By  him  I  nourish'd,  soon  condemned  to  bleed, 
For  stubborn  nature  will  be  nature  still." 

We  may  add  two  familiar  lines  to  these, 

"  The  hedge-sparrow  fed  the  cuckoo  so  long, 
That  she  had  her  head  bit  off  by  her  young." 


Cibum  in  Matellam  ne  immittas. 

* 

"  Cast  not  the  children's  provision  to  the 
dogs."  Talk  not  on  moral  or  religious  sub- 
jects before  persons  of  loose  manners,  who 
are  disposed  to  ridicule  every  thing  that  is 

grave  and  serious;  neither  enter  into  araru- 

,  '  ,     .  °. 

ments  with  persons  who  are  obstinate,  or  ig- 
norant; who  are  either  incapable  of  under- 
standing, or  predetermined  not  to  adopt  what 
you  advise. 


Ad 


(     13     ) 

Ad  Finem  ubi  perveneris,  ne  veils  reverti. 

When  you  have  nearly  completed  any  bu- 
siness in  which  you  are  engaged,  do  not 
through  weariness,  or  inconstancy,  leave  it 
unfinished,  but  persist  to  the  end  ;  else  all  the 
time,  labour,  and  expense  that  have  been  be- 
stowed upon  the  work,  will  be  lost,  and  you 
will  lose  your  character  likewise  ;  or  when 
you  perceive  yourself  about  to  die,  with  pa- 
tience and  courage  submit  to  your  fate,  and 
do  not  weakly  and  foolishly  wish  for  an  ex- 
tension of  your  life,  in  the  vain  hope  that  you 
should  live  more  rationally.  "  Hell,"  we  say, 
"  is  full  of  good  meanings  and  wishes." 

"  O  mihi  praeteritos  referat,  si  Jupiter  annos  !" 

You  knew  that  the  term  of  your  life  was  un- 
certain, and  should  long  since  have  entered 
on  the  course  you  now  propose  to  beg-in,  but 
which,  if  the  opportunity  were  given,  you 
would  probably  neglect  as  heretofore. 


Adversus 


Adversus  solem  ne  loquitor. 

Arguing  against  what  is  clear  and  self-evi- 
dent, is  the  same  as  denying  that  the  sun 
shines  at  mid-clay. 


Hirundinem  sub  eodem  tecto  ne  habeas. 

Take  not  a  swallow  under  your  roof,  he 
only  pays  his  visit  in  the  spring,  but  when 
winter,  the  time  of  difficulty  and  hardships, 
approaches,  he  is  gone.  Entertain  no  one  as 
a  friend  who  seeks  only  his  own  advantage  by 
the  intimacy  he  solicits.  The  proverb  is  also 
supposed  to  intimate  that  we  should  not  ad- 
mit chatterers  to  a  familiarity  with  us,  who 
will  be  sure  to  divulge  whatsoever  they  may  see 
or  hear  in  our  houses.  "  Percontatorem  fugito, 
nam  garrulus  idem  est."  The  swallow  only 
comes,  it  is  said,  for  his  own  purpose,  and 
having  produced  and  brought  up  its  young, 
leaves  us,  without  making  any  beneficial  re- 
turn for  the  entertainment  it  has  received. 
Though  it  is  probable  that  by  devouring  my- 
riads of  insects,  which  would  have  destroyed 

our 


(     15     ) 

our  fruit,  they  pay  us  abundantly  for  the  sub- 
sistence afforded  them. 


In  Anulo  Deifguram  nc  gestato. 

Do  not  wear  the  figure  or  image  of  the 
Deity  in  a  ring:  that  is,  do  not  introduce  the 
name  of  the  Deity  in  your  frivolous  and  idle 
conversation,  or  call  upon  him  to  attest  the 
truth  of  any  assertions,  except  such  as  are  of 
a  grave  and  serious  nature;  still  less  make  it 
the  subject  of  your  senseless  and  impertinent 
oaths. 


Non  bene  imperat,  nisi  qui  paruerit  imperio. 

Men  are  rarely  fit  to  command,  who  have 
not  been  accustomed  to  obey.  Children 
brought  up  too  indulgently  neither  become 
agreeable  companions,  nor  good  masters.  Ac- 
customed to  find  every  one  bending  to  their 
humours,  and  to  have  all  their  wishes  grati- 
fied, they  are  ill  qualified  to  mix  with  the 
world,  and  to  encounter  the  thousand  cross 

acci- 


accidents,  which  every  one,  whatever  may  be 
their  rank,  will  be  sure  to  meet  with.  Every 
opposition  to  their  will  irritates,  and  every 
accident  appals  them.  One  of  the  strongest 
arguments  in  favour  of  our  public  schools  is, 
that  boys  must  there  obey,  before  they  are 
allowed  to  command.  The  proverb  also  in- 
timates, that  no  one  is  fit  to  govern  others, 
who  has  not  obtained  a  command  over  his 
own  passions  and  affections. 


Inter  Malleum  et  Incudem. 

I  am  between  the  hammer  and  .the  anvil, 
I  am  so  surrounded  with  evils,  that  I  see  no 
way  of  escaping,  may  be  said  by  any  one  who 
has  so  involved  and  entangled  himself  in  a 
business,  that  he  must  be  a  loser,  whether  he 
goes  on  or  retreats. 


Res  in  Car  dine  est. 

The  business  is  on  the  hinge :  it  is  in  that 
state  that  it  must  now,  one  way  or  the  other, 

be 


(     17    ) 

be  soon  terminated,  alluding  to  a  door,  which, 
hanging  on  its  hinges,  may  be  shut  or  opened 
by  a  very  slight  impulse.  We  also  say  the 
business  hinges  (turns)  on  such  a  circum- 
stance ;  if  that  be  made  out,  it  will  end  suc- 
cessfully, if  not  it  will  fail. 


Res  indicabit. 

It  will  be  shewn  by  the  event:  we  shall 
thence  learn  whether  what  has  been  stated  be 
the  real  truth. 


Novacula  in  Cot  em. 

"  He  has  met  with  his  match ;"  the  person 
he  attacked  has  proved  too  strong  for  him, 
and  "  he  is  come  off  second  best,"  as  the 
razor,  instead  of  injuring  the  stone,  was  itself 
destroyed. 

"  et  fragili  quaerens  illidere  dentem, 

Offendet  solido." 

Or  as  the  viper,  who,  attempting  to  gnaw  a 
file  which  he  had  found,  wounded  his  own 
mouth,  but  left  the  file  unhurt. 

c  Sero 


(    is    ; 

Sero  sapiunt  Phryges. 

The  Trojans  became  wise  too  late ;  they 
only  came  to  their  senses,  when  their  city  was 
on  the  eve  of  being  taken.  Exhausted  by  a 
war  of  ten  years,  they  then  began  to  consult 
about  restoring  Helen,  on  whose  account  the 
contest  had  been  undertaken.  The  adage  is 
applied  to  persons,  who  do  not  see  the  advan- 
tage of  any  measure  or  precaution  until  it  is 
too  late  to  adopt  it,  and  is  similar  to,  "  when 
the  steed  is  stolen,  we  shut  the  stable  door," 
and  to  the  following  of  the  Italians,  and  the 
French,  "  Serrar  la  stalla  quando  s'  ban  per- 
duti  i  buovi."  "II  est  terns  de  fermer  1'^table 
quand  les  chevaux  en  sont  alleV' 

Malo  accepto  stultus  sapit. 

"  Experience  is  the  mistress  of  fools,"  and 
"the  burnt  child,"  M'e  say,  "dreads  the  fire." 
Some  men  are  only  to  be  made  cautious  by 
their  own  experience,  they  must  suffer  before 
they  will  be  wary. 

-  Piscator 


(    19    ) 

Piscator  ictus  sapiet. 

A  fisherman,  putting  his  hand  hastily  into 
his  net,  M'as  wounded  by  the  thorns  on  the 
backs  of  some  of  the  fish;  being  thus  caught, 
he  said,  I  shall  now  become  wiser :  which  is 
said  to  have  given  rise  to  the  adage.  "Bought 
wit,"  we  say,  "is  best;"  it  will  certainly  be  more 
likely  to  be  remembered,  than  that  which  is 
obtained  without  suffering  some  kind  of  loss 
or  inconvenience.  Hence  also  we  say,  "  wit 
once  bought,  is  worth  twice  taught."  "El 
hombre  mancebo,  perdiendo  gana  seso,"  by 
losses  and  disappointment  young  men  acquire 
knowledge. 

Manus  manumfricat. 

"  Una  mano  lava  la  otra."  "  One  good 
turn  deserves  another."  But  this  phrase  is 
more  commonly  applied  where  two  persons 
bespatter  each  other  with  fulsome  and  un- 
deserved compliments.  "  Scratch  my  breech, 
and  I  will  claw  your  elbow." 

Ne  sus  Minervam. 

Persons  pretending  to   instruct  those  who 

are  qualified  to  be  their  masters,  or  to  inform 

c  2  others 


(     20     ) 

others  in  matters  of  which  they  are  themselves 
ignorant,  fall  under  the  censure  of  this  adage; 
their  conduct  being  as  ridiculous  as  would  be 
that  of  a  sow  who  should  presume  to  attempt 
to  teach  wisdom.  Our  clowns,  not  very  de- 
licately, tell  you,  "  not  to  teach  your  gran- 
dames  to  suck  eggs,"  for,  "  a  bove  majori 
discit  arare  minor,"  the  young  ox  learns  to 
plow  from  the  elder,  not  the  elder  from  the 
young,  and  "El  Diablo  saba  mucho,"  the 
Spaniards  say,  "porque  es  viejo,"  the  devil 
knows  a  great  deal,  for  he  is  old. 


Irwitd  Minervd- 

Cutting  against  the  grain.  When  any  one 
attempts  what  he  is  totally  unqualified  for,  he 
may  be  said  to  be  labouring  without  the 
assistance  of  Minerva,  the  reputed  goddess 
of  wisdom,  "  natura  repugnante,  "  against 
nature.  "  Quam  quisque  ndrit  artem,  in  hac 
se  exerceat,"  let  every  one  confine  himself  to 
the  art  in  which  he  has  been  instructed,  or 
which  he  has  particularly  studied.  "In 
casa  del  Moro  no  babies  Algaravia."  Do  not 

speak 


(     21     ) 

speak  Arabic  in  the  house  of  a  Moor,  lest, 
instead  of  gaining  credit,  you  only  expose 
your  ignorance. 

Ne  Sutor  ultra  crepidam. 

"The  shoemaker  should  not  go  beyond  his 
last."  Men  should  not  attempt  what  they 
are  neither  by  education  nor  genius  qualified 
to  perform,  nor  discourse  on  matters  they  do 
not  understand;  they  will  be  listened  to  with 
no  more  attention  than  would  be  given  to  a 
blind  man  discoursing  on  colours.  "  Cada 
qual  liable*  en  lo  que  sabe,"  let  every  one 
talk  of  what  he  understands.  A  shoemaker 
having  suggested  to  Apelles  an  error  in  the 
form  of  a  shoe  he  had  painted,  the  artist, 
readily  taking  the  hint,  altered  the  picture  in 
that  part.  But  when  the  same  shoemaker  was 
proceeding  to  recommend  alterations  in  the 
form  and  disposition  of  the  limbs  of  the  figure, 
he  received  the  rebuke,  \vhich  thence  be- 
came proverbial,  "The  shoemaker  should  not 
meddle  beyond  his  last. "  "  Defienda  me 
Dios  de  my."  God  defend  me  from  myself, 
c  3  the 


(     22     ) 

the  Spaniards  say,  make  me  to  know  what  is 
my  proper  state  and  condition. 

Par  Pari  referre. 

"Tal  por  tal,"  like  for  like,  or  "One 
good  turn  deserves  another."  If  this  has 
in  all  ages  been  esteemed  a  duty,  in  our 
commerce  with  persons  who  are  indifferent 
to  us,  we  are  in  a  particular  manner  called 
upon  to  observe  it,  in  our  conduct  to  our 
parents,  and  to  make  the  best  return  in 
our  power,  for  their  care  in  nourishing  and 
supporting  us  in  our  infancy  ;  for  imbuing 
our  minds  with  good  principles;  for  cultivat- 
ing and  improving  our  understandings,  and 
thereby  enabling  us  to  support  ourselves  in  a 
mature  age,  and  to  fill  with  credit  that  rank, 
or  situation  in  life,  in  which  we  .may  happen 
to  be  placed.  The  vine  dresser,  whom  King 
Henry  the  Fourth  of  France  is  said  to  have 
met  with  in  his  rambles,  seems  to  have  un- 
derstood and  practised  this  duty,  in  a  me- 
ritorious manner.  "  Having  said,  lie  earned 
forty  sous  a  day,  the  king  demanded  in  what 
manner  he  disposed  of  the  money.  He 

divided 


(     23     ) 

divided  his  earnings,  he  told  the  monarch, 
into  four  parts.  With  the  first  he  nourished 
himself;  with  the  second  he  paid  his  debts; 
the  third  he  laid  out  at  interest,  and  the 
fourth  he  threw  away.  This  not  being  in- 
telligible, the  king  desired  an  explanation. 
You  observe,  Sir,  says  the  man,  that  I  begin 
with  applying  the  first  part  to  my  own  main- 
tenance, with  the  second  I  support  my  parents 
who  nourished  me,  when  I  was  incapable  of 
supporting  myself,  and  so  pay  my  debt  of 
gratitude;  with  the  third  I  maintain  my 
children,  who  may  at  some  future  time  be 
called  upon  to  return  the  like  service  to  me ; 
this  part  therefore  is  laid  out  at  interest ; 
the  fourth  is  paid  in  taxes,  which,  though 
intended  for  the  service  of  the  king,  is  prin- 
cipally swallowed  up  by  the  collectors,  and 
therefore  may  be  said  to  be  thrown  away." 

Something  similar  to  the  reasoning  of  this 
good  man,  is  contained  in  the  following  enig- 
matical epitaph,  which  was  inscribed  on  the 
tombstone  of  Robert  of  Doncaster. 

"  What  I  gave,  that  I  have ; 
What  I  spent,  that  I  had ; 
What  I  left,  that  I  lost." 

c  4  By 


(     24    ) 

By  prudence  in  the  distribution  of  his 
benevolence,  by  giving  only  to  good  and 
deserving  persons,  he  procured  to  himself 
friends,  on  whose  advice  and  assistance  he 
might  depend,  whenever  occasion  should  re- 
quire it ;  and  by  expending  only  what  he 
could  conveniently  spare,  and  laying  it  out 
on  such  things  as  administered  to  his  comfort, 
he  enjoyed,  and  therefore  had  what  he  ex- 
pended;  but  what  he  left,  not  being  enjoyed 
by  himself,  nor  going,  perhaps,  to  persons  of 
his  choice,  or  being  used  in  the  manner  he 
would  have  preferred,  that  portion  might  be 
truly  said  to  be  lost. 


In  Vado  esse.     In  Portu  navigare. 

The  ship  has  escaped  the  threatened  danger 
and  is  arrived  safely  in  port.  The  adage  is 
applied  to  any  one  who  has  overcome  some 
difficulty,  with  which  he  had  been  oppressed, 
and  from  which  there  seemed  little  chance  of 
his  being  able  to  escape. 

\ 

Toto 


(     25     ) 

Toto  Ccelo  errare. 

"  To  shoot  beyond  the  mark,"  to  be  entirely 
out  in  our  conjecture,  or  opinion,  on  any 
business;  to  mistake  the  meaning  of  any 
passage  in  a  work,  or  of  what  had  been  said, 
were  typified  by  the  ancients,  by  this  and 
similar  phrases,  meaning,  You  are  as  far  from 
the  right,  as  the  east  is  from  the  west. 


Turdus  ipse  sibi  malum  cacat. 

"  The  Thrush  when  he  defiles  the  bough, 
Sows  for  himself  the  seeds  of  woe." 

Men  of  over  communicative  dispositions, 
who  divulge  what  may  by  their  adversaries 
be  turned  to  their  disadvantage,  may  be  com- 
pared to  the  thrush,  who  is  said  to  sow,  with 
his  excrements,  the  seeds  of  the  misletoe  on 
which  it  feeds.  From  the  bark  of  the  misletoe 
bird-lime  is  made,  with  which  the  thrush,  as 
well  as  other  birds,  are  not  unfrequently  taken. 
The  eagle  that  had  been  shot,  was  doubly  dis- 
tressed on  discerning  that  the  arrow  which 
inflicted  the  wound,  was  winged  with  a  feather 
of  his  own. 


(    26    ) 

Suojumento  malum  accersere. 

He  hath  brought  this  mischief  upon  himself. 
"He  hath  pulled  an  old  house  about  his  ears." 
Why  would  he  interfere  in  a  business  in  which 
he  had  no  concern  ?  He  should  have  remem- 
bered that,  "  He  that  meddleth  with  strife 
that  doth  not  belong  to  him,  is  like  one  that 
taketh  a  mad  dog  by  the  ear." 


Comix  Scorpium  rapuit. 
The  crow  seizing  on  a  scorpion,  and  think- 
ing he  had  got  a  delicate  morsel,  was  stung  to 
death.  The  adage  is  applicable  to  persons, 
who,  meditating  mischief  to  others,  find  the 
evil  recoil  upon  themselves  with  redoubled 
force. 


Irritare  Crabones. 

"  You  have  brought  a  nest  of  hornets  about 
your  ears,"  may  be  applied  to  persons  who 
have  engaged  in  dispute  with  men  of  greater 
rank  or  power  than  themselves ;  or  who  have 
undertaken  any  business  beyond  their  ability 
to  execute,  and  from  which  they  cannot  ex- 
tricate 


(     27     ) 

tricate  themselves  without  loss.     To  the  same 
purport  is 

Leonem  stimulas. 

Why  awake  the  lion  who  may  tear  you  in 
pieces  ?  and  the  following 

Malum  bene  conditum  ne  moveris. 

When  you  have  escaped  an  injury,  or  when 
any  dispute  or  contest  in  which  you  were  en- 
gaged is  compromised,  and  settled,  do  nothing 
that  may  revive  it,  you  may  not  come  off  a 
second  time  so  well.  "  Non  destare  il  can 
che  dorme,"  the  Italians  say,  do  not  wake  a 
sleeping  dog.  And  the  French, 

"  N'as  tu  pas  tort,  de  reveiller  le  chat  qui 
dort?"  were  you  not  wrong  to  wake  the  cat 
that  was  sleeping?  or,  "  Quando  la  mala  ven- 
tura  se  duerme,  nadie  la  despierte,"  when 
sorrow  is  asleep,  do  not  wake  it." 


Bonis,  vel  mails  Avibus. 

With  good  or  evil  omens.  You  began  the 
business  under  favourable,  or  unfavourable 
auspices,  or  under  a  fortunate  or  unfortunate 
star.  The  Greeks  and  Romans  frequently 

formed 


(     28     ) 

formed  their  opinion  of  the  success  of  any 
enterprize  in  which  they  were  about  to  engage, 
from  the  flight,  or  from  the  chattering,  or 
singing  of  birds.  The  Augur,  whose  office  it 
was  to  expound  to  the  people  the  meaning  of 
the  omens,  is  supposed  to  have  derived  the 
name,  or  title  of  the  office,  from  avis  gar- 
ritus,  the  chattering  of  birds.  Our  country- 
man, Churchill,  has  ridiculed  this  superstition 
with  much  humour. 

"  Among  the  Romans  not  a  bird, 
Without  a  prophecy  was  heajrd  ; 
Fortunes  of  empires  ofitimes  hung 
On  the  magician  magpye's  tongue, 
And  every  crow  was  to  the  state, 
A  sure  interpreter  of  fate. 
Prophets  embodied  in  a  college, 
(Time  out  of  mind  your  seats  of  knowledge,) 
Infallible  accounts  would  keep, 
When  it  was  best  to  watch  or  sleep, 
To  eat,  or  drink,  to  go,  or  stay, 
And  when  to  fight,  or  run  away, 
When  matters  were  for  action  ripe, 
By  l&oking  at  a  double  tripe; 
When  emperors  would  live  or  die, 
They  in  an  asses  skull  could  spy; 
When  generals  would  their  stations  keep, 
Orturn  their  backs  in  hearts  of  sheep." — THEGHOST. 

Some 


(  29   ; 

Some  vestiges  of  this  superstition  are  still 
to  be  found  in  this  country,  and  many  of  our 
fanners'  wives  would  be  disconcerted  at  hear- 
ing the  croaking  of  a  raven,  at  the  moment 
they  were  setting  out  on  a  journey,  whether 
of  business,  or  of  pleasure.  The  following 
lines  from  Walker's  Epictetus  are  introduced, 
to  shew  that  though  the  vulgar,  in  the  early 
ages,  might  believe  in  these  fooleries,  yet  there 
were  not  wanting  then,  as  well  as  now,  persons 
who  were  able  to  ridicule  and  despise  them. 

*'  The  direful  raven's,  or  the  night  owl's  voice, 
Frightens  the  neighbourhood  with  boding  noise  -r 
While  each  believes  the  knowing  bird  portends 
Sure  death,  or  to  himself,  or  friends ; 
Though  all  that  the  nocturnal  prophet  knows, 
Is  want  of  food,  which  he  by  whooting  shews." 

Epictetus  is  supposed  to  have  lived  in  the 
time  of  the  Emperor  Nero,  more  than  1700 
years  ago. 

Noctua  volavit. 

An  owl  flew  by  us,  it  is  a  fortunate  omen, 
our  project  will  succeed,  or  we  shall  hear 
good  news  from  our  friends.  The  raven,  on 

the 


(     30     ) 

the  contrary,  was  considered  as  a  bird  of  ill 
omen,  and  its  appearance  was  supposed  to 
predict  evil. 

"  That  raven  on  yon  left  hand  oak, 
Curse  on  his  ill  foreboding  croak, 
Bodes  me  no  good." 

The  owl  was  in  a  particular  manner  reve- 
renced by  the  Athenians,  as  it  was  the  favoured 
bird  of  Minerva,  their  patroness.  When  Pe- 
ricles was  haranguing  his  men  on  board  one 
of  his  vessels,  who  had  mutinied,  an  owl,  flying 
by  on  the  right  hand,  is  said  to  have  settled 
on  the  mast  of  the  ship,  .and  the  men  observ- 
ing the  omen  were  immediately  pacified,  and 
came  into  his  opinion. 

The  phrase,  noctua  volavit,  was  also  some- 
times used  to  intimate  that  any  advantage 
obtained  was  procured  by  bribery,  by  giving 
money  on  which  the  figure  of  an  owl  was 
impressed,  such  coin  being  common  among 
the  Athenians. 


Quartd  Luna  nati. 

Born   in   the  fourth  moon.     Persons  who 
were   peculiarly    unfortunate,    scarcely    any 


thing 


(     31     ) 

thing  succeeding  to  their  minds,  were  said  to 
be  born  in  the  fourth  moon,  that  being  the 
month  in  which  Hercules  was  born,  whose 
labours,  though  beneficial  to  the  world,  were 
productive  of  little  advantage  to  himself. 
The  Spaniards  say,  "  En  hora  mala  nace, 
quien  mala  fama  cobra,"  he  was  born  under 
an  unlucky  planet,  or  in  an  evil  hour,  who 
gets  an  ill  name.  The  contrary  to  this,  but 
equally  the  child  of  superstition,  is 

Alba  GalllncE  Films. 

"  Hijo  de  la  Gallina  blanca." 

Born  of  a  white  hen.  This  was  said  of 
persons  who  were  extremely  fortunate;  who 
were  successful  in  whatever  they  undertook; 
"  who  were  born,"  as  we  say,  "  with  a  silver 
spoon  in  their  mouth."  The  following  is 
related  by  Suetonius,  as  giving  origin  to  this 
adage.  When  Livia,  the  wife  of  Augustus 
Cssar,  was  at  one  of  her  country  seats,  an 
eagle  flying  over  the  place,  dropped  a  white 
hen,  holding  a  sprig  of  laurel  in  its  beak,  into 
her  lap.  The  empress  was  so  pleased  with  the 
adventure,  that  she  ordered  the  hen  to  be 
taken  care  of,  and  the  laurel  to  be  set  in  the 

garden- 


(     32     ) 

garden.  The  hen,  we  are  told,  proved  un- 
usually prolific,  and  the  laurel  was  equally 
thrifty  ;  and  as  there  was  thought  to  be  some- 
thing supernatural  in  its  preservation,  branches 
from  it  continued  long  to  be  used  by  succeed- 
ing emperors,  in  their  triumphs.  "  En  hora 
buena  nace,  quien  buena  fama  cobra."  He 
that  gets  a  good  name,  was  born  under  a 
fortunate  planet,  or  in  a  lucky  hour. 


Laureum  baculum  gesto. 

I  am  always  armed  with  a  sprig  of  laurel, 
was  said  by  persons  who  had  unexpectedly 
escaped  from  any  threatened  danger.  The 
laurel  was  thought  by  the  ancients  to  be  an 
antidote  against  poison,  and  to  afford  security 
against  lightning.  On  account  of  these  sup- 
posed properties,  Tiberius  Ceesar  is  said  to 
have  constantly  worn  a  branch  of  laurel 
around  his  head.  Laurel  water  was  prescribed 
by  the  ancient  physicians,  in  the  cure  of  those 
fits  to  which  children  are  subjected.  It  was, 
therefore,  until  within  a  very  few  years,  always 
found  in  the  shops  of  the  apothecaries.  Later 

experience 


<     33     ) 

experience  has  shewn,  that  the  distilled  water 
of  the  laurel  leaf,  when  strongly  impregnated, 
is  a  powerful  and  deadly  poison.  It  was  with 
this  preparation  that  Captain  Donellan  killed 
Sir  Theodosius  Baughton.  The  opinion  of 
the  power  of  the  laurel  in  preserving  against 
lightning,  rests  on  no  better  foundation  than 
that  of  its  efficacy  in  preventing  the  effects  of 
poison,  or  in  curing  epilepsy. 

A  horse-shoe  nailed  on  the  threshold  of  the 
door,  was  supposed  by  the  common  people  in 
this  country,  to  preserve  the  house  from  the 
effects  of  witchcraft,  and  it  is  still  in  repute 
among  our  sailors,  who  nail  a  horse-shoe  to 
the  mast,  with  a  view  of  preserving  the  vessel 
from  such  evil  influence. 


Fcsnum  habet  in  Cornu,  longefuge. 

Fly  from  that  man,  he  has  hay  on  his  horns. 
This  is  said  of  persons  of  morose,  quarrelsome, 
and  malevolent  dispositions,  with  whom  it  is 
dangerous  to  associate;  alluding  to  the  custom 
of  fixing  whisps  of  hay  to  the  horns  of  vicious 
oxen.  "  Hie  est  niger,  hunc  tu,  Romane,  ca- 
D  veto.'" 


(     34     ) 

veto."     This  is  a  dangerous  fellow,  beware  of 
him. 


Polypi  mentem  obtine. 

Imitate  the  polypus.  Change  your  plan 
of  living  according  to  circumstances,  accom- 
modate yourself  to  the  dispositions  of  the 
persons  with  whom  you  are  to  live,  or  to  form 
any  intimate  connection.  "  Become  all  things 
to  all  men."  Brutus,  that  he  might  escape  the 
malignancy  of  Tarquin,  who  had  destroyed  his 
father,  and  his  brother,  assumed  the  character 
of  idiotcy,  whence  he  obtained  his  name.  His 
stratagem  succeeded,  no  mischief  being  to  be 
apprehended,  as  Tarquin  supposed,  from  so 
degraded  a  being.  He  was  therefore  suffered 
to  live,  and  in  time  became  principally  instru- 
mental in  freeing  his  country  from  the  tyranny 
of  the  Tarquins,  and  in  laying  the  foundation 
of  a  popular  form  of  government,  which  con- 
tinued upwards  of  700  years.  The  proverb 
took  its  rise  from  a  supposed  power  of  the 
polypus  of  assuming  the  colour  of  any  sub- 
stance to  which  it  adheres.  When  pursued 

it 


(     35     ) 

it  clings  to  the  rocks,  and  taking  the  same 
colour,  often  escapes  unnoticed. 

Multaz  Regum  Aures  atque.  Oculi. 

"An  nescis  longas  Regibus  esse  Manus  ?" 

"  Kings,"  we  say,  "  have  long  arms,"  they 
have  also  many  eyes  and  ears,  that  is,  they  use 
the  ministry  of  their  many  servants  and  de- 
pendents, hoth  to  discover  what  is  done  that 
may  be  prejudicial  to  their  interest,  and  to 
punish  the  delinquents,  whose  crimes  may  hy 
these  means  have  been  detected,  though  seated 
at  the  extremities  of  their  dominions.  Hence 
we  say,  by  way  of  caution,  to  persons  speak- 
ing too  freely,  on  subjects  that  may  give 
offence,  do  you  not  know  that  "  Les  murs  ont 
des  oreilles?"  "Walls  have  ears."  This  senti- 
ment is  beautifully  expressed  in  the  Eccle- 
siastes — "  Curse  not  the  king,  no  not  in  thy 
thought,  and  curse  not  the  rich,  in  thy  bed- 
chamber, for  a  bird  of  the  air  shall  carry  thy 
voice,  and  that  which  hath  wings,  shall  tell 
the  matter." 

The  number  of  spies  and  emissaries  em- 
ployed by  Midas,  king  of  Phrygia,  who  was  a 
D  2  cruel 


(     36     ) 

cruel  tyrant,  gave  occasion  to  the  fable  of 
that  prince's  having  asses  ears.  Antoninus 
Caracalla,  a  monster  in  wickedness,  and 
therefore  full  of  suspicion,  not  only  was 
frequent  in  his  application  to  augurs,  and 
soothsayers,  in  the  hope  that  by  their  means 
he  might  discover  whether  any  designs  were 
hatching  against  his  life,  but  he  made  it  a 
serious  complaint  against  Providence,  that  he 
was  not  endowed  with  the  faculty  of  hearing 
with  his  own  ears,  whatever  was  said  of  him  : 
so  impotent  is  the  influence  of  wealth  or 
£minence,  in  imparting  happiness  to  the  pos- 
sessor, unless,  like  Titus,  he  employs  them  in 
cliff  using  blessings  among  the  people.  "  Paredes 
tienen  oyclos,"  et  "Tras  pared,  ni  tras  seto  no 
digas  tu  secreto." — Walls  haVe  ears, and  behind 
a  wall  or  a  hedge  do  not  tell  a  secret. 


Malo  N~odo  mains  qu&re.ndus  Cuneus. 
A  tough  and  harsh  knot,  is  not  to  be  at- 
tempted to  be  cut  by  a  fine  tool ;  it  can  only 
be  overcome  by  the  application  of  a  strong 
wedge.  Great  difficulties  or  diseases  are  not 
ordinarily  subdued,  but  by  powerful  remedies, 

which 


(     37     ) 

which  may  not  be  applied,  perhaps,  without 
some  degree  of  clanger.  The  adage  also  in- 
timates, that  in  repelling  injuries,  we  may  use 
weapons,  or  means,  similar  to  those  with  which 
we  have  been  attacked.  Craft  and  cunning 
may  therefore  be  properly  had  recourse  to,  in 
opposing  the  machinations  of  the  malevolent, 
and  unjust.  A  horse  perceiving  that  a  lion 
was  endeavouring  by  pretending  to  be  skilful 
in  medicine  to  entice  him  into  his  power,  in 
order  to  destroy  him,  asked  him  to  look  at  a 
swelling  which  he  affected  to  have  in  his  foot, 
and  the  lion  preparing  to  examine  the  part, 
the  horse  gave  him  so  violent  a  stroke  with 
his  heels,  as  laid  him  sprawling  on  the  ground- 
The  adage  also  means,  that  a  lesser  evil  is 
sometimes  obliterated  by  a  greater,  and  one 
passion  or  affection  of  the  rnind  by  another. 

"  Even  as  one  heat  another  heat  expels, 

Or  as  one  nail  by  strength  drives  out  another, 
So  the  remembrance  of  my  former  love, 
Is  by  another  object  quite  forgotten." 

Oleum  Camino  addere. 
"  Jetter  de  1'huile  sur  le  feu,"  to  add  fuel 
to  the  fire;  irritating  instead  of  appeasing  the 
D  3  enraged 


(     38     ) 

enraged  passions.  Giving  wine  to  young 
persons,  whose  blood  is  ordinarily  too  hot,  is 
"adding  fuel  to  the  fire." 


Ululas  Athenas  portas. 
The  owl  was  a  favoured  bird  among  the 
Athenians,  and  so  abounded,  that  sending 
owls  to  Athens,  was  like  "  carrying  water  to 
the  sea,"  or,  "coals  to  Newcastle."  It  was, 
according  to  the  Spanish  phrase,  "  Vender 
miel  al  Colmenaro,"  offering  honey  to  one 
who  had  bee-hives ;  "  Croesi  pecuniar  ter 
unciam  addere,"  or  adding  a  farthing  to  the 
wealth  of  Croesus,  esteemed  in  his  time,  the 
richest  monarch  in  the  world.  The  adage  is 
also  applicable  to  persons  telling  as  news  what 
is  generally  known,  or  offering  to  instruct 
any  one  in  arts,  with  which  he  is  well  ac- 
quainted. Making  presents  to  the  rich,  and 
'neglecting  friends  or  relations,  to  whom  such 
assistance  might  be  beneficial,  are  acts  falling 
also  under  the  censure  of  this  proverb. 

Suum  cuique  pulchrum. 
M*e  each  of  us  think,   that  whatever  we 

possess, 


(    39    ) 

possess,  whether  children,  horses,  dogs,  houses, 
or  any  other  things,  are  better  than  those  of 
our  neighbours,  "  all  our  geese  are  swans." 
Or,  as  a  common  adage  has  it,  "  Every  crow 
thinks  her  own  bird  fair."  This  disposition, 
when  not  carried  to  excess,  is  rather  to  be 
encouraged  than  reproved,  as  tending  to  make 
us  contented  and  happy,  in  our  situations; 
indulged  too  much,  it  occasions  our  becoming 
dupes  to  sycophants  and  flatterers.  None  fall 
so  easily  under  the  influence  of  this  prejudice, 
as  poets,  orators,  and  artisans,  who  are  gene- 
rally as  much  enamoured  with  their  own  pro- 
ductions, as  lovers  are  with  the  charms  of  their 
mistresses.  "Nemo  unquam,  neque  poeta, 
neque  orator  fuit,  qui  quenquam  meliorem  se 
arbitraretur,"  there  never  was  poet,  or  orator, 
Cicero  says,  who  thought  any  other  superior 
to  himself  in  his  art,  nor  any  lover  who  did 
not  find  more  beauty  in  his  mistress  than  in 
any  other  woman. 


Patrice.  Fumus  Igni  alieno  luculentior. 
Even  the  smoke  of  our  own  chimney  shines 
brighter    than    the  fire  of  a   stranger's,  for 
D  4  "Home 


(     40     ) 

c;  Home  is  home,  though  ever  so  homely." 
"  Bos  alienus  subinde  prospectat  foras,"  the 
strange  ox  frequently  looks  to  the  door,  ready 
to  return  to  the  home,  whence  he  has  been 
lately  taken  ;  and  we  know  that  dogs  can 
scarcely,  by  any  kindness,  be  prevented  from 
returning  to  the  houses  of  their  old  masters. 
"  Chaque  oiseau  trouve  son  nid  bien,"  the 
French  say;  and  the  Italians,  "Adogniuccello, 
il  suo  nido  e  bello,"  every  bird  prefers  his 
own  nest. 

As  a  comparatively  small  portion  only  of 
mankind  can  inhabit  the  temperate  regions  of 
the  earth,  or  can  acquire  a  larger  portion  of 
the  goods  of  fortune,  than  are  necessary  for 
their  subsistence,  if  this  disposition  to  be 
contented  with,  and  even  to  give  a  prefer- 
ence to  our  native  soil,  and  our  home,  had 
not  been  implanted  in  us  by  Providence, 
the  misery  and  distress,  already  so  abundant 
in  the  world,  would  have  been  greatly  in- 
creased. But  we  often  carry  this  affection 
too  far,  and  are  thence  led,  not  only  to  prefer 
our  own  possessions,  as  was  noticed  under  the 
last  adage,  but  to  think  too  cheaply  of,  or 

even 


C     41     ) 

even  to  despise  those  of  our  neighbours. 
This  sort  of  prejudice  is  most  seen  in  neigh- 
bouring countries,  and  cannot  be  better  illus- 
trated than  by  adverting  to  the  contemptuous 
expressions  used  by  the  common  people  of 
this  country  when  speaking  of  France,  which, 
though  one  of  the  most  fertile  countries  in 
the  world,  they  seem  to  think  that  it  scarcely 
produces  sufficient  for  the  sustenance  of  its 
inhabitants.  This  amor  patrise  is  well  de- 
scribed by  Goldsmith  in  the  following  lines 
in  his  Traveller. 

"  The  shuddering  tenant  of  the  frigid  zone, 
Boldly  proclaims  the  happiest  spot  his  own. 
Extols  the  treasures  of  his  stormy  seas, 
And  his  long  night  of  revelry  and  ease. 
The  naked  savage  panting  at  the  line, 
Boasts  of  his  golden  sands,  and  palmy  wine, 
Basks  in  the  glare,  or  stems  the  tepid  wave, 
And  thanks  his  Gods  for  all  the  good  they  gave,, 
Nor  less  the  patriot's  boast,  where'er  we  roam, 
His  first,  best  country  ever  is  at  home." 

The  reader  may  not  be  displeased  at  seeing 
the  following  on  the  same  subject. 

"  Cling  to  your  home,  if  there  the  meanest  shed, 
Yield  but  a  hearth  and  shelter  to  your  head, 

And 


(     42     ) 

And  some  poor  plot,  with  fruitage  scantly  stored, 
Be  all  that  Heaven  allots  you  for  your  board  ; 
Unsavoured  bread,  and  herbs  that  scattered  grow, 
Wild  on  the  river's  brink,  or  mountain's  brow  ; 
Yet  e'en  this  c-heerless  mansion  shall  provide, 
More  heart's  repose,  than  all  the  world  beside." 

Tales  and  Poems  bij  the.  Rev.  R.  BLAND,  p.  81. 


Frons  Occipitio  prior. 

By  this  enigmatical  expression,  that  the 
forehead  in  which  the  eyes  are  placed,  pre- 
cedes the  hind-head ;  the  ancients  meant  to 
shew,  that  all  business  may  be  expected  to  be 
best  performed,  if  attended  to  by  the  persons 
who  are  to  be  benefited  by  it.  A  philosopher 
being  asked  by  his  neighbour,  what  would 
best  fatten  his  horse  ?  answered  "  the  eyes  of 
its  master,"  as  his  presence  would  make  his 
fields  most  fertile  and  productive,  the  foot  of 
the  owner  being  the  best  manure  for  his  land. 
"Quando  en  casa  no  esta  el  gato,  estiendese 
el  raton,"  that  is,  "When  the  cat  is  away,  the 
mice  will  play."  T.  Livius,  on  the  same  sub- 
ject, says,  "Non  satis  feliciter  solere  procedere, 
quse  oculis  agas  alienis,"  that  business  is  not 

likely 


(     43     ) 

likely  to  go  on  well,  which  is  committed  to 
the  management  of  strangers.  The  Italians, 
French,  and  Spaniards,  as  well  as  ourselves, 
have  adopted  the  answer  given  by  the  philo- 
sopher, among  their  proverbs,  viz.  "  L'occhio 
del  Padrone,  ingrassa  il  cavallo."  It.  "  L'ceil 
du  maitre  engraisse  le  cheval."  Fr.  "Elojo 
del  amo  engorda  el  caballo."Sp.  that  is,  "The 
eye  of  the  master  makes  the  horse  fat."  A 
lusty  man  riding  on  a  lean  and  sorry  jade, 
being  asked  how  it  happened  that  he  looked 
so  well,  and  his  horse  so  ill,  said,  it  was  because 
he  provided  for  himself,  but  his  servant  had 
the  care  of  the  beast. 

The  word  "prior"  in  the  adage,  is  used  in 
the  sense  of  potior,  or  melior,  better. 


JEqualis  lEqualem  delect  at,  and 
Simile  gaudet  simili. 

"Like  to  like."  Hence  we  see  persons  of 
similar  dispositions,  habits,  and  years,  and 
pursuing  the  same  studies,  usually  congre- 
gating together,  as  most  able  to  assist  each 
other  in  their  pursuits.  "  Ogni  simile  appe- 

tisce 


(     44     ) 

tisce  il  suo  simile,"  every  man  endeavours 
to  associate  with  those  who  are  like  himself. 
"Chacun  aime  son  semblable,"  Fr.  and  which 
is  nearly  the  same,  "  Cada  uno  busca  a  su 
semejante."  Sp.  The  contrary  to  this  is, 

Fig  u  I  us  Figitlo  invidet,  Faber  Fabro. 

"  Two  of  a  trade  can  never  agree,"  each 
of  them  fearing  to  be  excelled  by  his  rival. 
This  passion  might  be  turned  to  their  mutual 
advantage,  if  they  should  be  thence  induced 
to  labour  to  excel  each  other  in  their  art.  It 
would  then  become,  "  Cos  ingeniorum,"  a 
whetstone  to  their  wit.  But  it  more  often 
expends  itself  in  envying  and  endeavouring 
to  depress  their  rivals. 

"  The  potter  hates  another  of  the  trade, 
If  by  his  hands  a  finer  dish  is  made; 
The  smith,  his  brother  smith  with  scorn  doth  treaf, 
If  he  his  iron  strikes  with  brisker  heat." 

"  Etiam  mendicus  mendico  invidet." 
"  It  is  one  beggar's  woe, 

To  see  another  by  the  door  go." 

The  passion  is  found  also  among  animals, 
"  Canes  socium  in  culina  nullum  amant,"  or 
11  Una  dooms  non  alit.duos  canes,"  the  dog 

will 


(     45     ) 

will  have  no  companion  in  the  kitchen,  anH" 
"Monscum  monte  non  miscebitur,"  two  proud 
and  haughty  persons  are  seldom  found  toagree. 


Principium  Dimidium  totius,  or 
Dimidium  Facti,  qui  bene  cepit,  habet. 

"  A  work  well  begun  is  half  clone,"  which 
has  also  been  adopted  by  the  Spaniards,  the 
Italians,  and  the  French.  "  Buen  principio  la 
mitad  es  hecho."  Sp.  "Chi  ben  commencia  a 
la  meta  dell'  opra  finito."  It.  "  II  est  bien 
avanc6,  qui  a  bien  commence*,"  he  has  made 
good  progress  in  a  business,  who  has  begun  it 
well.  We  often  find  great  reluctance,  and 
have  much  difficulty,  in  bringing  ourselves 
to  set  about  a  business,  but  being  once  en- 
gaged in  it,  we  usually  then  go  on  with  plea- 
sure, feeling  ourselves  interested  in  carrying 
it  on  to  its  completion.  In  morals,  an  earnest 
desire  to  be  good,  is  in  a  great  measure  the 
means  of  becoming  good. 


Satius  est  Initiis  mederi  quam  F'mi. 
"A  stitch  in  time  saves  nine."     The  most 
serious  diseases,  if  taken  in  time,  might  often 

be  cured. 

"  Principiis 


(     46'     ) 

"  Principiis  obsta,  sero  medicina  paratur, 
Quum  mala  per  longas  invaluere  moras," 

oppose  the  disease  in  the  beginning,  for 
medicine  will  be  applied  too  late,  when  it 
has  taken  deep  root,  and  fixed  itself  in  the 
constitution.  To  the  same  purport  are,  "Sero 
clypeum  post  vulnera,"  it  is  too  late  to  have 
recourse  to  your  shield,  after  you  are  wounded. 
"  La  casa  quemada,  acudis  con  el  agua,"  the 
Spaniards  say,  "  When  the  house  is  burnt, 
you  then  bring  water.''  Evil  dispositions  in 
children,  are  also  to  be  corrected  before  they 
become  habits.  "Qui  bien  aime,  bien  chatie," 
or  "Spare  the  rod,  and  spoil  the  child.'' 


Fortes  Fortuna  adjwcat. 

l<  Fortune  assists  the  brave,"  "  sed  multo 
majus  ratio,"  Cicero  adds,  but  reason  or  con- 
sideration, is  still  more  to  be  depended  on  ; 
therefore,  "  antequam  incipias  consulto,  et 
ubi  consulueris,  facto  opus  est,"  that  isr 
think  before  you  act,  but  having  well  con- 
sidered, and  formed  your  plan,  go  on  re- 
solutely to  the  end.  To  design  well,  and  to 
persevere  with  vigour  in  the  road  we  have 

chalked 


{    47    ) 

chalked  out  for  ourselves,  is  the  almost  cer- 
tain way  to  attain  our  object.  "  At  in  rebus 
arcluis,"  but  in  great  and  sudden  difficulties, 
a  bold  and  courageous  effort  will  frequently 
succeed,  where  reason  or  deliberation  could 
give  no  assistance,  for  "non  est  apucl  aram 
consultandum,"  when  the  enemy  is  within  the 
walls,  it  is  too  late  for  consultation. 

"  When  dangers  urge  he  that  is  slow, 
Takes  from  himself,  and  adds  to  his  foe.'' 

And,  "  Quien  no  se  aventura,  no  ha  ventura," 
"  nothing  venture  nothing  have."  The  pro- 
verb has  been  pretty  generally  adopted.  "A 
los  osados  ayuda  la  fortuna,"  the  Spaniards 
say ;  and  the  French  "  La  Fortune  aide  aux 
audacieux."  Which  being  the  same  as  the 
Latin,  need  not  to  be  explained. 


Cum  Lawis  luctari. 

Contending  with,  or  reproaching  the  dead, 
which  was  held  to  be  a  great  opprobrium,  or 
scandal  among  the  ancients.  It  was  "  vellere 
barbam  leoni  mortuo,"  taking  a  dead  lion  by 
the  beard.  "De  mortuis  nil  nisi  bonum," 

that 


(     48     ) 

that  is,  of  the  dead,  record  only  what  will 
tend  to  their  honour,  has  therefore  passed  into 
a  proverb,  agreeably  to  which  is  the  Italian 
adage,  "  Non  dir  die  il  vero  de  vivi,  6  non 
parlar  che  bene  de  morti,"  speak  only  what 
is  true  of  the  living,  and  what  is  honourable 
of  the  dead.  But  the  dead  can  receive  no 
harm,  and  the  world  may  be  benefited  by 
publishing  their  errors.  In  Egypt  persons 
were  appointed,  we  are  told,  whose  office  it 
was,  to  examine  into  the  conduct  of  their 
deceased  sovereigns;  if  it  had  been  such  as 
had  been  beneficial  to  the  kingdom,  the 
warmest  tribute  of  praise  was  paid  to  their 
memories;  if  bad,  their  conduct  was  censured 
and  their  memory  reprobated,  to  serve  as  a 
warning  to  their  successors. 


Taurum  toilet  qui  vitulum  sustulerit,  or 

tollere  Taurum, 

Qua  tulerit  Vitulum,  ilia  potest. 

"  Who  has  been  used  to  carry  a  calf,  may 
in  time  carry  an  ox."  The  adage  is  said  to 
have  taken  its  rise  from  the  story  of  a  woman 

who 


(     49     ) 

who  took  delight  in  nursing  and  carrying 
about  with  her  a  calf,  and  as  the  animal  grew, 
her  strength  so  increased,  that  she  was  able  to 
carry  it  when  it  became  an  ox.  Or,  as  Eras- 
mus conjectures,  from  the  story  of  Milo  the 
Crotonian,  who  was  said,  with  great  ease  to 
take  up  an  ox,  and  carry  it  on  his  shoulders ; 
but  who  perished  miserably,  "  Wedged  in  the 
oak  which  he  strove  to  rend."  It  may  be 
used  to  shew  the  force  of  habit  or  custom,  and 
its  influence  both  on  our  mental  and  bodily 
powers,  which  may  by  use  be  increased  to 
an  almost  incredible  degree.  Also  to  shew 
the  necessity  of  checking  and  eradicating  the 
first  germs  of  vice  in  children,  as,  if  they  be 
suffered  to  fix  themselves,  they  will  in  time 
become  too  powerful  to  be  subdued. 


"  Nimia  Familiar  it  as  par  it  Contemptum.^ 

"  Familiaritc-  engendre  mcpris." 

"  Familiarity  breeds  contempt."     "  E  tribus 

optimis  rebus,"  Plutarch  says,  "  tres  pessimas 

oriuntur,"  from  three  excellent  endowments, 

three  of  the   worst  of  our  affections  are  pro- 

E  dnced. 


duced.  Truth  begets  hatred,  familiarity  con- 
tempt, and  success  envy.  The  contrary  to  this 
may  be, 

Omne  ignotum  pro  magn'ifico  est. 
We  are  apt  rather  to  extol  those  persons 
whom  we  know  only  by  report,  but  with 
whose  merit,  or  real  characters,  we  are  not 
acquainted.  "  A  prophet  is  not  without  ho- 
nour," we  are  told,  "save  in  his  own  country." 
Great  men  should  not  associate  too  familiarly 
with  the  world,  ever  more  ready  to  blazon  their 
defects,  which  reduce  them  to  their  own  stan- 
dard, than  to  admire  those  talents  and  qualities 
which  they  are  incapable  of  imitating.  To 
posterity  they  must  look  for  justice,  which 
never  fails  paying  to  their  genius  and  abilities, 
the  homage  that  had  been  refused  them  by 
their  own  age  and  country.  "  Suum  cuique 
decus  posteritas  rependet."  Posterity  will 
give  to  every  one  the  portion  of  commenda- 
tion, to  which  he  was  entitled  by  his  merit. 
Or  the  adage  may  be  thus  interpreted  :  'What 
is  mentioned  in  the  gross  often  fills  the  mind 
with  surprise,  which  in  detail  would  excite  no 
emotion.  If  we  should  say  of  any  man  that 

he 


he  ordinarily  walked  between  two  and  three 
thousand  miles  in  a  year,  the  account  would 
seem  to  be  exaggerated  ;  but  if  we  should  say, 
he  walked  six  or  seven  miles  in  a  day,  which 
would  amount  to  the  same  number  of  miles  in 
the  year,  no  surprize  would  be  excited. 


Mandrabuli  more  Res  succedit, 

Was  used  to  be  said  of  any  business  not 
going  on  according  to  expectation ;  or  from 
persons  indulging  hopes  of  advantage  from  ill- 
concerted  or  ill- matured  projects,  not  likely 
to  be  successful;  but  rather  "  ad  morem  Man- 
drabuli," to  become  every  day  worse.  It  may 
be  applied  to  those  "  who  expect  that  age  will 
perform  the  promises  of  youth;  and  that  the 
deficiencies  of  the  present  day  will  be  supplied 
by  the  morrow:"  but  who  will  most  likely  be 
disappointed. 

Who  Mandrabulus  was  is  not  known,  but 
it  is  recorded  of  him,  that  having  found  a 
considerable  treasure,  in  the  fulness  of  his 
heart  he  presented  at  the  altar  of  Juno  a 
golden  ram,  meaning  to  make  a  similar  offer- 
E  2  ing 


ing  every  year ;  but  repenting,  as  it  would 
seem,  of  his  liberality,  the  next  year  he  offered 
only  a  ram  of  silver ;  and  the  following  year, 
one  of  brass ;  and  hence,  that  is,  from  the 
gift  offered  at  the  shrine  of  the  goddess,  having 
been  thus  every  year  lessened  in  its  value, 
proceeds  the  proverb. 


Maturbfias  senex,  si  diu  velis  esse  senex. 

"  Old  young  and  old  long."  "  Quien 
quisiere  ser  mucho  tiempo  viejo,  comiencelo 
presto."  The  Spaniards  say,  you  must  begin 
to  be  old,  that  is,  you  must  leave  off  the  irre- 
gularities of  youth  betimes,  if  you  wish  to 
enjoy  a  long  and  healthy  old  age :  for  "  quas 
peccamus  juvenes,  ea  luimus  senes,"  young 
men's  knocks,  old  men  feel,"  and  "  Senem 
juventus  pigra,  mendicum  creat,"  youth  pass- 
ed in  idleness  produces  usually  an  old  age  of 
want  and  beggary.  The  French  almost  in  the 
same  words  say,  "  Jeunesse  oiseuse,  vieillesse 
disetteuse."  The  pleasures  of  the  senses  too 
much  indulged,  or  too  long  persisted  in,  lay 
the  foundation  of  diseases,  which  either  cut 

off 


(     53     ) 

off  life  prematurely,  or  make  the  evening  of 
our  days  miserable. 

"  Si  quieres  vivir  sano,  haz  te  viejo  temprano." 


Senis  mutarc  Linguam. 

It  is  difficult  for  persons  advanced  in  years 
to  acquire  a  new  language.  The  rigid  and 
unyielding  muscles  of  aged  persons,  render 
them  as  unfit  for  pronouncing  a  language  to 
which  they  have  not  been  accustomed,  as  the 
limbs  of  a  cripple  are  for  dancing.  But  the 
sentiment  may  be  extended  further,  as  they 
would  be  scarcely  less  successful  in  attempting 
the  acquisition  of  any  new  art  or  science ; 
such  acquisition  requiring  a  greater  degree  of 
vigour,  than  they  can  be  supposed  to  have  re- 
tained. The  province  of  the  ancient,  if  their 
time  has  been  well  employed,  is  rather  to  in- 
struct others,  than  to  hunt  after  new  sources 
of  knowledge.  Plutarch  says,  "  that  the  life 
of  a  vestal  virgin  was  divided  into  three  por- 
tions ;  in  the  first  of  which  she  learned  the 
duties  of  her  profession,  in  the  second  she 
practised  them,  and  in  the  third  she  taught 
E  3  them 


them  to  others."  This  is  no  bad  model  for  per- 
sons in  every  situation  of  life.  The  proverb 
may  be  applied  to  persons  attempting  anything 
for  which  they  are  peculiarly  disqualified. 


Homo  longus  raro  sapiens,  and 
A metis  longus. 

Tall  men  are  rarely  found  to  be  wise. 
The  Spaniards  say,  "  El  grande  de  cuerpo,  no 
es  muy  hombre.''  That  is,  the  robust  man  is 
rarely  a  great  man  ;  and  the  Scotch,  "  fat 
paunches  bode  lean  pates/'  Livy  seems  also 
to  patronise  the  opinion,  "  men  of  great  sta- 
ture and  bulk,"  he  says,  "  appear  more  for- 
midable, than  they  are  found  to  be  on  trial." 
His  observation,  however,  may  be  supposed  to 
relate  rather  to  their  courage  or  bodily  strength, 
than  to  their  genius  or  understanding.  "  Sir 
Francis  Bacon  being  asked  by  King  James, 
what  he  thought  of  the  French  ambassador  ; 
he  answered,  that  he  was  a  tall  proper  man. 
I,  his  Majesty  replied,  but  what  think  you 
of  his  head -piece  ?  is  he  proper  for  the  office 
of  ambassador  ?  Sir,  said  Bacon,  tall  men  are 

like 


like  houses  of  four  or  five  stories,  wherein 
commonly  the  uppermost  room  is  worst  fur- 
nished." And  Burton  says,  that  "  commonly 
your  vast  bodies  and  fine  features  are  sottish, 
dull,  and  heavy  spirits."  Yet,  notwithstanding 
this  coincidence  of  opinion,  of  these  different 
countries  and  persons,  and  the  suffrages  of 
others  might  perhaps  be  joined  ;  the  observa- 
tion will  be  found  to  be  much  oftener  contra- 
dicted than  confirmed;  and  almost  every  one's 
experience  will  tell  him,  that  wit  and  judg- 
ment are  promiscuously  distributed,  and  fall 
as  often  to  the  lot  of  the  tall  and  the  robust 
as  to  those  of  an  opposite  stature  and  bulk. 


Mustelam  habes. 

You  have  a  weasel  in  your  house,  was  said 
to  persons  with  whom  every  thing  turned  out 
unfortunate  and  perverse.  To  meet  a  weasel 
was  considered  by  the  ancients  as  ominous, 
and  portending  some  misfortune  about  to  hap- 
pen. Among  huntsmen  in  this  country,  Eras- 
mus tells  us,  it  was  in  his  time  deemed  an  ill 
omen,  if  any  one  named  a  weasel  when  they 
E  4  were 


(    56    ) 

were  setting  off  for  their  sport.  Theophrastus, 
in  his  description  of  the  character  of  a  super- 
stitious man,  says;  "  If  a  weasel  crosses  the 
road  he  stops  short,  be  his  business  never  so 
pressing,  and  will  not  stir  a  foot  till  somebody 
else  has  gone  before  him  and  broke  the  omen; 
or  till  he  himself  has  weakened  the  prodigy  by 
throwing  three  stones." 


E  multis  Palcis,  pauliim  Fructus  collegi. 

"  Much  straw,  but  little  grain."  With 
much  labour  I  have  obtained  but  small  profit; 
or,  from  a  long  and  laboured  discourse,  but 
little  information.  "  Assai  romor  et  poco 
lana."  "  Great  cry  but  little  wool,  as  the 
devil  said  when  he  sheared  his  hogs."  This 
adage  takes  it  rise  from  a  scene  in  one  of  the 
Misteries,  a  kind  of  dramatic  amusement  very 
popular  before  the  use  of  plays;  in  which  the 
devil  is  introduced  shearing  one  of  those  ani- 
mals, which  continued  making  a  most  fright- 
ful noise  during  the  operation,  to  the^  great 
diversion  of  the  audience, 

mf 

Extra 


(    57    ) 

Extra  Lutum  Peeks  hales. 

You  have  been  fortunate  in  getting  out  of 
that  difficulty,  or  that  you  did  not  engage  in 
a  business,  which,  however  promising  it  might 
appear,  could  not  but  have  involved  you  in 
much  trouble.  Literally  it  means,  in  drawing 
your  feet  out  of  the  mud. 


Ex  Umbra  in  Solem. 

You  have  explained  that  difficult  passage, 
and  rendered  clear  and  luminous,  what  was 
before  obscure  and  difficult. 


Ex  uno  omnia  specta. 

From  one  act,  or  circumstance,  you  will 
readily  judge  what  is  the  real  character  or 
disposition  of  the  man.  This  may  to  a  cer- 
tain degree  be  admitted  as  a  test;  as,  if  a  man 
be  detected  in  any  deliberate  act  of  villany, 
where  there  has  been  an  evident  design  to 
defraud  or  injure  another,  we  may  without 
hesitation  pronounce  the  party  to  be  a  bad 
man :  but  the  converse  of  this,  may  not  be 

so 


(     58     ) 

so  surely  depended  on,  and  we  may  not  with 
safety,  from  one  single  act  of  charity,  or 
kindness,  pronounce  the  party  to  be  a  good 
man,  or  trust  him  as  such.  So  also,  if  a  man 
from  walking  over  Bagshot  Heath,  should 
take  upon  him  to  determine  the  state  of  this 
country,  as  to  its  fertility,  and  should  de- 
scribe it  as  in  general  barren  and  inhospitable, 
or  from  being  deceived  by  an  individual,  with 
whom  he  had  been  engaged  in  business,  should 
determine  that  the  inhabitants  are  faithless, 
and  not  to  be  trusted,  it  is  evident,  that  in 
both  cases,  he  would  be  found  to  have  passed 

a  rash  and  precipitate  judgment. 

/ 

Ad  Consilium  ne  accesseris,  antequam  voceris. 

"  Speak  when  you  are  spoken  to,  and  come 
when  you  are  called  for.5'  Advice  should  not, 
generally  speaking,  be  offered  until  it  is  re- 
quired, for,  "proffered  service  stinks."  But  if 
we  see  one,  in  whose  welfare  we  feel  ourselves 
interested,  about  to  engage  in  a  connection, 
or  business,  by  which  he  is  likely  to  be  in- 
jured, it  becomes  then  the  part  of  a  friend  to 

interfere, 


(    59    ) 

interfere,  and  admonish  him  of  his  danger, 
though  his  opinion  should  not  have  been 
asked,  or  even  though  caution  has  been  used, 
to  keep  the  circumstance  from  his  knowledge. 
Still  the  task  is  far  from  being  grateful. 
"  Le  mauvais  metier,"  Guy  Patin  says,  "  que 
celui  de  censeur;  on  ne  gagne  a  1'exercer  que 
la  haine  de  ceux  qu'on  reprend,  et  on  ne  cor- 
rige  personne,"  it  is  a  bad  business  that  of 
a  censor,  he  is  sure  to  incur  the  hatred  of 
those  he  reproves,  without  having  the  pleasure 
of  finding  them  improved  by  his  advice.  "Ne 
prendre  conseil  que  de  sa  tete,"  that  is,  "Take 
counsel  only  of  your  own  thoughts,"  the 
French  say,  but  this  is  in  some  degree  con- 
tradicted by  the  following  :  "  Un  fou  avise 
bien  un  sage,"  even  a  fool  may  suggest  what 
may  deserve  the  attention  of  a  wise  man;  we 
should  therefore  listen  to  advice,  let  it  come 
from  what  quarter  it  will,  for  "Al  buen  consejo 
no  se  halla  precio,"  good  advice  is  inestimable. 

Et  meum  Tclum  Cuspidem  habet  acuminatum. 

Even  my  dart  has  also  a  point,  and  is  ca- 
pable 


(     60     ) 

pable  of  inflicting  a  wound,  though  it  may 
not  pierce  so  deep  as  yours.  I  would  willingly 
avoid  contest,  but  if  you  will  continue  to 
molest  me,  I  will  not  suffer  alone,  but  will 
take  caVe  you  shall  feel  a  part  of  the  evil. 
Agreeably  to  this  sentiment  also,  is  the  Scot- 
tish Order  of  the  Thistle,  framed,  with  its 
motto — "  Nemo  me  impune  lacessit." 

Barbte  ten  us  Sapient  cs. 

Philosophers  even  to  the  beard.  Oh,  he  is 
a  wise  man,  you  may  see  it  by  his  beard,  may 
be  applied  ironically  to  persons  of  grave  and 
serious  manners,  who  wish  to  pass  themselves 
off  for  men  of  more  learning,  or  knowledge, 
than  they  really  possess.  As  the  beard  is  not 
completely  formed  until  the  age  of  manhood, 
it  has  always  been  considered  as  an  emblem 
of  wisdom.  "  II  est  terns  d'etre  sage,  quand 
on  a  la  barbe  au  menton,"  it  is  time  to  be 
wise  now  that  you  have  a  beard  on  your  chin; 
and,  "Hombre  de  barba,"  with  the  Spaniards, 
means  a  man  of  knowledge,  or  intelligence. 
"  Diga  barba  que  haga,"  let  your  beard  advise 

you 


you  what  is  befitting  you  to  do,  and  "a  poca 
barba,  poca  virguenza,"  little  beard,  little 
shame,  or  modesty.  "  Quixadas  sin  barbas  no 
inerecen  ser  honradas,"  chins  without  beards 
deserve  no  honour.  "  Fa  ire  la  barbe,"  among 
the  French,  means  to  deceive,  or  impose  on 
any  one,  by  superior  address  or  cunning;  also, 
to  excel  in  wisdom  and  sagacity.  Among 
the  Persians,  and  perhaps  generally  in  the 
east,  the  beard  is  held  in  great  reverence,  and 
to  speak  of  it  slightingly  or  disrespectfully, 
would  be  resented,  and  for  a  stranger  to  vio- 
late it,  by  touching  it,  would  probably  be 
avenged  by  instant  death. 

JYb;z  est  ejusdem  et  multa,  et  opportuna  dicere. 

It  is  not  easy  for  any  one  to  talk  a  great 
deal,  and  altogether  to  the  purpose.  "  A 
mucho  hablar,  mucho  errar,"  talk  much,  and 
err  much.  "  No  diga  la  langua  par  do  pague 
la  cabeza,"  "  the  tongue  talks  at  the  head's 
cost,"  and  "  eating  little,  and  speaking  little, 
can  never  do  harm."  "He  that  speaks  doth 
sow,  but  he  that  is  silent  reaps."  "  En  boca 

cerrada, 


cerrada,  no  entra  moscha,"  flies  do  not  enter 
the  mouth  that  is  shut,  and  "  Fous  sont  sages, 
quand  ils  se  taisent,"  fools  are  wise,  or  may 
be  so  reputed,  when  they  are  silent. 


Aut  Regem  aut  Fatuum  nasci  oportuit. 

A  man  should  either  be  born  a  king  or  an 
idiot,  he  should  be  at  the  topr  or  at  the 
bottom  of  the  wheel  of  fortune ;  at  the  least, 
there  are  men  so  ambitious,  of  such  high  and 
daring  spirits,  that  they  will  venture  every 
thing,  their  fortunes,  and  their  lives,  to  attain 
to  the  highest  rank  in  their  country.  They 
will  be,  "aut  Caesar,  aut  nullus,"  either  kings 
or  beggars.  "  O  rico,  o  pinjada,"  rich,  or 
hanged,  "neck,  or  nothing."  Milton  makes 
Lucifer  say, 

"  To  reign  is  worth  ambition,  though  in  hell. 
Better  to  reign  in  hell,  than  serve  in  heaven." 

But  the  adage  seems  to  have  a  special  refer- 
ence to  the  respect  usually  paid  to  idiots. 
In  Turkey,  and  in  other  parts  of  the  east, 
they  were  held  in  such  veneration,  that  it  was 
thought  to  be  no  less  than  a  sin  to  oppose,  or 

control 


(    63     ) 

control  them  in  any  thing  they  were  disposed 
to  do.  They  had  therefore  equal  liberty  with 
kings,  who  say  and  do  whatever  they  please. 
To  a  late  period,  it  was  usual  with  the  nobles, 
in  this,  as  well  as  in  other  countries  of  Europe, 
to  entertain  in  their  houses  a  fool,  for  their 
diversion,  who  often  took  the  liberty  of  re- 
proving their  masters  for  their  follies,  and  in 
much  freer  language  than  any  other  persons 
were  permitted  to  use.  When  Jaques,  in  "As 
you  like  it,"  proposed  putting  on  a  fool's  coat, 
he  says, 


•  "  I  must  have  liberty 


Withal,  as  large  a  charter  as  the  wind, 

To  blow  on  whom  I  please ;  for  so  fools  have." 

May  it  be  added,  what  is  currently  said, 
"Fools  are  fortunate."  They  also  may  be 
said  to  be  happy,  as  they  neither  anticipate 
evil,  nor  even  feeLthe  full  pressure  of  it  when 
present.  "  Dieu  aide  a  trois  sortes  de  per- 
sonnes,  aux  fous,  aux  enfans,  et  auxivrognes," 
God  protects  three  sorts  of  persons,  fools, 
infants,  and  drunkards,  the  latter  rarely  fall- 
ing, it  is  said,  into  any  danger,  even  when 
full  of  drink.  The  French  also  say,  "  T£te 

de 


(    64    ) 

cle  fou  ne  blanchit  jamais,"  the  head  of  the 
fool  never  becomes  grey,  which  is  probably 
not  better  founded  than  the  former  obser- 
vation. 


Minutula  Pluvia  Imbrem  parit. 

Many  small  drops  make  a  shower.  "  Goutte 
a  goutte  la  mer  s'egoute,"  the  sea  itself 
may  be  emptied  by  drops.  "  Petit  a.  petit 
1'oiseau  fait  son  nid,"  by  little  and  little  the 
bird  makes  his  nest,  and  "many  a  little 
makes  a  mickle."  By  the  accumulation  of 
small  sums,  large  fortunes  may  frequently  be 
made.  "  Poco  6  spesso  empie  il  borsetto," 
little  and  often  fills  the  purse.  Therefore  the 
proverb  says,  "Take  care  of  your  pence, 
your  shillings  and  your  pounds  will  take 
care  of  themselves. '\  The  adage  also  admo- 
nishes, not  to  disregard  slight  evils,  they  may 
increase  to  a  considerable  magnitude;  or  small 
expenses,  for  if  there  be  many  of  them,  though 
each  of  them  singly  may  be  insignificant,  to- 
gether they  will  make  a  formidable  sum.  Of 
the  same  tendency  is, 

Gutta 


(    65    ) 

Gutta  cavat  Lapidem. 

By  the  constant  trickling  of  water,  the  solid 
stone  becomes  excavated.  This  should  en- 
courage us  to  perseverance  in  industry,  to 
which  few  things  are  impossible.  "  Mad  ruga  y 
veras,  trabaja  y  auras,"  rise  betimes  and  you 
will  see,  labour  assiduously  and  you  will  have. 

"  Oft  little  add  to  little,  and  the  amount 

Will  swell,  heaped  atoms  thus  produce  a  mount." 


Hum  ausculta,  cui  quatuor  sunt  Aures. 

Listen  to  him  who  has  four  ears.  It  is  not 
known  what  gave  birth  to  this  adage,  but  it 
is  understood,  as  advising  to  attend  to  old 
and  experienced  persons,  who  are  slow  in 
judging,  who  are  more  ready  to  hear  than  to 
speak;  or,  as  the  English  proverb  has  it,  "who 
have  wide  ears  and  short  tongues." 

"  He  that  hears  much,  and  speaks  not  at  all, 

Shall  be  welcome  in  parlour,  in  kitchen  and  hall/' 

"  Oi,  voye,  et  te  taise, 

Si  tu  veux  vivre  en  pais." 

That  is,  if  you  wish  to  live  quietly,  hear,  see, 

F  and 


(    66    ) 

and  be  silent ;  which  is  taken  probably  from 
the  following  monkish  line. 

"  Audi,  vide,  tace,  si  vis  vivere  in  pace." 
A  similar  sense  has,  "prospectandum  vetulo 
latrante  cane,"  when  the  old  dog  barks,  or 
opens,  then  attend. 


Adfelicem  inflectere  Parietem. 

When  a  vessel,  in  sailing,  inclines  too  much 
to  one  side,  the  passengers  usually  crowd  to 
the  other,  where  seems  to  be  the  greatest 
safety,  and  when  fortune  ceases  to  smile  on 
any  one,  or  he  is  found  to  be  sinking,  it  is 
then  that  his  friends  usually  leave  him,  and 
fly  to  others  who  are  more  successful.  Though 
such  conduct  cannot  but* be  condemned  by 
all  ingenuous  persons,  yet  on  the  other  hand, 
we  should  not  so  connect  ourselves  with  the 
fortunes  of  those  who  are  falling,  as  to  make 
our  own  ruin  inevitable  with  theirs.  1'  Juvare 
arnicos  rebus  afflictis  decet."  We  should  in- 
deed assist  our  friends  in  their  misfortunes, 
but  not  at  the  hazard  of  the  destruction  of 
ourselves  arid  families,  otherwise  we  should 

subject 


subject  ourselves  to  the  censure  implied  in. 
the  following,  "  Alienos  agros  irrigas,  tuis 
sitientibus,"  while  watering  the  fields  of  our 
neighbour,  we  leave  our  own  to  be  parched 
with  drought.  "  Harto  es  necio  y  loco,  quien 
vacia  su  cuerpo,  por  inchir  el  de  otro,"  he  is 
foolish  and  mad  enough,  who  empties  his  own 
purse  to  fill  that  of  another. 


Manumnonverterim,  Digitum 

Are  Latin  phrases  used  to  express  the  most 
perfect  supineness  and  indifference  on  any 
subject,  and  which  we  have  adopted  :  "  I 
would  not  give  a  turn  of  my  hand,  or  hold 
out  a  finger  to  obtain  it,"  or,  "I  value  not  a 
straw  what  such  a  person  may  say  of  me,"  or, 
"  there  is  not  the  turn  of  a  straw  difference 
between  them." 


Emere  malo,  quam  rogare. 

I  had  rather  buy  what  I  want,  than  ask 
any  one  for  it.  To  an  ingenuous  mind,  it  is  a 
hard  thing  to  be  obliged  to  say,  I  beg;  he  had 

F  2  rather 


(     68     ) 

rather  purchase  what  he  stands  in  need  of, 
with  his  own  money,  or  if  he  has  not  money, 
with  the  labour  of  his  own  hands.  "  Neque 
enim  levi  mercede  emit,  qui  precatur,"  he 
pays  no  small  price  for  a  favour,  who  buys  it 
by  intreaties.  "  If  I  had  money,"  Socrates 
said,  "I  would  this  morning  have  bought 
myself  a  coat."  Though  the  money  was  im- 
mediately supplied  by  his  friend,  yet  it  came, 
Seneca  observes,  too  late.  It  was  a  shame 
that  such  a  man  should  have  been  reduced  to 
the  necessity  of  asking  for  it. 


Ubi  amid,  ibi  opes. 

Where  there  are  friends,  there  is  wealth,  or, 
in  the  usual  acceptation  of  the  proverb,  It 
is  better  to  have  friends  without  money,  than 
money  without  friends.  "Aquelles  son  ricos, 
que  tienen  amigos,"  they  are  rich  who  have 
friends.  To  be  possessed  of  friends,  is  doubt- 
less valuable,  as  they  may  stand  us  in  stead 
in  our  troubles ;  but  in  the  ordinary  occur- 
rences of  life,  money  may  be  depended  on 
with  more  certainty,  as  it  will  purchase  us 

both 


(    69     ) 

both  conveniences  and  friends.  "  Las  nece- 
dades  del  rico,  por  sentencias  passan  en  el 
mundo,"  even  the  foolish  sayings  of  the  rich, 
pass  in  the  world  as  oracles.  We  may  there- 
fore more  truly  say,  "  Ubi  opes,  ibi  amici," 
he  that  has  wealth  has  friends ;  "  Vulgus 
amicitias  utilitate  probat,"  for  friends  are 
commonly  esteemed  only  in  proportion  to  the 
advantages  they  are  able  to  procure  us. 

"Hood  an  ass  with  reverend  purple, 
So  you  can  hide  his  two  ambitious  ears, 
And  he  shall  pass  for  a  cathedral  doctor." — Volpone. 


Thus  aulicum. 

Court  incense.     The  splendid  promises  of 
courtiers,    like    the    odoriferous    vapour   of. 
frankincense,    please  the  Qenses  for  a  time, 
but  they  are  both  of  them  light  and  volatile, 
and  leave  no  beneficial  effects  behind  them. 


Contra  Stimulum  calces. 

1  You  are  kicking  against  the  pricks,"  may 

be  said  to  persons,  who,  impatient  under  any 

affliction  or  injury,  by  attempting  to  avenge 

F  3  themselves, 


(     70     ) 

themselves,  increase  their  misfortune  ;  or  who 
contend  with  persons  capable  of  inflicting  a 
much  severer  punishment,  than  that  which 
they  are  suffering.  "Paul,  Paul,  why  per- 
secutest  thou  me?  It  is  hard  for  thee  to  kick 
against  the  pricks."  The  adage  takes  its  rise 
from  the  custom  of  goading  oxen,  to  make 
them  go  forward,  with  sticks,  having  sharp 
points.  If  they  are  restive  and  push  back- 
wards, they  force  the  points  of  the  sticks  into 
their  flesh. 

Nullus  sum. 

I  am  undone,  lost  beyond  all  possibility  of 
redemption,  was  the  exclamation  of  Davus, 
when  he  found  that  he  had,  by  his  schemes, 
precipitated  his  master  into  the  very  engage- 
ment he  was  employed,  and  actually  meant  to 
extricate  him  from. 


Nee  Obolum  habet,  unde  Restim  emat. . 

He  has  not  a  penny  left  to  buy  an  halter. 
He  has  no  property,  "  ne  in  pelle  quidem," 

not 


(    .71     ) 

not  even  in  his  skin.  "  Ne  obolus  quiclem 
relictus  est,"  he  has  totally  dissipated  and 
wasted  his  property,  not  a  morsel,  or  the 
smallest  particle  of  it  remains.  "  He  is  as  poor 
as  a  church  mouse." 

"  Beg,"  Gratiano  says   to  Shylock,   "  that 
thou  may  est  have  leave  to  hang  thyself; 

"  And  yet,  thy  wealth  being  forfeit  to  the  state, 
Thou  hast  not  left  the  value  of  a  cord  ; 
Therefore  thou  must  be  hanged  at  the  state's  charge." 

"  No  le  alcaca  la  sal  al  agua,"  "  he  is  so  poor," 
the  Spaniards  say,  "  that  he  hath  not  salt 
enough  to  season  his  water."  Xenophon,  in 
his  dialogues,  makes  one  of  the  interlocutors 
say,  "  he  had  not  so  much  land  as  would 
furnish  dust  for  the  body  of  a  wrestler." 


De  Land  caprinA. 

Disputing  about  what  is  of  no  value,  about 
goat's  wool,  which  can  be  turned  to  no  profit, 
and  half  the  disputes  in  the  world  are  of  as 
little  importance;  at  the  least,  the  subjects  of 
them  are  rarely  of  half  the  value  of  the  trouble 
and  expense  incurred  in  the  contest.  Of  the 
F  4  same 


(     72     ) 

same  kind  are,  "  De  fumo  disceptare,"  vel 
"  deasini  umbra."  Plutarch  tells  a  ludicrous 
story,  as  giving  origin  to  the  latter  adage. 
Demosthenes  observing,  that  the  judges  before 
whom  he  was  pleading,  paid  no  attention  to 
what  he  was  saying,  but  were  discoursing  on 
matters  that  had  no  relation  to  the  subject 
before  them,  said  to  them,  "If  you  will  lend 
your  attention  a  little,  I  have  now  a  story  to 
relate  that  will  amuse  you."  Finding  they 
were  turned  to  him,  he  said,  "A  certain 
young  man  hired  an  ass,  to  carry  provision  to 
a  neighbouring  town,  but  the  day  proving  to 
be  very  hot,  and  there  being  no  place  on  the 
road  affording  shelter,  he  stopped  the  ass,  and 
sat  himself  down  on  one  side  of  him,  so  as  to 
be  shaded  by  the  ass  from  the  sun.  On  this, 
the  driver  insisted  on  his  getting  up,  aHeging 
that  he  had  hired  the  ass  to  carry  his  load, 
not  to  afford  him  a  shade.  The  man,  on  the 
other  hand,  contended,  that  having  hired  the 
ass  for  the  journey,  he  had  a  right  to  use  him 
as  a  screen  from  the  sun,  as  well  as  to  carry 
his  goods ;  besides,  he  added,  the  goods  on 
the  back  of  the  ass,  which  were  his,  afforded 

more 


(     73     ) 

more  than  half  the  shade;  and  so  long  a  dis- 
pute ensued,  which  came  at  length  to  blows." 
Demosthenes,  perceiving  the  judges  were  now 
fully  intent  on  listening  to  his  story,  sud- 
denly broke  off,  and  descending  from  the 
rostrum,  proceeded  to  walk  out  of  the  court. 
The  judges  calling  to  him  to  finish  his  story, 
"  I  perceive  you  are  ready  enough,"  he  said, 
"  to  listen  to  a  ridiculous  story  about  the 
shadow  of  an  ass,  but  when  I  was  pleading 
the  cause  of  a  man,  accused  of  a  crime  affect- 
ing his  life,  you  had  not  leisure  to  pay  it  the 
necessary  attention,  to  enable  you  to  be  mas- 
ters of  the  subject  on  which  you  were  to 
decide."  A  story  in  many  respects  similar  to 
this,  is  related  of  Dr.  Elmar,  who  was  Bishop 
of  London  in  the  time  of  Queen  Elizabeth. 
In  the  course  of  a  sermon  he  was  preaching 
in  his  parish  church,  before  he  had  attained 
to  the  dignity  of  a  bishopric,  finding  his 
auditory  careless  and  inattentive,  he  read, 
with  great  solemnity,  a  passage  from  a  Hebrew 
book  he  happened  to  have  with  him.  This 
drawing  the  attention  of  the  congregation,  he 
reproved  them  for  their  inconsistency  in  lis- 
tening 


(     74    ) 

tening  to  him  when  reading  a  language  they 
did  not  understand,  and  neglecting  or  refus- 
ing to  hear  him,  when  explaining  to  them  in 
their  own  language,  doctrines,  which  they 
were  materially  interested  to  know  and  un- 
derstand. 


Talpd  ccKcior. 

Blinder  than  a  mole.  The  ancients  thought 
moles  had  no  eyes,  but  they  have  two  small 
eyes,  affording  them  so  much  sight,  as  to  en- 
able them  to  know  when  they  have  emerged 
through  the  earth,  and  they  no  sooner  per- 
ceive the  light,  than  they  return  into  their 
burrows,  where  alone  they  can  be  safe.  This 
proverb  is  applied  to  persons  who  are  exceed- 
ingly slow  in  conceiving,  or  understanding 
what  is  said  to  them ;  also  to  persons  search- 
ing for  what  lays  immediately  before  them. 
"  If  it  was  a  bear,"  we  say,  "  it  would  bite 
you."  To  the  same  purport  is 

Leberide  c&cior. 

By  the  leberis,  the  Latins  meant  the  dry 
and  cast  skin  of  a  serpent,  or  of  any  other 

animal, 


(       75     ) 

animal,  accustomed  to  change  its  coat,  in 
which  the  apertures  for  the  eyes  only  remain. 
With  us,  it  is  usual,  in  censuring  the  same 
defect,  to  say,  "  He  is  as  blind  as  a  beetle." 
"  We  are  all  of  us  used  to  be  Argus's  abroad, 
but  moles  at  home,"  but  how  much  better 
would  it  be  to  correct  an  error  in  ourselves, 
than  to  find  an  hundred  in  our  neighbours. 


PecunicE,  obediunt  omnla. 

"  Money  masters  all  things."  All  things 
obey,  or  are  subservient  to  money,  it  is  there- 
fore the  principal  object  of  our  attention. 
"  Sine  me  vocari  pessimum,  ut  dives  vocer," 
call  the  what  you  will,  so  you  do  but  admit 
me  to  be  rich.  "  Nemo  an  bonus :  an  dives 
omnes  qua3rimus."  When  about  to  treat 
with  or  enter  into  business  with  any  one, 
we  do  not  so  much  inquire  whether  he  is  a 
good,  as  whether  he  is  a  rich  man  ;  "  Nee 
quare  et  unde  ?  quid  habeat,  tantum  rogant," 
nor  by  what  means  he  acquired  his  money, 
but  only  how  much  he  actually  possesses. 
"  Gifts,"  we  say,  "  break  through  stone  walls," 

for 


(    76    ) 

for  what  virtue  is  proof  against  a  bribe  ?  "  He 
that  has  money  in  his  purse,  cannot  want  a 
head  for  his  shoulders."  That  is,  he  will  never 
want  persons  to  advise,  assist,  and  defend  him. 
"  I  d-iiiari  fan  correre  i  cavallo,"  "  it  is  mo- 
ney that  makes  the  mare  to  go."  "  For  dinero 
buy  hi  el  perro,"  the  dog  dances  for  money ; 
and  l<  Quien  dinaro  tiene,  hazo  lo  que  quiere," 
he  that  has  money  may  have  what  he  pleases. 
"  Plate  sin  with  gold,  and  the  strong  arm 
of  justice  cannot  reach  it;  clothe  it  in  rags,  a 
pigmy  straw  will  pierce  it."  Volpone,  in  the 
comedy  of  that  name,  addressing  his  gold, 
says 

"  Such  are  thy  beauties,  and  our  loves,  dear  saint, 
Riches !  thou  dumb  god,  that  giv'st  all  men  tongues  ; 
That  canst  do  naught,  and  yet  mak'st  men  do  all  things  ; 
The  price  of  souls ;  even  hell,  with  thee  to  boot, 
Is  made  worth  heaven.     Thou  art  virtue,  fame, 
Honour,  and  all  things  else.     Who  can  get  thee, 
He  shall  be  noble,  valiant,  honest,  wise." 

On  the  other  hand,  we  are  told,  that  Fortune 
makes  those  whom  she  most  favours  fools; 
"  Fortuna  nimium  quern  favet,  stultum  facit," 
and  "  Ubi  mens  plurima,  ibi  minima  fortuna/' 

those 


(     77    ) 

those  who  abound  in  knowledge  are  usually 
most  deficient  in  money.  It  has  a^s°  been  ob- 
served, that  riches  excite  envy,  and  often  ex- 
pose the  possessors  of  it  to  danger  :  the  storm 
passes  over  the  shrub,  but  tears  up  the  oak  by 
its  roots.  "  God  help  the  rich/'  we  say,  "  the 
poor  can  beg." 

"  Cantabit  vacuus  coram  latrone  viator," 

the  thief  who  makes  the  rich  man  to  tremble, 
excites  no  alarm  in  the  breast  of  the  beggar ; 
he  has  nothing  to  lose. 

"  Hence,  robbers  hence,  to  yonder  wealthier  door, 
Unenvied  poverty  protects  the  poor. 

"  Non  esse  cupidum,  pecunia  est,  non  esse 
emacem,  vectigal  est,"  not  to  be  covetous,  to 
desire  riches,  is  wealth  ;  not  to  be  extravagant 
or  expensive,  is  an  estate.  Hence  poverty 
has  been  called,  the  harbour  of  peace  and  se^ 
curity,  where  undisturbed  sleep  and  undissem- 
bled  joys  do  dwell.  "  Fidelius  rident  tugu- 
ria,"  the  laughter  of  the  cottage  is  more 
hearty  and  sincere  than  that  of  the  court: 
great  \vealth  therefore  conduces  but  little  to 
happiness :  and  "  as  he  who  has  health  is 

young; 


(     78     ) 

young;  so  be  who  owes  nothing  is  rich." 
"Dantur  quidem  bonis,  ne  quis  mala  estimet; 
malis  autem,  ne  quis  nimis  bona,"  riches  are 
given  to  the  good,  St.  Austin  says,  that  they 
mav  not  be  esteemed  an  evil ;  to  the  bad,  that 

*/ 

they  may  not  be  too  highly  valued. 


Omnium  horarum  homo. 

A  companion  for  all  hours  or  seasons. 
This  may  be  said  of  persons  of  versatile  and 
easy  dispositions,  who  can  accommodate  them- 
selves to  all  circumstances,  whether  of  festivity 
or  of  trouble ;  who  with  the  grave  can  be  seri- 
ous, with  the  gay  cheerful ;  and  who  are 
equally  fit  to  conduct  matters  of  business  or 
of  pleasure:  such  a  man,  we  are  told,  was  the 
philosopher  Aristippus. 

"  Omnis  Aristippum  decuit  color.'' 

Every  thing  became  him,  by  which  enviable 
qualities,  he  was  always  a  favoured  guest  at  all 
tables  and  in  all  companies. 


Veritatis 


("  79    ) 

Veritatis  simplex  est  oratio. 

Truth  needs  not  the  ornament  of  many 
words,  it  is  most  lovely  then  when  least 
adorned.  There  are  circumstances,  however, 
in  which  art  may  honestly  be  used ;  when  we 
have  any  afflicting  news  to  communicate,  it  is 
often  necessary  to  prepare  the  mind  for  its  re- 
ception by  some  general  observations :  or 
when  we  would  persuade  a  person  to  do  what 
we  know  to  be  unpleasant,  but  which  we  be- 
lieve would  be  ultimately  to  his  advantage; 
or  would  recal  him  from  courses  or  connec- 
tions, we  believe  to  be  injurious  to  his  fame  or 
fortune.  In  these  cases  a  blunt  declaration  of 
our  intentions  would  defeat  the  proposed  end, 
and  we  must  have  recourse  to  a  little  art  and 
management  to  engage  the  attention  of  the 
persons  whom  we  wish  to  persuade.  The  pro- 
verb is  opposed  to  those  who.  by  a  multiplicity 
of  words,  endeavour  to  obscure  the  truth,  and 
to  induce  those  they  converse  with  to  enter- 
tain opinions  very  different  to  what  they 
would  have  formed,  if  the  story  had  been  told 
in  a  plain  and  simple  manner.  Two  architects 

•having 


(     80     ) 

having  offered  themselves  as  candidates  to 
erect  a  public  building  at  Athens,  the  one  de- 
scribed in  a  florid  and  ostentatious  manner, 
all  the  parts  of  the  building,  and  with  what 
ornaments  he  would  complete  it ;  when  he  had 
finished,  the  other  only  said,  "  My  lords, 
what  this  man  has  said,  I  will  do."  He  was 
elected. 


Injuries   sprcta   cxolescunt,  si   irascaris 
^  agnita  videntur. 

Injuries  that  are  slighted  and  suffered  to 
pass  unnoticed,  are  soon  forgotten;  by  resent- 
ing them,  unless  you  are  able  to  punish  the 
agressor,  you  acknowledge  yourself  to  be 
hurt,  and  so  afford  a  triumph  to  the  person 
who  gave  the  affront.  "  Deridet,  sed  non 
derideor,"  he  laugheth,  but  I  am  not  laugh- 
ed at.  "  The  wise  man  passeth  by  an  injury, 
but  anger  resteth  in  the  bosom  of  a  fool. 


Omnes  sibi  melius  esse  malunt  quam  alteri* 

We  all  of  us  wish  better  to  ourselves  than 
to  others.     Though  a  friend  is  said  to  be  ano- 
ther 


(     81     ) 

ther  self,  yet  what  affects  our  own  safety,  is 
doubtless  to  be  attended  to  before  the  con- 
cerns of  any  other  person,  for  "  proximus 
egomet  mihi,"  I  am  my  own  nearest  relation  ; 
and  "  Charity  begins  at  home."  "  Tunica  pal- 
lio  propior  est."  "  Near  is  my  shirt,"  we  say, 
"  but  nearer  is  my  skin."  To  the  same  purport, 
and  nearly  in  the  same  words  are,  "  Ma  che- 
mise m'est  plus  proche  que  ma  robe."  Fr. 
"  Tocca  piu  la  camisa  ch'  il  gippone."  It. 
"  Mas  cerca  esta  la  camisa,  que  el  sayo,"  thajt 
is,  my  shirt  is  nearer  than  my  coat. 


Extra  Telorum  Jactum. 

Beyond  bow-shot,  or  the  reach  of  darts. 
"  Out  of  harm's  way."  "  Out  of  debt,  out  of 
clanger."  Be  concerned  in  no  disputes,  and 
neither  say  nor  do  any  thing  of  which  an  ad- 
vantage may  be  taken,  is  the  direction  of  pru- 
dence; but  from  the  mixed  nature  of  human 
affairs,  not  to  be  completely  followed,  but  by 
those  who  live  only  for  themselves.  Let 
those,  however,  who  neglect  this  caution  be 
sure  that  they  have  resolution  enough  to  bear, 

*  or 


(     82     ) 

or  strength  sufficient  to  overcome  the  difficul- 
ties they  may  have  brought  upon  themselves  by 
their  imprudence.  Socrates  being  asked,  who 
was  the  wisest  man,  answered  "  he  who  offends 
the  least." 


Non  cuivis  homini  contingit  adire  Cormthum. 

It  is  not  the  fortune  of  every  man  to  be 
able  to  go  to  Corinth.  This  city,  from  its 
commerce,  and  from  the  great  concourse  of 
strangers  accustomed  to  visit  it,  became  the 

o  » 

most  wealthy,  and  in  time,  the  most  volup- 
tuous city  in  the  world ;  it  was  also  cele- 
brated for  its  numerous  and  splendid  temples, 
baths,  theatres,  and  other  exquisitely  rich  and 
beautiful  public  buildings,  and  unfortunately 
not  less  so  for  its  debaucheries.  It  was,  there- 
fore, only  suitable  to  the  circumstances  of  the 
rich  to  visit  a  place  so  dissipated  and  expen- 
sive. Corinth  gave  its  name  to  the  fourth 
order  of  architecture,  which  was  invented  and 
first  employed  in  the  public  buildings  there, 
and  to  a  metallic  composition,  Corinthian 
brass,  which  was  very  beautiful  and  durable, 

but 


(     83     ) 

but  of  which  there  are  no  vestiges  remaining. 
The  proverb  may  be  aptly  used  to  deter  per- 
sons from  entering  on  pursuits,  or  engaging  in 
projects  much  beyond  their  faculties  or  powers 
to  carry  into  execution. 


Fenestram,  vel  Januam  aperire, 
May  be  said  when  any  one  has  incautiously 
given  information  which  may  be  turned  to 
the  disadvantage  of  themselves  or  their  friends. 
Do  you  see  what  consequences  may  follow, 
what  mischief  may  ensue  ?  you  have  opened  a 
door  to  a  thousand  evils. 


Ovem  Lupo  commisisti. 

"  Entregar  las  ovejas  al  lobo,"  you  have 
trusted  the  sheep  to  the  care  of  the  wolf,  the 
geese  to  the  keeping  of  the  fox.  This  may 
be  said  of  a  parent  who  has  left  his  children 
in  the  hands  of  rapacious  guardians,  who  will 
fleece  them  of  their  property,  not  husband  and 
preserve  it :  a  misfortune  which  happened  to 
Erasmus,  When  in  conversation  we  have  dis- 
G  2  closed 


(     84     ) 

closed  any  thing  to  those  who  should  not  have 
known  it,  and  who  will  be  enabled  to  injure 
persons  whom  they  wish  to  oppress ;  it  may 
be  said,  you  have  now  put  him  in  the  power  of 
his  enemy  ;  "  you  have  given  the  wolf  the 
weather  to  keep." 


Nulla  Dies  sine  L'mea. 

No  day  without  a  line,  was  the  advice  and 
the  practice  of  Apelles.  No  one  must  expect 
to  be  perfect  in  any  art,  without  incessant 
care  and  diligence;  therefore, 

"  Nulla  dies  abeat,  quin  linea  ducta  supersit," 

no  day  should  be  suffered  to  pass,  without  leav- 
ing some  memorial  of  itself.  "  Diem  perdidi," 
"  I  have  lost  a  day,"  was  the  exclamation  of 
the  Emperor  Titus,  finding,  on  a  review  of 
what  had  been  performed,  that  he  had  relieved 
no  distressed  person,  nor  done  any  act  deserv- 
ing recollection  in  the  course  of  the  day. 


Manibus,  Pedibusque. 

With  the  utmost  exertion  of  our  hands  and 

feet, 


(     85     ) 

feet,  or  "  with  tooth  and  nail,"  as  we  say. 
"  Nervis  omnibus,"  "  straining  every  nerve," 
exerting  our  utmost  power  or  ability  to  effect 
the  purpose;  "  Remis  velisque,"  pushing  it  on 
with  oars  and  sails  ;  "  Omnem  movere  lapi- 
dem,"  "  leaving  no  stone  unturned,"  to  dis- 
cover what  we  are  in  search  of,  are  forms  of 
speech  used  by  the  Romans,  which  have  been 
adopted  by  us,  and  are  therefore  here  ad- 
mitted ;  as  may  be  also  "  Toto  pectore,"  with 
our  whole  soul,  loving  or  hating  any  one. 
These  are  all,  and  indeed  many  more  similar 
expressions,  treated  of  by  Erasmus  as  distinct 
proverbs  ;  but  it  was  thought  to  be  better  to 
bring  them  together  here,  in  this  manner. 

It  may  not  be  amiss,  once  for  all,  to  observe, 
that  I  have  not  confined  myself  to  the  sense 
given  by  Erasmus  to  many  of  the  adages. 
As  I  have  frequently  passed  over  very  long 
disquisitions,  when  they  appeared  to  me  not 
suitable  to  the  present  state  of  literature,  or  of 
the  times  ;  so  on  the  other  hand,  I  have  some- 
times expatiated  largely,  where  he  has  given 
the  exposition  in  two  or  three  lines.  Another 
considerable  difference  is,  that  here  are  intro- 
G  3  duced 


(    86    ) 

duced  many  corresponding  adages,  in  the 
French,  Italian,"  Spanish,  and  English  lan- 
guages, none  of  which  are  to  be  found  in  his 
book.  It  is  singular,  Jortin  remarks,  that 
though  Erasmus  spent  a  large  part  of  his  time 
in  France,  Italy,  and  England,  it  does  not  ap- 
pear that  he  was  ever  able  to  converse  in  any 
of  those  languages;  or  perhaps  to  read  the  pro- 
ductions of  any  of  the  writers  in  those  coun- 
tries, excepting  such  as  were  written  in  Latin ; 
which,  as  a  language  in  general  use,  appears 
to  have  been  adopted  by  most  of  the  literati 
down  to  his  time ;  excepting  perhaps  by  the 
Italians,  whose  language  had  attained  a  higher 
degree  of  polish  and  perfection  than  any  of 
the  others. 


Sub  ornni  Lapide  Scorpius  clormit. 

We  should  believe  that  under  every  stone 
a  scorpion  may  be  lodged,  which  seems  to  be 
the  sense  of  the  adage ;  and  it  is  intended  to 
admonish  us  in  all  business  to  act  with  deli- 
beration and  caution,  that  we  may  not  involve 

ourselves 


(     87    ) 

ourselves  in  troubles  and  dangers;  particularly 
we  should  set  a  guard  over  our  tongues  and 
not  be  too  communicative,  lest  we  should 
instruct  others  in  any  plans  we  may  have 
formed  for  the  advancement  of  our  affairs, 
who  may  thence  be  enabled  to  become  our 
rivals,  and  prevent  the  completion  of  our  de- 
signs :  or  by  speaking  too  freely  of  the  con- 
cerns of  others  excite  enmities  which  mav  be 

«/ 

productive  of  consequences  still  more  mis- 
chievous. "  Volto  sciolto,"  the  Italians  say,  "  i 
pensiert  stretti,"  be  free  and  open  in  your  coun- 
tenance and  address,  but  cautious  and  reserved 
in  your  communications.  There  are  many  other 
similar  cautions ;  "  Latet  anguis  in  herba," 
there  is  a  snake  in  the  grass,  take  care  how 
you  tread.  "  Debaxo  de  la  miel,  ay  hiel," 
under  the  honey  you  may  find  gall.  "  Paredes 
tien  oydos :"  and  "  tras  pared,  ni  tras  seto,  no 
digas  tu  secreto."  tc  Walls  have  ears,"  be  cau- 
tious what  you  say;  and  "  little  pitchers  have 
long  ears."  Children,  even  when  playing  about 
you,  are  often  more  attentive  to  what  you  are 
saying,  than  to  their  own  amusement.  "  Dizen 
los  ninos  en  el  solejar,  lo  que  oyen  a  sus  pa- 
G  4  dres 


v 


(     38     ) 

dres  en  el  bogar,"  they  tell  when  abroad,  \vhat 
they  hear  their  parents  saying  by  the  fireside. 
In  the  countries  where  scorpions  breed,  they 
are  frequently  found  lying  under  stones,  as 
worms  are  in  this  country ;  any  one  therefore 
incautiously  removing  a  stone,  under  which 
one  of  these  venemous  reptiles  may  happen  to 
lie,  will  be  in  danger  of  being  stung  by  the 
enraged  animal,  whence  the  proverb. 


Asinum  sub  frceno  currere  doces. 
Teaching  an  ass  to  obey  the  rein,  which  the 
ancients  thought  to  be  nearly  as  difficult  as 
u  to  wash  a  black-a-moor  white,"  or  to  do  any 
other  impossible  thing,  "  Labour  in  vain." 
Though  I  think  it  is  not  now  found  to  be 
so  difficult,  and  those  animals  are  made  to 
serve  for  many  useful  purposes.  The  adage 
is  used  by  Horace,  and  with  much  elegance, 
in  his  first  Satire. 

"  At  si  cognates  nullo  natura  labore 

Quos  tibi  dat,  retinere  veils,  servareque  amicos; 
Infelix  operam  perclas ;  ut  si  quis  asellum 
In  campo  doceat  parentem  currere  frcenis." 

Put  if  you  expect  to  obtain  the  affection  of 

your 


(     89     ) 

your  relations,  or  to  preserve  the  esteem  of 
your  friends,  without  making  any  return  for 
their  kindness,  you  will  find  yourself,  wretch 
that  you  are,  miserably  deceived,  as  he  would 
be,  who  should  attempt  to  teach  an  ass  to  be 
obedient  to  the  rein. 


Annosam  Arborem  transplantare. 

Persons  quitting  a  business  or  profession  in 
which  they  have  been  long  engaged,  and  had 
been  successful,  and  attempting  some  new 
employment,  are  as  little  likely  to  succeed,  as  a 
tree  is  to  flourish,  when  removed  from  the  soil 
in  which  it  had  been  long  fixed. 


Aranearum  Telas  texere. 

Weaving  of  cobwebs,  which  persons  are 
said  to  do,  who  waste  their  time  and  money 
in  frivolous  pursuits ;  in  procuring  what  will 
be  of  no  use  when  obtained :  in  collecting 

*  O 

butterflies,  cockle-shells,  &c.  "  et  stultus 
labor  est  ineptiarum,"  and  such  like  fooleries. 
Laws  also,  which  by  the  great  are  easily 

evaded, 


(    90    ) 

evaded,  and  which  seem  only  made  to  entrap 
the  poor,  are,  by  common  consent,  called  cob- 
web contrivances.  They  were  so  called  by 
Anarcharsis — "They  catch,"  he  said,  "small 
flies,  but  wasps  and  hornets  break  them  with 
impunity." 

"  Hence  little  villains  oft  submit  to  fate, 

That  great  ones  may  enjoy  the  world  in  state." 


Sat  pulchra,  si  sat  bona. 

"  Fair  enough,  if  good  enough,  "  for 
"handsome  is,  who  handsome  does,"  and 
"sat  cito  si  sat  bene,"  "soon  enough,  if 
well  enough,"  are  proverbs  of  all  ages,  and  all 
countries,  and  need  no  explanation.  "  Her- 
mosa  es  por  cierto,  la  que  es  buena  de  su 
cuerpo,"  the  woman  who  is  modest  is  suffi- 
ciently handsome. 


Harence  mandas  Semina.    In  Aqua  vel  in  Saxis 
semen  tern  fads. 

Sowing  your  grain   among  stones,   where 
they  cannot  take  root,  in  the  water,  or  on 

sand. 


(    91     ) 

sand.  "  In  aqua  scribis,  in  harena  sedificas," 
writing  on  water,  or  building  on  sand,  with 
many  others,  are  phrases  used  by  the  Romans, 
and  are  applicable  to  persons  bestowing  much 
labour  in  effecting  what  is  impossible  to  be 
done,  or  heaping  favours  upon  an  ungrateful 
person,  from  whom  no  return  can  be  expected. 
"  Can  the  ^Ethiopian  change  his  skin,  or  the 
leopard  his  spots  ?" 


Later  em  lavas. 

It  is  like  washing  bricks,  which  the  more 
you  scour  them,  the  more  muddy  they  become: 
meaning  bricks  made  of  clay,  and  not  burnt, 
but  dried  in  the  sun  ;  such  as  were  used  in 
the  East,  and  probably  are  so  now,  or  "  Laver 
la  te"te  d'un  ane,"  by  which  the  French  de- 
signate such  unavailing  attempts.  The  pro- 
verb may  also  be  applied  to  persons,  endea- 
vouring by  fictitious  ornaments  to  make  any 
thing  appear  more  beautiful  and  valuable  than 
it  is,  or  by  rhetorical  flourishes  to  give  a  false 
colour  to  any  action. 

Surdo 


(    92    ) 

Surdo  can  is. 

You  are  preaching  to  the  deaf;  to  prepos- 
sessed and  prejudiced  ears;  to  persons  so  be- 
sotted and  addicted  to  their  vices,  that  they 
will  not  listen  to  you,  though  your  advice  he 
most  suitable  to  them,  and  such  as  they  can- 
not reject,  but  to  their  manifest  disadvantage. 
"  They  are  like  to  the  deaf  adder,  which 
stoppeth  her  ears,  and  refuseth  to  hear  the 
voice  of  the  charmer,  charm  he  never  so 
wisely."  As  the  following  narrative  seems  to 
give  an  ingenious  explanation  of  this  passage 
in  the  Psalms,  it  is  here  added.  "There  is  a 
kind  of  snake  in  India,"  Mr.  Forbes  says,  in 
his  Oriental  Memoirs,  lately  published,  "  which 
is  called  the  dancing  snake.  They  are  carried 
in  baskets  throughout  Hindostan,  and  procure 
a  maintenance  for  a  set  of  people,  who  play  a 
few  simple  notes  on  the  flute,  with  which  the 
snakes  seem  much  delighted,  and  keep  time 
by  a  graceful  motion  of  the  head,  erecting 
about  half  their  length  from  the  ground,  and 
following  the  music  with  gentle  curves,  like 
the  undulating  lines  of  a  swan's  neck.  It  is  a 
well  attested  fact,  that  when  a  house  is  in- 
fested 


(    93    ) 

fested  with  these  snakes,  and  some  others  of 
the  coluber  genus,  which  destroy  poultry,  and 
small  domestic  animals,  as  also  by  the  larger 
serpents  of  the  boa  tribe,  the  musicians  are 
sent  for,  who,  by  playing  on  a  flageolet,  find 
out  their  hiding  places,  and  charm  them  to 
destruction  ;  for  no  sooner  do  the  snakes  hear 
the  music,  than  they  come  from  their  retreat, 
and  are  easily  taken.  I  imagine,"  Mr.  Forbes 
says,  "  that  these  musical  snakes  were  known 
in  Palestine,  from  the  Psalmist  comparing  the 
ungodly  to  '  the  deaf  adder,  which  stoppeth 
her  ears,  and  refuseth  to  hear  the  voice  of  the 
charmer,  charm  he  never  so  wisely.'  When 
the  music  ceaseth,  the  snakes  appear  motion- 
less, but  if  not  immediately  covered  up  in  the 
basket,  the  spectators  are  liable  to  fatal  acci- 
dents. Among  my  drawings  is  that  of  a  cobra 
de  capello,  which  danced  for  an  hour  on  the 
table,  while  I  painted  it,  during  which  I  fre- 
quently handled  it,  to  observe  the  beauty  of 
the  spots,  and  especially  the  spectacles  on  the 
hood,  not  doubting  but  that  its  venemous 
fangs  had  been  previously  extracted.  But  the 
next  morning  I  was  informed  by  my  servant,, 

that 


that  while  purchasing  some  fruit,  lie  observed 
the  man  who  had  been  with  me  the  preceding 
evening,  entertaining  the  country  people,  who 
were  sitting  on  the  ground  around  him,  with 
his  dancing  snakes,  when  the  animal  that  I 

O  ' 

had  so  often  handled,  darted  suddenly  at  the 
throat  of  a  young  woman,  and  inflicted  a 
wound,  of  which  she  died  in  about  half  an 
hour." 


Delph'mum  nature  doces,  vel  Aquilam  volare. 

Affecting  to  give  information  to  persons  on 
subjects  they  are  better  acquainted  with  than 
ourselves,  is  like  teaching  birds  to  fly,  or  fishes 
to  swim. 


Malta  cadant  inter  Calicem,  supremaque Labra. 

"  Entre  la  bouche,  et  le  verre, 
Le  vin  souvent  tombe  a  terre." 

"  Many  things  happen  between  the  cup  and 
the  lip,"  was  the  saying  of  a  servant  to  his 
master,  whom  he  saw  anxiously  tending  a 
vine,  from  which  he  promised  himself  an  abun- 
dant produce  of  excellent  liquor,  of  which, 

however, 


(    95    ) 

however,  he  was  not  permitted  to  partake ; 
for,  at  the  moment  he  was  about  to  taste  the 
wine,  the  reward,  as  he  thought,  of  his  labour, 
he  was  told  that  a  boar  had  broke  into  his 
vineyard,  and  was  destroying  his  trees ;  run- 
ning hastily  to  drive  away  the  beast,  it  turned 
upon  him,  and  killed  him.  We  are  hence 
taught,  not  to  be  too  sanguine  in  our  hopes 
of  success,  even  in  our  best  concerted  projects, 
it  too  often  happening  that  they  fail  in  pro- 
ducing the  intended  advantages.  "  De  la  mano 
a  la  boca,  se  pierde  la  sopa,"  is  the  same  sen- 
timent in  Spanish.  The  adage  may  also  be 
-explained,  as  admonishing  us  "  to  take  time 
by  the  forelock,"  that  is.  not  to  let  a  present 
opportunity,  or  advantage,  to  pass  by,  a  similar 
one  may  not  again  occur.  "  Strike,  therefore, 
while  the  iron  is  hot,"  and 

"  He  that  will  not  when  he  may, 
When  he  will  he  shall  have  nay." 


Incidis  in  Scyllam,  cupiens  vitare  Charybdim. 

Attempting  to  escape  the  rocks  of  Scylla, 
we  are  ingulphed   in   the   whirlpool  of  Cha- 
ry bdis. 


(    96    ) 

rybclis.  The  two  opposite  coasts  of  the  strait 
dividing  Sicily  and  Italy,  were  anciently  called 
by  these  names,  and  as  they  were  steep  and 
rocky,  they  appeared  so  formidable,  and  per- 
haps occasioned  so  many  ships  to  be  wrecked, 
that  Homer  makes  Ulysses  describe  them  as 
two  terrible  monsters,  that  stood  ready  to 
destroy  any  vessels  that  came  within  their 
reach.  All  possible  endeavours  were  therefore 
used  by  mariners,  to  keep  their  ships  in  the 
middle  of  the  strait.  The  proverb  is  applied 
to  persons  who,  attempting  to  avoid  one  evil, 
fall  into  another  more  grievous  and  insupport- 
able ;  who,  attempting  to  rescue  a  part  of  their 
property  which  they  see  in  danger,  lose  both 
their  property  and  their  lives.  "  It  is  falling,'" 
\ve  say,  "  out  of  the  fryingpan  into  the  fire," 
in  which  form  the  proverb  has  been  adopted 
by  the  French,  the  Italians,  and  the  Spanish. 
"  Sauter  de  la  poile,  et  se  jetter  dans  les 
braises."  "  Cader  d'alla  padella  nelle  bragie." 
"  Saltar  de  la  sarten,  y  caer  en  las  brasas," 
but  of  two  evils  we  should  choose  the  least. 
"  Meglio  6  dar  la  lana,  che  la  pecora,"  better 
lose  the  wool  than  the  sheep. 

The 


The  adage  is  used  by  Philip  Gualtier,  a 
Flemish  writer  of  the  thirteenth  century,  in  a 
poem  celebrating  the  conquests  of  Alexander 
the  Great.  The  lines  are  an  apostrophe,  ad- 
dressed to  Darius,  who,  flying  from  Alexander^ 
fell  into  the  hands  of  Bessus,  one  of  his  gene- 
rals. 

• "Quo  tendis  inertem, 

Rex  periture,  fugam  ?  nescis,  lieu,  perdite !  nescia 
Quern  fugias;  hostes  incurris,  d'um  fugis  hostera. 
Incidis  in  Scyllam,  cupiens  vitare  Charybdim." 

Menagiana,  vol.  3.  p.  130. 

Whither,  O  unfortunate  prince,  do  you  bend 
your  unavailing  flight  ?  you  know  not,  alas, 
from  whom  you  are  flying;  attempting  to 
avoid  one  enemy,  you  fall  into  the  hands  of 
another,  more  savage  and  destructive.  Endea- 
vouring to  escape  Chary bclis,  you  are  wrecked 
en  the  rocks  of  Scylla. 


Flamma  Fumo  est  proximo,. 

If  there  were  no  fire,  there  could  be  no 
smoke.  "  Common  fame  is  seldom  to  blame." 
All  that  we  have  heard  may  not  be  true,  but 
so  much  could  not  have  been  said,  if  there 

H  were 


(    98    ) 

were  no  foundation.  We  should  avoid  the 
first  approach  to  vice,  or  danger;  though  small 
at  first,  it  may  increase  to  an  alarming  magni- 
tude. The  smoke  may  soon  be  succeeded  by 
flame.  He  who  would  keep  his  morals  un- 
tainted, must  not  associate  familiarly  with  the 
debauched  and  wicked. 

"  Vice  is  a  monster  of  such  frightful  mien, 
As  to  be  hated  needs  but  to  be  seen ; 
But  seen  too  oft,  familiar  with  her  face, 
We  first  admire,  next  pity,  then  embrace." 

The  fox,  when  he  first  saw  a  lion,  ran  from 
him  in  great  terror,  but  meeting  one  a  second, 
and  then  a  third  time,  he  had  courage  enough 
to  approach,  and  salute  him.  The  Spaniards 
and  the  French  use  the  proverb  somewhat 
differently.  "  Cerca  le  anda  el  humo,  tras 
la  llama,"  and  "  II  n'y  a  point  de  feu  sans 
fume"e/'  where  there  is  fire,  there  will  be  some 
smoke;  that  is,  where  any  foul  action  has  been 
committed,  it  will  by  some  outlet  or  other 
escape,  and  become  known,  "Murder  will 
out,"  we  say. 


(    99    ) 

Paupertas  Sapientiam  sortita  est, 

"  La  P  overt  a  e  la  Madre  chile  Invenxione" 

"  Necessity  is  the  Mother  of  Invention." 

"  Magister  artis  ingeniique  largitor  venter," 
venter,  or  the  stomach,  is  the  master  of  all 
art,  and  bestower  of  genius  and  invention. 
"  Hunger,"  we  therefore  say,  "  will  break 
through  stone  walls."  "The  stomach,"  Rabelais 
says,  "  only  speaks  by  signs,  but  those  signs 
are  more  readily  obeyed  by  every  one,  than 
the  statutes  of  senates,  or  the  commands  of 
monarchs."  To  answer  is  useless,  for  "  El 
vientre  ayuno,  no  oye  ninguno,"  "  the  stomach 
has  no  ears." 

Persons  who  have  no  property  but  what  is 
procured  by  their  industry,  on  which  they 
may  subsist,  will  endeavour  more  diligently 
to  improve  their  understandings,  than  those 
who,  being  amply  endowed,  find  every  thing 
provided  to  their  hands,  without  labour. 
"  Crosses  are  ladders  that  do  lead  to  heaven." 
Consonant  to  which  the  French  say,  "  Vrent 
au  visage  rend  un  homme  sage,"  wind  in  a 
man's  face,  that  is,  adversity,  or  trouble,  makes 
ii  2  .him 


him  wise;  and,  "a  pobrcza  no  ay  verguenca," 
poverty  has  no  shame,  that  is-,  want  makes 
men  bold,  and  to  descend  to  means,  for  their 
subsistence,  which,  in  better  circumstances, 
they  would  be  ashamed  to  have  recourse  to* 
This,  more  than  all  o^ther  considerations, 
should  induce  every  one  "Messe  tenus  propria 
vivere,"  to  live  within  their  means,  "to  let 
their  purse  be  their  master." 


Bis  Pueri  Senes. 

Ancient  persons  are  twice  children,  or  as 
we  say,  "  Once  a  man,  and  twice  a  child." 
Age  ordinarily  induces  a  degree  of  imbecility, 
both  in  the  mind  and  body,  resembling  child- 
hood. Persons  in  a  very  advanced  age  become 
feeble  and  impotent,  their  legs  tremble,  oblig- 
ing them  to  support  themselves  with  a  stick ; 
their  hands  shake,  so  that  they  are  unable  to 
cut  their  food,  and  at  length  of  even  carrying 
it  to  their  mouths.  They  become  toothless, 
and  are  obliged,  like  children,  to  be  fed  with 
spoon-meats;  their  eyes  become  weak,  incapa- 
citating them  from  reading,  and  their  organs 

of 


(     101     ) 

of  hearing  dull  and  obtuse,  so  that  they  can 
no  longer  take  a  part  in  conversation.  These 
two  sources  of  information  heing  cut  off,  the 
mind,  no  longer  solicited  by  the  surrounding 
objects,  or  excited  by  the  acquisition  of  new 
materials,  becomes  languid  and  inert ;  the 
traces  of  the  knowledge  it  had  acquired,  be- 
come faint,  and  are  at  length  nearly  oblite- 
rated, and  thus  is  induced  a  complete  second 
childhood,  "and  mere  oblivion,  sans  teeth, 
sans  eyes,  sans  taste,  sans  every  thing." 

"  Ubi  jam  validis  quassatum  est  viribus  aevi 
Corpus,  et  obtusis  cecitlerunt  viribus  artus, 
Claudicat  ingenium,  delirat  linguaque  mensque." 

LUCRET.  Lib.\\l.  lin.  452. 
"  When  age  prevails, 

And  the  quick  vigour  of  each  member  fails, 
The  mind's  brisk  powers  decrease,  and  waste  apace, 
And  grave  and  reverend  folly  takes  the  place." 

Trans,  by  CKEECII. 

Crambe  bis  posita,  Mors. 
By  frequent  repetition,  even  the  most  plea- 
sant and  agreeable  story  tires,  and  at  length 
nauseates,  as  do  also  the  most  favourite  viands. 
The  particular  plant  called  Crambe  by   the 
H  3  ancients 


(     102     ) 

ancients  is  not  now  known.  It  was  thought 
to  have  the  power  of  preventing  the  inebriat- 
ing effects  of  wine,  and  hence  we  are  told,  a 
portion  of  it,  previously  baked,  was  usually 
taken  by  the  /Egyptians,  and  some  other 
nations,  before  sitting  down  to  their  tables, 
that  they  might  indulge  more  freely  in  drink- 
ing; but  twice  baked,  or  too  often  taken,  it  ex^ 
cited  nausea  and  disgust,  whence  the  proverb. 

"Occidit  miseros  crambe  repetita  magistros." — JUVENAL, 

To  hear  the  same  lesson,  so  oft  repeated,  is 
the  death  of  us  poor  masters. 


Manum  de  tabula. 

Desist,  leave  off  correcting  and  amending, 
"Nimia  cura  detent  magis  quam  emendat," 
too  much  care  may  injure  instead  of  improving 
your  work.  "  You  should  therefore  let  well 
alone."  Apelles,  seeing  Protogenes  with  too 
much  care  and  anxiety,  labouring  to  give  a 
complete  finishing  to  a  picture,  which  he  had 
already  made  extremely  beautiful,  fearful  lest 
by  such  frequent  touching,  and  retouching, 

he 


C     103     ) 

he  should  diminish,  instead  of  heightening  its 
value,  cried  out  "  manum  cle  tabula."  The 
adage  is  of  extensive  application,  being  refer- 
able to  every  kind  of  work,  among  others,  to 
this  of  explaining  proverbs,  which  too  much 
labour,  instead  of  elucidating,  may  render 
obscure. 


Veterem  Injuriamferendo,  invitas  novam. 

By  quietly  bearing,  and  putting  up  with 
one  affront,  we  often  lay  ourselves  open  to 
fresh  insults.  Though  humanity  and  tender- 
ness towards  our  neighbours  and  associates, 
and  a  disposition  to  overlook  slight  offences, 
is  highly  commendable,  and  is  becoming  the 
frailty  of  our  nature;  yet  too  great  facility  in 
this  point,  is  not  only  improper,  but  may  in, 
the  end  be  highly  injurious,  even  to  the  parties 
whose  offence  we  have  overlooked.  JEsop  has 
given  us  in  one  of  his  fables  a  story,  which 
may  serve  to  illustrate  this  adage.  "  A  boy 
out  of  idleness  and  wantonness,  throwing 
stones  at,  and  otherwise  insulting  him,  he 
had  recourse,  at  first,"  he  says,  "  to  intreaties 

n4  to 


(     104     } 

to  induce  him  to  desist:  these  failing,  he  gave 
him  a  small  piece  of  money,  all,  he  told  the 
boy,  he  could  spare  ;  at  the  same  time  he 
shewed  him  a  more  wealthy  person,  who  was 
coining  that  way,  and  advised  him  to  throw 
stones  at  him,  from  whom  he  might  expect  a 
much  larger  reward.  The  boy  followed  his 
advice,  but  the  rich  man,  instead  of  in  treating, 
or  bribing  him  to  desist,  ordered  his  servants 
to  take  him  before  a  magistrate,  by  whom  he 
was  severely  punished. "  Socrates,  indeed, 
seemed  to  be  of  a  different  opinion,  when  he 
said,  "  If  an  ass  kicks  me,  shall  I  strike  him 
again?"  but  this  forbearance  must  not  be  car- 
ried too  far,  for,  according  to  the  Italian  pro- 
verb, "  Che  pecora  si  fa,  il  lupo  la  mangia," 
and  the  French,  "  Qui  se  fait  brebis,  le  loup 
le  mange,"  that  is,  he  that  makes  himself  a 
sheep,  shall  be  eaten  by  the  wolf.  If  a  strange 
dog,  going  along  the  street,  claps  his  tail 
between  his1  legs,  and  runs  away,  every  cur 
will  snap  at  him  ;  but,  if  he  turns  upon  them, 
and  gives  a  counter  snarl,  they  will  let  him  go 
on  without  further  molestation. 

Ansam 


(     105     ) 

Ansam  qucerere. 

Seeking  a  handle  or  opportunity  for  break- 
ing an  agreement  into  which  any  one  may 
have  improvidently  entered,  or  an  occasion 
for  quarrelling ;  and  to  persons  of  a  litigious 
disposition,  very  trifling  causes  M7511  afford  han- 
dle sufficient  for  the  purpose.  The  phrase  is 
used  by  us  in  as  many  ways,  as  it  was  formerly 
among  the  Romans.  You  know  the  temper 
of  the  man,  be  careful  that  you  give  him  no 
handle,  no  ground  for  cavilling,  though  that 
may  be  difficult,  as  a  man  so  disposed,  will 
make  a  handle  of  any  thing.  "  When  we 
have  determined  to  beat  a  dog,  the  first  hedge 
we  come  to  will  furnish  us  with  a  stick  for 
the  purpose." 


Oleum  et  operam  perdere. 

Losing  both  oil  and  labour,  which  those 
were  said  to  do,  who  had  employed  much 
time,  labour,  study,  and  expense,  in  endea- 
vouring to  attain  an  object,  without  being 
able  to  effect  their  purpose.  Those  who  con- 
tended at  the  public  games  among  the  an- 
cients, 


(     106    ) 

cients,  were  used  to  anoint  their  limbs  with 
oil,  previous  to  their  entering  on  the  contest ; 
if  they  were  conquered  therefore  they  lost 
both  oil  and  labour ;  as  those  did  who  failed 
in  the  acquisition  of  knowledge,  their  re- 
searches being  principally  carried  on  by  the 
light  of  a  lamp;  whence  the  adage,  which  the 
following  story  may  serve  further  to  illustrate: 
"  A  man  having  a  suit  at  law,  sent  to  the 
judge  as  a  present  a  vessel  of  oil;  his  antago- 
nist, that  he  might  be  even  with  him,  sent  a 
well  fatted  pig,  which  turned  the  scale  in  his 
favour  and  gained  him  the  cause :  the  first 
man  complaining  and  reminding  the  judge  of 
the  present  he  had  sent  him  ;  true,  said  the 
judge,  but  a  great  hog  burst  into  the  room 
and  overturned  the  vessel,  and  so  both  the  oil 
and  labour  were  lost." 


Mortuum  Jlagellas. 

It  is  flogging  a  dead  man,  or  one  who  re- 
gards your  censures  as  little  as  do  the  dead, 
may  be  said  to  any  one  reproving  a  person 

who 


(     107    ) 

who  is  incorrigibly  wicked,  and  who  has  lost 
all  sense  of  shame  or  decency  :  or  by  persons 
charged  with  the  commission  of  crimes  of 
which  they  know  themselves  to  be  innocent. 


Nocumentum,  Docitmentum. 

"  Trouble  teaches."  Adopted  probably  for 
its  jingle,  like  "  harm  watch,  harm  catch ;"  and 
many  more  in  our  language,  and  like  them 
containing  an  useful  precept.  The  sense  is, 
that  it  is  the  part  of  wisdom  or  prudence  to 
profit  by  our  mischances:  those  who  have  been 
plundered  by  servants  or  defrauded  by  bad 
customers,  become  more  cautious  in  securing 
their  property,  and  in  inquiring  more  diligent- 
ly into  the  character  of  the  persons  to  whom 
they  give  credit,  that  they  are  not  wasteful 
and  extravagant  spendthrifts,  inattentive  to 
business,  or  persons  of  depraved  morals.  A 
merchant  who  had  suffered  much  in  this  way 
determined  at  length  that  he  would  give  no 
credit,  he  therefore  put  out  a  sign  representing 
a  fire  in  which  were  a  number  of  account 

books 


(     108     ) 

books  burning;  when  any  one  wanted  credit, 
he  told  them  it  was  impossible  he  could  give 
it,  his  books  being  burnt.  Trouble  ajso  and 
distress  leads  us  to  reflect  upon  our  past  con- 
duct, and  to  reform  what  is  amiss.  "  Periissem 
nisi  periissem,"  if  I  had  not  suffered,  I  had 
been  undone.  "  If  thou  be  in  woe,  sorrow, 
want,  pain,  or  distress,  remember  that  God 
chastiseth  them  whom  he  loveth,  and  that 
they  that  so\v  in  tears  shall  reap  in  joy.  As 
the  furnace  proveth  the  potter's  vessel,  so  doth 
trouble  and  vexation  try  men's  thoughts." 
"  Ecce  spectaculum  Deo  dignum,  vir  fortis 
mala  fortuna  compositus,"  behold  a  spectacle 
worthy  of  God,  a  good  man  contending  with 
adversity. 


Nuces  relinquere, 

Abandon  or  throw  away  your  nuts  :  that  is, 
leave  off  childish  amusements,  and  addict  your- 
self to  employments  that  are  more  manly  and 
better  suited  to  your  age  and  present  situa- 
tion in  life.  The  adage  is  said  to  be  derived 

from 


(     109    ) 

from  the  bridegroom  scattering  nuts  when 
leading  his  spouse  to  the  temple;  intimating 
that  he  now  purposed  to  give  up  boyish 
sports,  among  which  playing  with  nuts,  was 
not  unfrequent.  Those  who  did  not  do  so, 
were  said  "  redire  ad  nuces,"  or  "  nuces  repe- 
tere,"  to  return  to  their  playthings,  to  be- 
come children  again. 


sum,  non  CEdipus. 

I  am  Davus,  not  CEdipus;  that  is,  I  am  a 
man  of  plain  understanding  and  no  conjuror, 
or  wizard,  may  be  said  to  persons  speaking 
enigmatically  or  more  finely  than  the  subject 
requires :  or  whom  we  do  not  wish  to  under- 
stand, or  would  oblige  to  be  more  explicit  than 
they  are  inclined  or  intend  to  be.  CEdipus  was 
famed,  we  are  told,  for  expounding  the  riddle 
of  the  Sphinx,  which  no  one  before  him  had 
been  able  to  explain. 


Ex  Harend  Funiculum  nectis. 

It  is  like  making  a  rope  of  sand  ;   labouring 

to 


(     HO     ) 

to  do  what  can  by  no  art  be  effected  ;  this  may 
be  said  to  persons  bringing  together  in  the  way 
of  argument,  things  not  having  the  least  co- 
herence or  connection.  It  is  like  attempting 
"  jungere  vulpes,"  to  yoke  foxes;  or  u  mulgere 
hircum,"  to  milk  a  he-goat. 

Latum  Unguem. 

There's  not  the  breadth  of  a  nail,  or  of  a 
straw,  or  of  a  hair,  of  difference  between  them, 
and  yet  even  for  that  trifle,  they  keep  up  the 
contention  and  with  no  small  degree  of  acri- 
mony. 

"  But  in  the  way  of  bargain,  mark  ye  me, 
I'll  cavil  on  the  ninth  part  of  a  hair!" — Henry  IV. 

Non  tarn  Ovum  Ovo  simile. 

He  is  as  like  his  brother  as  one  egg  is  to 
another.  The  Latins  have  numerous  adages 
of  this  kind,  consisting  of  a  simple  compari- 
son :  it  \vas  thought  right  to  transplant  a  few 
of  them  here,  particularly  such  as  have  cor- 
respondent phrases  in  our  language. 

Magis 


(    in   ) 

Magis  mutus  quam  Pisces. 

"  Muet  comme  un  poisson,"  as  mute  as  a 
fish.  The  opposite  to  this  is 

Turtura  loquacior. 

More  loquacious  than  the  turtle-dove.  We 
say,  perhaps  more  pertinently,  to  great  chat- 
terers, "  you  prate  like  a  parrot  or  a  magpye," 
which  are  still  more  famed  for  garrulity,  than 
the  turtle-dove,  "  Quse  tamen,  non  ore  tan- 
turn,  sed  etiam  postica  corporis  parte  clamare 
fertur." 


OU(E  Amicitia. 

Friends  to  the  table.  Persons  attached  to 
the  fortune,  not  to  the  beauty  or  dispositions 
of  their  mistresses  or  friends,  were  so  called. 

"  Te  putat  ille  SUJE  captum  nidore  culinse, 
Nee  mate  conjectat." — JUVENAL. 

He  thinks  you  are  more  attracted  by  the  smell 
of  his  kitchen,  than  by  affection  to  his  person 
or  regard  to  his  interest,  and  is  not  mistaken. 
"  Fervet  olla,  vivit  amicitia,"  for  such  friend- 
ship 


ship  only  lasts  while  the  pot  continues  ttf 
boil. 

"  Amigo  del  buen  tiempo,  mudase  con  ei  viento," 
those  who  are  only  friends  to  your  good  for-* 
tune,  change  with  the  wind.  Young  men  of 
fortune  have  abundance  of  such  friends,  who 
are  very  ready  in  assisting  to  disburthen  them 
of  their  wealth  ;  when  that  is  effected,  they 
become  more  shy  in  their  attendance,  and  at 
length  leave  them  to  reflect  at  their  leisure  on 

O 

the  folly  of  their  conduct. 

"  If  Fortune  wrap  thee  warm, 

Then  friends  about  thee  swarm, 

Like  bees  about  a  honey-pot  : 

But,  if  dame  Fortune  frown, 

And  cast  thee  fairly  down, 
By  Jove  thou  may'st  lie  there  and  rot." 

Nat  Lee  is  said  to  have  diverted  himself  with 
singing  this  song  when  in  Bethlehem.  The 
sentiment  is  not  ill  expressed  by  our  homely 
proverb,  "  no  longer  pipe,  no  longer  dance." 


Multa  novit  Fitlpes,  sed  Felis  unum  magnum. 

A  fox  bragging  of  the  number  of  tricks 

and 


(     US     ) 

and  shifts  he  occasionally  used  to  escape  tile 
hounds,  a  cat  that  was  present,  observed  that 
she  had  hut  one,  which  was  to  climb  up  the 
nearest  tree  or  building,  and  that  being  com- 
pletely effectual  was  of  more  value  than  all 
the  stratagems  of  the  fo^  which  did  not  al- 
ways preserve  him  from  the  huntsmen.  The 
proverb  teaches  that  it  is  better  to  rely  on 
the  advice  of  one  sensible  friend,  than  to  have 
recourse  to  many  whose  contrary  and  discor- 
dant opinions  would  be  more  likely  to  perplex 
and  confound,  than  to  teach  us  how  to  escape 
from  our  difficulties.  When  also  we  would 
convince  or  persuade,  it  is  better  ordinarily 
to  depend  on  one  powerful  argument,  than  to 
use  a  variety  of  petty  ones ;  as  "  too  many 
cooks,"  are  said,  to  "  spoil  the  broth."  Against 
this  tenet,  however,  we  have  several  apo- 
thegms equally  accredited,  as  "  vis  unita  for- 
tior,"  the  united  power  of  many  agents  is 
stronger  than  that  of  one ;  which  is  probably 
as  true  applied  to  the  understanding  as  to 
bodily  strength  ;  so  "  quae  non  prosunt  sin- 
gula,  juncta  juvant,"  though  each  argument 
may  be  individually  weak,  yet  a  number  of 

i  them 


them  made  to  bear  upon  the  same  point 
may  be  successful.  Solomon  tells  us  also, 
that  "  in  the  multitude  of  counsel  there  13 
safety." 


Ars  varia  Vulpi,  ast  una  Echino  maxima. 

The  hedge-hog,  for  so  Erasmus  understands 
it,  though  the  echinus  is  properly  a  marine 
animal,  escapes  its  enemies  by  rolling  itself 
up  in  the  form  of  a  ball,  covered  with  sharp 
spines  or  thorns  which  they  dare  not  take 
hold  of.  The  adage  admits  the  same  expla- 
nation as  the  last. 


Auribus  Lupum  teneo. 

I  have  taken  a  wolf  by  the  ears,  whom  I 
can  with  difficulty  hold,  and  dare  not  let  go 
lest  he  tear  me  in  pieces.  It  may  be  said 
when  any  one  has  so  entangled  himself  in 
a  business,  that  he  can  neither  go  on  with 
it  satisfactorily,  nor  give  it  up  without  suffer, 
ing  considerable  damage  :  or  by  one  engaged 

to 


to  a  mistress,  whom  lie  is  afraid  to  marry  on 
account  of  her  ill-humour,  and  from  the  vio- 
lence of  his  affection  he  is  incapable  of  leaving. 
Macbeth,  after  the  murder  of  Banquo,  and 
before  he  had  given  himself  to  the  unlawful 
commerce  with  supernatural  agents,  says, 

"  I  am  in  blood 

Stept  in  so  far,  that  should  I  wade  no  more, 
Returning  were  as  tedious  as  go  o'er/' 

To  the  same  mode  of  reasoning  we  owe  half 
the  robberies  and  murders  that  are  committed 
every  year.  Martial's  description  of  a  captious 
but  extremely  agreeable  character  may  serve 
as  a  further  illustration  of  this  adage : 

"  Difficilis,  facilis,  jucundus,  acerbus  es  idem, 
Nee  tecum  possum  vivere,  nee  sine  te," 

which  has  thus  been  translated, 

"  In  all  thy  humours  whether  grave  or  mellow, 
Thou  'rt  such  a  touchy,  testy,  pleasant  fellow, 
Hast  so  much  wit,  and  mirth,  and  spleen  about  thee. 
That  there's  no  living  with  thee  nor  without  thee." 

Those  who  go  to  law  may  be  said  to  hold  a 

wolf  by  the  ears,  or  they  are  like  sheep  taking 

shelter  under  a  hedge  of  thorns,  whence  they 

will  not  escape  without  losing  the  half  of  their 

i  2  fleeces. 


fleeces.  Formerly  a  large  estate  was  conveyed 
away  by  a  piece  of  parchment  that  would  not 
hold  twenty  short  lines,  which  is  now  hardly 
done  with  twenty  skins.  This  multiplying  of 
words  is  pretended  to  be  done  for  greater 
security,  but  has  the  contrary  effect,  "  certa 
sunt  paucis,"  certainty,  or  freedom  from 
doubt  is  found  where  there  are  fewest  words. 


Ne  Hercules  quidem  adversus  duos. 

Even  Hercules  could  not  contend  success- 
fully against  two,  equally  strong  as  himself. 
"  Two  to  one  are  odds  at  football,"  may  be 
said  by  any  one  who  has  been  censured  for 
not  doing  what,  circumstanced  as  he  was,  it 
was  impossible  he  should  perform.  The  adage 
may  with  equal  propriety  be  applied  to  the 
exertions  of  the  mind  ;  where  much  has  been 
done  well,  small  errors  should  not  be  censured 
with  asperity.  A  great  philosopher  should 
not  be  expected  to  be  also  a  poet,  or  a  man 
skilled  in  one  art,  to  be  equally  expert  in 
another.  The  same  sentiment  is  contained  in 

Units 


Unus  Fir,  nullus  Vir. 

From  one  man  unaided  by  advice,  or  other 
assistance,  no  great  exertion,  or  the  perform- 
ance of  no  very  difficult,  or  intricate  business 
should  be  expected.  "  Two  heads  are  better 
than  one,  or  why  do  folks  marry  ?" 


Nihil  ad  Versum. 

This  is  not  to  the  purpose,  said  when  a  per- 
son, attempting  to  explain  any  thing,  wanders 
from  the  subject,  which  he  leaves  more  per- 
plexed than  when  he  began.  The  adage  is 
supposed  to  have  taken  its  rise  from  the  per- 
formers on  the  stage  attempting  to  represent, 
by  gesticulation,  the  sense  of  the  part  recited, 
in  the  manner,  perhaps,  of  our  pantomime. 
Failing  in  the  attempt,  this  adage,  "  Nihil  ad 
versum,"  was  applied  ;  intimating  that  the 
action  did  not  correspond  with  the  sense,  or 
meaning  of  the  verse.  Or  it  may  refer  to  the 
oracles,  which  were  not  unfrequently  delivered 
in  verse,  when  the  event  was  not  consonant 
to  the  prediction. 

i  3  Nihil 


Nihil  ad  Fides, 

Was  used  to  be  applied  to  persons,  whose 
manners  and  conversation,  or  whose  precepts 
and  mode  of  living  were  not  consistent,  and 
who,  not  very  gracefully,  tell  us,  "  We  should 
<Jo  as  they  say,  not  as  they  do." 

Asinus  in  Unguent  o> 

May  be  said  of  a  clown  living  in  the  midst 
of  delicacies  he  knows  not  how  to  use  or 
enjoy  ;  or  affecting  the  company  of  men  of 
letters,  whose  conversation  he  is  incapable  of 
understanding.  Such  things  suiting  him  as  ill 
as  perfumes  do  an  ass.  "  No  es  la  miel  para 
la  boca  del  asno,"  honey  is  not  fit  for  the 
mouth  of  an  ass.  "  Chantez  a.  1'ane,  il  vous 
fera  des  pets." 

Asinus  inter  Simias. 

The  ass  has  fallen  into  the  company  of 
apes,  was  said  when  a  man  of  mild  and  easy 
manners,  and  of  weak  understanding,  was 
§een  associating  with  petulant  and  illnatured 

persons, 


(    "9    ) 

persons,  who  insulted,  and  turned  him  to 
ridicule.  Such  wanton  petulance  is  well  re- 
proved by  the  following  : 

"  Set  not  thy  foot  to  make  the  blind  to  fall, 
Nor  wilfully  offend  thy  weaker  brother  ; 
Nor  wound  the  dead  with  the  tongue's  bitter  gall, 
Neither  rejoice  thou  in  the  fall  of  other." 

Of  the  same  kind  is  "  Noctua  inter  cornices," 
the  owl  is  among  ravens,  there  being  the  same 
dissimilarity  between  them,  as  between  the 
ass  and  the  ape. 

„ _ 

Alii  sementemfaciunt,  alii  metent. 

One  man  labours  and  another  reaps  the  pro- 
fit, or  one  man  commits  the  crime  but  another 
suffers  the  punishment.  "  II  bat  le  buisson 
sans  prendre  1'oisillon."  "  One  man  beats  the 
bush,  and  another  catches  the  bird."  This 
proverb  was  used,  we  are  told,  by  Henry  the 
Fifth,  at  the  siege  of  Orleans.  When  the 
citizens  would  have  delivered  the  town  to  the 
Duke  of  Burgundy,  who  was  in  the  English 

C3  v    *  O 

camp,  the  king  said,  "  Shall  I  beat  the  bush, 

and  another  take  the  bird  ?"  no  such  matter. 

i  4  These 


(     120     ) 

These  words  did  so  offend  the  Duke  of  Bur- 
gundy, that  he  made  a  peace  with  the  French, 
and  withdrew  his  force  from  the  English. 
"  Uno  levanta  la  caza,  y  otro  la  mata,"  one 
man  starts  the  game,  and  another  kills  it. 


Aliam  quercum  excute. 

Go  shake  some  other  tree,  you  have  reaped 
sufficient  profit,  or  taken  fruit  enough  from 
this.  The  adage  may  be  used  by  persons  who 
have  been  liberal  in  assisting  any  one  who  still 
continues  to  solicit  them:  Go  to  some  other 
friend,  I  have  done  my  part.  It  may  also  be 
used  in  the  way  of  admonishing  any  one  to 
cease  exerting  himself  in  any  course  or  busi- 
ness from  which  lie  has  already  gained  all 
the  advantage  it  is  likely  to  produce,  or  to 
change  or  dismiss  an  instructor  from  whom 

o 

he  has  learned  all  that  he  is  capable  of  teach- 
ing. 

In  the  early  ages  of  the  world,  when  acorns 
formed  a  material  part  of  our  sustenance, 
there  were  persons  who  made  it  their  business 
to  collect  them.  When  one  of  these  was  seen 

looking 


looking  up  to  a  tree,  those  who  observed  him 
would  say,  "  Aliam  quercum  excute,"  go  to 
some  other  tree,  this  has  been  stripped  before, 
which  being  often  repeated,  came  at  length  to 
be  used  as  a  proverb. 

Pliny  tells  us  that  even  in  his  time,  many 
nations  made  the  acorn  a  part  of  their  diet, 
not  having  been  instructea  in  the  method  of 
cultivating  wheat,  or  other  grain,  and  Erasmus 
says  that  acorns  were  considered  by  the  Span- 
iards as  a  dainty,  and  were  served  up  as  a  part 
of  the  dessert,  in  which  manner  we  find  them 
introduced  by  the  goatherds  in  Don  Quixote. 


Fucumjacere. 

"  Hazer  lo  bianco  negro,  y  lo  negro  bianco." 
To  make  white  black,  and  black  white. 

To  deceive  with  false  pretences,  or  to  mis- 
represent any  matter,  and  make  it  appear 
different  to  what  it  is,  was  called  painting  or 
discolouring  the  subject;  and  as  a  species  of 
fucus  was  anciently  used  as  a  dye,  persons  so 
disguising  what  they  treated  of,  were  said 
"  fucum  facere,"  to  give  a  false  colour  to  it. 
The  phrase  was  also  applied  to  women  paint- 
ing 


(     122     ) 

ing  their  faces,  and  making  themselves  more 
fair  than  nature  intended  them,  whence  we 
learn  that  this  practice  was  as  usual  and 
fashionable  among  the  Greeks  and  Romans, 
as  it  is  now  among  our  own  fair  country- 
women. "  Visage  farde  "  among  the  French 
means  a  painted,  dissembled,  or  false  c 
tenance. 


Album  Calculum  adders. 

To  approve,  to  put  in  a  white  stone.  In 
popular  assemblies  among  the  ancients,  the 
persons  who  had  a  right  to  vote,  had  a  white 
and  a  black  stone  given  them.  If  they  agreed 
to  the  proposition,  or  absolved  the  person 
accused  of  any  crime,  they  put  the  white 
stone  into  the  urn  ;  if  they  disapproved  of  the 
proposal,  or  thought  the  person  accused  guil- 
ty, the  black  one.  Hence  it  is  now  usual  to 
say,  when  a  person  who  has  been  proposed  as 
a  member  of  any  of  our  societies,  is  rejected, 
that  "  he  was  black  balled,"  though,  as  it 
often  happens,  neither  black  nor  white  balls 
were  used  in  the  ballot. 

"  Mos 


(     123     ) 

if  Mos  erat  antiquis  niveis  atrisque  capillis, 
JJis  daranare  reos,  illis  absolvere  culpa."         OVID, 


Creta  vet  Carbone  notare. 

To  make  a  white  or  a  black  line,  with 
chalk,  or  with  charcoal,  against  the  name  of 
any  one,  was  in  like  manner  used  to  denote 
approbation,  or  disapproval  of  his  conduct. 
Persius,  addressing  his  friend  Plotius  Macrinus 
on  his  birthday,  says, 

"  Hunc,  Macrine,  diem  numera  meliore  capillo, 
Qui  tibi  labentes  apponit  candido  annos." 

ft  Let  this  auspicious  morning  be  expressed, 
With  a  white  stone,  distinguished  from  the  rest; 
White  as  thy  fame,  and  as  thy  honor  clear  ; 
And  let  new  joys  attend  on  thy  new  added  year." 


Stylum  verfcre. 

To  change  or  correct  the  style  or  language. 
The  ancients  used  tables  covered  with  a  coat 
of  wax,  on  which  they  wrote  with  a  style,  a 
piece  of  iron,  sharp,  or  pointed  at  the  end,  with 
which  they  made  the  letters,  and  blunt  or  flat 

at 


(     124    ) 

at  the  other  end,  which  they  used  for  ob- 
literating, or  rubbing  out  what  they  had 
written,  either  when  they  purposed  making 
any  alteration,  or  to  employ  the  table  for 
other  writings.  By  a  good  or  bad  style,  they 
meant  therefore  at  first,  simply  to  denote  the 
quality  of  the  instrument  with  which  they 
wrote.  The  term  was  afterwards  applied  me- 
taphorically to  the  language,  in  which  sense 
it  is  now  used. 

The  reader  may  not  be  displeased,   as  not 
alien  to   the  subject,  at  seeing  the  following 
short  account  of  the  different  substances  that 
were  employed  for  writing  on,  before  the  art 
of  making  paper  from  linen  rags  was  discover- 
ed.    Among   the   earliest   we  find   tables  of 
wood  made  smooth,  and  covered  with  wax,  as 
has   been   noted   above.      But  as   what  was 
written  on  wax  might  easily  be  defaced,  leaves 
of  the  papyrus,  a  species  of  flag,  which  grew 
in  great  abundance  in  the  marshes  of  Egypt, 
were  dryed,  and  by  a  particular  process  pre- 
pared for  the  purpose.     On  these  the  letters 
were  engraved  with  an  instrument  similar  to 
that  made  use  of  to  write  on  wax.     Leaves  so 

prepared 


(     125     ) 

prepared  were  called  charta,  from  a  city  of 
Tyre  of  that  name,  near  which  they  were  also 
found.  Though  the  practice  of  using  the 
papyrus  has  been  discontinued  for  many  ages, 
yet  the  terms  folia  leaves,  and  charta  paper, 
derived  from  it,  are  still  retained.  As  in 
writing  a  treatise,  a  great  number  of  these 
leaves  were  required,  they  were  connected, 
and  kept  together  by  making  a  hole,  and 
passing  a  string  through  each  of  them.  With 
the  same  string,  passed  several  times  around 
them,  they  were  confined  to  prevent  their 
separating,  and  being  injured  or  lost,  when  no 
one  was  reading,  or  using  them,  and  thence, 
Pancirollus  thinks,  a  bundle  of  them  obtained 
the  name  of  volumen,  or  a  volume.  Another 
article  used  for  the  purpose,  was  the  inner 
bark  of  certain  trees.  This  was  prepared  by 
beating  it,  and  then  incorporating  it  with  a 
solution  of  gum  arable.  As  the  inner  bark  of 
trees  is  called  liber,  the  volumes,  or  books, 
were  thence  called  libri,  a  name  they  still  re- 
tain. Vellum,  the  last  substance  to  be  men- 
tioned, is  said  to  owe  its  origin  to  the  follow- 

^ 

ing  circumstance :    Eumenes,   king   of  Per- 

gamus, 


gamus,  being'  desirous  of  forming-  a  library* 
that  should  equal  or  exceed  in  number  of 
volumes,  the  famed  library  at  Alexandria, 
Ptolemy,  with  a  view  of  rendering  his  design 
abortive,  prohibited  the  exportation  of  the 
papyrus.  This  exciting  the  industry  of  some 
artists  in  the  court  of  Eumenes,  they  con- 
trived a  method  of  preparing  the  skins  of 
sheep  for  the  purpose,  and  it  was  called 
vellum,  from  vellus  a  skin,  and  parchment, 
from  Pergamus,  the  place  where  the  art  of  pre- 
paring it  was  discovered,  or  if  not  discovered, 
it  was  there  improved,  and  first  brought  into 
general  use. 


Umbram  suam  metuere. 

lie  is  afraid  of  his  own  shadow,  said  of  per* 
sons  \viio  are  so  childishly  timid,  that  they 
cannot  be  prevailed  on  to  undertake  the 
easiest,  and  most  obviously  useful  business, 
fearing  lest  it  should  fail.  To  such  subjects, 
and  to  such  as  live  in  a  state  of  constant 
alarm,  fearing  almost  impossible  accidents, 
the  following  is  also  applicable. 

Quid 


(     127     ) 

Quid  si  Cesium  ruat ! 

What  if  the  sky  should  fall !  "  When  the 
sky  falls,"  we  say  jocularly,  "  then  we  may 
catch  larks." 


Funem  abrumpere,  nimium  fendendo. 

The  chord  stretched  too  tight  will  break, 
and  the  mind  kept  too  long,  and  too  intensely 
meditating  on  one  subject,  loses  its  spring 
and  becomes  feeble. 

"  Cito  rumpas  arcum,  semper  si  tensimi  habueris, 
At  si  laxaris,  cum  voles,  utilis  erit." 

The  mind  must  be  occasionally  relieved 
from  its  studies  by  amusement,  to  enable  it  to 
recover  its  strength,  af?d  render  it  fit  for  fur- 
ther exertion.  The  adage  also  admonishes, 
that  we  should  not  make  too  frequent  appli- 
cation for  assistance,  to  persons  of  liberal 
dispositions,  who  have  already  done  as  much 
as  was  convenient,  or  proper,  that  "  we  should 
not  spur  a  willing  horse." 


Quicgidd 


Quicquid  in  Buccam,  vel  in  Linguam  t-enerit, 

ojfundere. 

"  He  says  whatever  comes  uppermost,"  or 
into  his  mind,  but,  "  habla  la  boca,  con  qua 
paga  la  coca,"  "  the  tongue  speaks  at  the 
head's  cost."  This  is  said  of  careless  and 
inconsiderate  persons,  who  think  they  shew 
their  bravery  by  saying  whatever  they  please, 
regardless  whom  they  may  offend  ;  but  the 
Spaniard  again  says,  "  hablar  sin  pensar,  es 
tirar  sin  encarar,"  "  speaking  without  think- 
ing, is  shooting  without  taking  aim,"  and 
he  who  says  all  he  has  a  mind  to  say,  must 
expect  to  be  told  what  he  has  no  mind  to 
hear.  In  a  more  honorable  way,  the  adage 
applies  to  persons  of  integrity,  who  are  inge- 
nuous, and  open,  and  in  all  concerns  of  busi- 
ness, will  speak  the  truth.  But  even  from 
such  it  is  not  always  well  received. 

"  Whoever  speaks  with  plain  sincerity, 
Is  eyed  by  Fortune  with  a  look  askant; 
While  some  low  fawning  sycophant 
Wears  every  day  a  new  attire, 
The  friends  of  verity 
Go  naked  as  the  goddess  they  adrhire." 

Ctir* 


(     129    ) 

Citra  Pulverem,  vel  citra  Laborem. 

Obtaining  one's  end  without  labour,  or 
meeting  with  success  far  beyond  our  endea- 
vours. The  adage  was  applied  to  fortunate 
persons,  who  were  more  prosperous  than  might 
have  been  expected  from  the  little  care  and 
attention  they  paid  to  their  business.  "  Citra 
arationem,  citraque  sementem,"  their  lands 
proving  productive,  though  but  little  cul- 
tivated. 

There  are  men,  with  whom  every  scheme 
or  project  in  which  they  are  engaged  succeed, 
though  they  are  not  remarkable  either  for 
diligence  or  capacity.  Such  men  are  said, 
according  to  a  familiar  English  proverb,  "  to 
be  born  with  a  silver  spoon  in  their  mouths." 
And  "  give  a  man  luck,"  we  say,  "  and  throw 
him  into  the  sea."  From  the  not  un frequent 
occurrences  of  such  events,  arises  also  the 
saying,  "  E  meglio  esser  fortunato  chesavio," 
"  It  is  better  to  be  born  fortunate  than  wise  ;" 
also,  "  Gutta  fortune  pras  dolio  sapientiie," 
the  sense  of  which  the  French  give  in  the  fol- 
lowing, "  Mieux  vaut  une  once  de  fortune, 

K  qu'une 


(     130     ) 

qiftme  iivre  de  sagesse,"  an  ounce  of  good 
fortune  is  better  than  a  pound  of  wisdom. 
The  proverb,  "  citra  pulverem,"  without  dust, 
seems  to  have  taken  its  rise  from  the  custom 
of  sprinkling  the  bodies  of  wrestlers  with 
dust,  having  first  anointed  them  with  oil. 
This  was  done  with  the  view  of  stopping  the 
pores,  to  prevent  their  being  exhausted  by 
perspiring  too  profusely.  Antisthenes,  one  of 
the  speakers  in  the  Dialogue  called  the  Ban- 
quet, of  Xenophon,  says,  in  allusion  to  this 
custom,  "  he  might  have  as  much  land,  per- 
haps, as  would  furnish  a  sufficiency  of  dust, 
to  cover  the  body  of  a  wrestler."  Sir  Francis 
Bacon,  among  his  expedients  for  prolonging 
life,  recommends  taking  daily  small  doses  of 
nitre,  to  retard  the  circulation  of  the  blood, 
and  anointing  the  body  with  oil,  to  moderate 
the  perspiration.  Hist.  Vitas  et  Mortis. 


Lydius  Lapis,  sive  Heradius  Lapis. 

A  stone  so  called  from  Heraclea  a  city  in 
Lydia,  from  whence  it  was  brought.     It  was 

used 


used  to  try  pieces  of  metal,  with  the  view  of 
discovering  whether  they  were  gold,  or  silver, 
or  what  portion  of  those  precious  metals  were 
contained  in  them,  and  the  adage  may  be 
applied,  metaphorically,  to  persons  of  acute 
sense,  and  sound  judgment,-  who  are  able  to 
solve  difficult,  and  intricate  problems,  or 
questions. 

Ad  Amussim. 

Made  exactly  by  rule;  said  of  any  piece  of 
work  that  is  perfectly  and  correctly  finished, 
or  of  a  literary  composition,  in  which  the 
subject  is  judiciously  and  accurately  treated. 


A  d  Unguem. 


Perfectly  smooth,  and  polished.  The  phrase 
takes  its  rise  from  the  workmen's  passing  their 
nail  over  a  piece  of  work,  to  find  if  any  in- 
equalities remain. 


Incudi  redder  e. 

Returned  to  the  anvil,   may  be  applied  to 
K  2  any 


(     132     ) 

any  work  that  is  re-considered,  and  carefully 
corrected  and  improved. 


Indignus  qui  illl  Matellam  porrigat. 

This  is  used  where  there  is  a  very  great 
difference  in  the  qualities  and  dispositions  of 
the  persons  compared,  and  means,  that  the 
one  is  not  fit  to  take  off  the  shoes,  or  perform 
the  meanest  offices  for  the  other. 

"  Dispeream  bi  tu  Pyladi  prsestare  matellam, 
Dignus  es,  aut  porcos  pascere  Pirithoi." 

May  I  die,  if  you  are  worthy  to  be  employed 
in  feeding  his  hogs,  or  even  in  services  more 
sordid  and  humiliating. 


etiam  est  Holitor  valde  opportuna  lo- 
quutus. 

Even  the  opinion  of  a  clown  may  be  at- 
tended to  with  advantage.  "Sa?pe  est  etiam 
sub  pallio  sordido  sapientia,"  for  wisdom  not 
unfrequently  exists  under  a  squalid  garment. 
"  Tierra  negra  buen  pan  lleva,"  black  land 
produces  white  bread,  and  "  Debaxo  de  una 
mala  capa,  hay  buen  bebedo,"  under  an  old 

and 


(     133     ) 

and  tattered  cloak,  there  may  be  a  good 
drinker,  that  is,  a  man  of  understanding.  The 
Spaniards  say,  when  an  old  man,  and  with 
them  old  and  wise  seem  to  be  synonymous, 
ceases  to  drink,  he  will  soon  cease  to  live. 
"Quando  el  viejo  no  puede  beber,  la  huessa  le 
pueden  hazer,"  and  "  Quixadas  sin  barbas,  no 
merecen  ser  honradas,"  chins  without  beards 
deserve  no  honour,  which  is  only  clue  to  age. 
Scepe  etiam  stultus  fuit  opportuna  loquutus, 
as  Erasmus  corrects  the  adage,  that  is,  Even  a 
fool  may  frequently  give  good  advice,  which 
means  no  more,  than  that  as  a  liar  may  some- 
times speak  the  truth,  so  may  a  fool  utter  a 
wise  sentence.  Rabelais  had  perhaps  an  eye 
to  this  adage,  when  he  made  Panurge  take 
the  advice  of  a  fool  on  the  subject  of  his 
marriage. 

Leonem  Larva  terres. 

Would  you  frighten  a  lion  with  a  vizor  or 

mask,  may  be  said  to  weak  and  simple  persons, 

attempting  by  noise  and  blustering,  to  terrify 

and  alarm  those  who  are  greatly  their  superiors 

*3  in 


(     134     ) 

in  strength  and  courage.  "  Do  you  think  I 
M'as  born  in  a  wood  to  be  scared  by  an  owl  ?" 

"  Demens!  qui  nimbos  et  non  imitabile  fulmen, 
.Ere,  et  cornipedum  cursu  simularat  equurum." 

Senseless  man  !  who  could  strive  to  imitate 
the  storms  and  inimitable  thunder  of  Jupiter, 
with  the  clatter  of  brazen  cymbals,  and  the 
tramp  of  horses. 

Salem  et  Mensam  ne  pr&tereas. 
You  must  not  neglect  those  who  have  been 
entertained  at  your  table,  or  with  whom  you 
have  eaten  salt.     This  being  contrary  to  the 
laws  of  hospitality.  Salt,  from  its  power  of  pre- 
serving bodies  from  putrefaction,  was  thought 
to  have  something  in  it  of  a  divine  nature, 
and  was  thence  adopted  as  a  symbol  of  per- 
petuity, and  made  use  of  as  a  mean  to  conci- 
liate friendship.     In  Ezra,  we  read,  "  we  are 
salted  with  the  salt  of  the  palace,"  meaning, 
we  are  there  nourished  and  supported  ;  and 
our  Saviour  calls  his  disciples  "  the  salt  of  the 
earth,"  sent  to  preserve  it,  or  to  cure  men  of 
their  corruption.     The  adage  means  the  same 

as 


(     135     ) 

as  "Ne  negligas  amicitias  consuetudinem,  aut 
violes  jura  ejusdem."  you  must  not  omit  the 
usages,  or  violate  the  rights  of  friendship. 
The  dread  which  many  of  our  good  women 
feel  on  overturning  a  salt-cellar,  is  doubtless 
a  relict  of  the  veneration  in  which  this  sub- 
stance was  anciently  held.  The  ill  omen  which 
such  an  accident  portends,  is  to  be  averted  by 
throwing  a  few  grains  of  the  salt  over  one's 
shoulder;  perhaps  also  the  privilege  which  salt 
has  obtained,  of  being  made  a  convertible 
term  for  wit,  derives  its  origin  from  the  same 
source.  The  French  say  of  two  persons  whose 
intimacy  is  not  likely  to  be  of  long  duration, 
"  Elles  ne  mangeront  pas  un  minot  de  sel 
ensemble,"  they  will  not  eat  a  bushel  of  salt 
together.  A  late  envoy  from  Tripoli,  having 
recommended  to  the  academy  in  Sweden,  to 
send  some  of  their  members  to  examine  the 
plants  and  other  productions  of  his  country, 
said,  "  that  in  return  for  the  bread  and  salt  he 
had  received  among  them,  he  would  give  every 
assistance  in  his  power,  in  forwarding  their 
inquiries."  The  Germans  held  in  the  same 
respect,  persons  with  whom  they  had  partici- 
K  4  patetl 


(     136    ) 

patecl  in  the  pleasure  of  drinking  wine,  and 
time  has  not  diminished  in  them,  their  reve- 
rence for  this  delightful  beverage. 

Ne  quicquam  sapit,  qui  sibi  non  sapit. 

The  man  is  not  to  be  esteemed  wise,  who  is 
not  wise  or  prudent  in  the  management  of  his 
own  concerns,  who,  intent  on  the  business 
of  others,  suffers  his  own  to  fall  to  decay. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  selfish  man,  whose 
thoughts  are  solely  employed  in  advancing 
his  own  interest,  "  who  would  set  his  neigh- 
bour's house  on  fire,  merely  to  roast  his  eggs," 
is  still  more  to  be  blamed.  "  It  is  a  poor 
centre  of  a  man's  actions,"  Lord  Verulam 
says,  "  himself,  and  it  does  not  ordinarily 
succeed  well  with  such  persons;  for,  as  they 
have  all  their  lives  sacrificed  to  themselves, 
they  become  in  the  end  sacrifices  to  the 
inconstancy  of  fortune,  whose  wings  they 
thought  by  their  self- wisdom  to  have  pini- 
oned." Still,  however,  we  must  take  care, 
"  not  to  bulge  our  own  vessel,  in  attempting 
to  raise  that  of  our  neighbour,"  for,  "La  carita 

comincia 


(     137    ) 

comincia  prima  da  se  steffo,"  chanty  begins 
at  home. 


Neque  Mel,  neque  Apes. 

No  bees,  no  honey.  Every  convenience 
hath  its  concomitant  inconvenience;  if  we  are 
averse  to  bearing  the  one,  we  ought  not  to 
expect  to  enjoy  the  other.  "  If  we  would 
have  eggs,  we  must  bear  with  the  cackling  of 
the  hen."  "  Non  s' e  rosa  senza  spine,"  the 
rose  has  its  prickles,  and  the  bee  its  sting, 
their  sweets  therefore  are  not  to  be  obtained 
without  some  hazard. 

"  Feras  quod  laedit,  ut  quod  prodest  perferas." 
"  You  must  bear  pain,  if  you  look  for  gain." 

"  Dii  nobis  laboribus  omnia  vendunt,"  the 
goods  of  fortune  are  not  given,  but  sold  to 
us  ;  that  is,  they  are  only  to  be  attained  by 
labour  and  industry,  and  yet  we  say,  "  He 
pays  clear  for  honey,  that  licks  it  from  the 
thorn." 


Facile 


(     138     ) 

Facile  qiium  valemus,  recta  Consilia  JE grot  is 

damns. 

When  free  from  trouble  ourselves,  we  readily 
give  advice  to  those  who  are  afflicted,  which 
in  a  similar  situation,  would  not  occur  to  us, 
or  probably  we  should  not  be  disposed  to 
follow,  though  admonished  to  it  by  our  nearest 
friends 

"  "Pis  each  man's  office  to  speak  patience 

To  those  who  wring  under  the  load  of  sorrow; 
But  no  man's  virtue  or  sufficiency 
To  be  so  moral,  when  lie  shall  endure 
The  like  himself." 

The  Oracle  being  asked,  what  was  the  most 
difficult   thiny;?    answered,    "to    know    our- 

O  * 

selves."      What    the   most   easy?    "to    give 
advice  to  others." 


In  monendo  sapimus  omnes,  verum  ubi 
Peccamus  ipsi,  non  videmus  propria." 

For  though  we  easily  espy  the  faults  of  others, 
and  are  very  ready  in  admonishing  them,  yet 
we  do  not  easily  admit  that  we  are  guilty  of 
similar  errors,  and  are  thence  apt  to  consider 
fthe  admonition  of  our  friends,  as  impertinent, 

and  unnecessary. 

"  Peras 


(     139    ) 

"  Peras  iraposuit  Jupiter  nobis  duas, 

Propriis  repletam  vitiis,  post  tergurn  dedit, 
Alienis  ante  pectus  suspendit  gravem. 
Hac  re,  videre  nostra  mala  non  possumus, 
Alii  siraul  delinquunt  censores  sumus." 

Jupiter  gives  to  each  of  us,  the  Poet  says,  two 
wallets,  the  one  filled  with  the  errors  of  our 
neighbours,  the  other  with  our  own.  That 
containing  the  errors  of  our  neighbours,  hangs 
to  our  breasts,  but  that  filled  with  our  own, 
rests  on  our  backs.  Hence  it  is,  that  though 
we  are  well  acquainted  with  the  vices  of  others, 
yet  we  are  commonly  ignorant  of  those  prac- 
tised by  ourselves. 


Quod  supra  nos,  nihll  ad  nos. 

This  was  a  saying  of  Socrates,  intimating 
that  we  should  not  trouble  ourselves  by  in- 
quiring into  matters  that  do  not  concern  us; 
into  mysteries  that  are  beyond  our  compre- 
hension ;  as,  how  the  heavens  and  the  earth 
were  formed  ;  whether,  or  by  whom,  the  stars 
were  inhabited ;  how  far  distant  from  us  are 
the  Pleiades,  or  any  other  of  the  constellations ; 

the 


(     140    ) 

the  depth  of  the  sea;  the  nature  of  space;  or 
whether  there  exists  such  a  thing  as  pure 
space  ;  the  mystery  of  the  Trinity,  which  the 
boy  told  St.  Austin,  "  he  would  understand, 
then,  when  he  should  be  able  to  lave  the  sea 
dry,"  or  numerous  other  similar  inquiries, 
which  would  be  of  little  use  if  they  could 
be  discovered,  but  upon  which  many  volumes 
have  been  written,  neglecting,  in  the  mean 
while,  to  inquire  what  might  make  men  more 
quiet,  contented,  and  happy ;  or  might  tend 
to  remove  the  misery  and  distress  with  which 
the  world  is  overwhelmed. 


Qua  infra  nos,  nihil  ad  nos. 
As  we  are  admonished  by  the  preceding 
aphorism,  not  to  employ  our  minds  too  sedu- 
lously in  acquiring  a  knowledge  of  things 
placed  far  beyond  our  reach,  by  this  we  are 
advised  not  with  too  much  anxiety  to  seek 
after  worldly  wealth,  as  large  and  splendid 
houses,  rich  furniture,  clothes,  and  diet,  which, 
as  they  contribute  little  or  nothing  to  our 
happiness,  should  be  deemed  unworthy  our 
regard. 

Refricarc 


(     141     ) 

Refrkare  Cicatrlcem. 

To  open  a  wound  afresh,  which  had  been 
but  lately  skinned  over,  and  is  therefore  very 
susceptible  of  injury  ;  metaphorically,  to  re- 
mind any  one  of  a  past  misfortune.  It  is  a 
mark  of  absence  of  mind,  inattention,  or  ill- 
nature,  to  revive  in  conversation  the  memory 
of  circumstances,  in  which  any  of  the  com- 
pany had  been  concerned,  and  which  had  been 
the  subject  of  much  distress  and  uneasiness  to 
them.  "  No  se  ha  de  mentar  la  soga,  en  casa 
del  ahorcado,"  we  should  not  talk  of  a  halter, 
in  a  house  whence  any  one  had  been  hanged. 
"  Refricare  memoriam,"  to  rub  up  the  memory 
of  any  one,"  who  is  disposed  to  forget  his  en- 
gagement, or  promise. 


Nullus  Hits  Nasus  est,  et,  obesce  Naris  Homo. 

They  have  no  nose,  or  they  would  have 
smelt  it  out.  They  are  dull,  heavy,  stupid, 
void  of  ingenuity  or  sagacity.  "  Emunctre 
naris  homo,"  that  is,  he  is  a  man  of  a  clear 
head,  of  quick  sense,  and  sound  judgment. 

The 


(     142     ) 

The  sense  of  smelling  has  perhaps  been  taken, 
preferably  to  any  of  the  other  senses,  though 
they  are  all  occasionally  used,  to  denote  the 
perfection  or  imperfection  of  the  understand- 
ing, from  observing  the  different  value  that  is 
put  upon  dogs,  in  proportion  as  they  have 
this  sense  more  or  less  perfect.  "  Olet  lucer- 
nam,"  it  smells  of  the  lamp,  is  said  of  any 
work  on  which  much  pains  have  been  be- 
stowed to  make  it  perfect.  "  Mener  par  le 
nez,"  to  lead  any  one  by  the  nose ;  or,  to  have 
such  influence  over  him,  as  to  make  him  say, 
do,  or  believe,  whatever  we  please. 


JEdibus  in  nostris,  qucK  prava,  aut  recta 
gerantur. 

Look  to  your  own  household,  see  that  no 
disorders  prevail  there.  Before  we  employ  our 
minds  on  objects  that  do  not  concern  us,  or 
in  studies  from  which  no  profit  can  be  ob- 
tained, we  should  see  that  all  is  well  at  home, 
that  there  are  no  disorders  to  be  corrected, 
which  neglected  may  occasion  mischief.  He 
who  neglects  this  may  be  said  to  be, 

"  Procul 


(     143     ) 
"  Procul  videns,  sed  cominus  videns  nihil." 

Looking  after  distant  objects,  which  do  not 
concern  him,  and  neglecting  those  that  are  at 
hand,  and  in  which  he  is  nearly  interested. 
The  astrologer  who  pretended  to  tell  the  for- 
tunes of  his  neighbours,  did  not  see  the  pit 
which  lay  at  his  feet,  and  into  which  he  fell. 

"  Tendens  in  alta,  amice,  terrain  non  vides, 
Cupidus  futuri,  fis  rudis  praebentium." 

Intent  on  examining  the  stars,  in  which  you 
had  no  concern,  you  neglected  what  lay  at 
your  feet.  Too  desirous  of  looking  into  the 
future,  you  saw  nothing  of  the  disaster  imme- 
diately threatening  you. 


In  $e  descendere. 

This  is  to  the  same  purport  as  the  last  adage, 
and  there  are  many  more  inculcating  the  same 
doctrine,  that  we  should  be  more  careful  in  ex- 
amining into  our  own  conduct,  and  less  curious 
in  inquiring  into,  and  censuring  the  defects  of 
others.  "  Rarum  est  enim  ut  satis  se  quisque 
vereatur,"  for  there  are  few  men  who  have  so 
much  reverence  for  themselves,  as  to  avoid 

doing 


(     144     ) 

i 

doing  wrong  from  the  fear  of  self-reproach. 
The  silent  and  internal  questioning  our  own 
secret  motives  for  action,  would  lead  us  to 
set  a  true  value  on  our  conduct,  by  directing 
us  to  the  springs  from  whence  it  proceeded. 
It  would  besides  afford  a  resource  to  hours 
that  a  man  may  find  heavy  on  his  hands,  and 
thus  employed,  he  may  boldly  say  with  the 
philosopher,  that  he  is  "  nunquam  minus 
solus,  quam  cum  solus,"  he  is  never  less  alone 
than  when  alone. 

<(  Ut  nemo  in  sese  tentat  descendere  nemo, 
Sed  praecedenti  spectatur  mantica  tergo.'' 

How  little  solicitous  we  are  in  inquiring  into 
our  own  errors,  and  how  intent  on  espying 
those  of  our  neighbours. 


Festucam  ex  alterius  Oculo  ejicere. 

Solicitous  to  remove  a  small  defect  from  the 
eye  of  your  neighbour,  regardless  of  a  much 
greater  one  in  your  own.  But,  "  thou  fool, 
first  take  the  beam  from  thine  own  eye,  and 
then  thou  mayest  see  clearly  to  remove  the 
mote  from  thy  neighbour's  eye." 

"  Qui 


"  Qui  ne  tuberibus  propriis  offendat  amicum 
Postulat,  ignoscat  verrucis  illius." 

He  who  requires  of  his  friend  that  he  should 
not  notice  his  greater  blemishes,  should  be 
careful  not  to  censure  smaller  errors  that  he 
may  discern  in  him. 


Te  cum  habita,  and 
Infra  tuam  Pelliculam  te  confine. 

Be  contented  with  your  own  skin.  An  ass 
having  put  on  the  skin  of  a  lion,  for  a  time 
struck  terror  into  all  who  beheld  him,  but  the 
cheat  being  at  length  discovered,  he  was  hoot- 
ed, and  laughed  at,  and  then  cudgelled  to  death. 
The  ancients  seem  to  hav  thought  that  they 
could  not  too  frequently  or  too  seriously  in- 
culcate the  necessity  of  turning  our  attention 
to  ourselves.  Look,  the  adage  intimates,  into 
your  own  affairs  :  live  as  becomes  your  cir- 
cumstances and  fortune,  and  do  not  model 
your  expenses  by  those  of  persons  of  much 
larger  estates  :  "  on  doit  avoir  la  robe  selon  le 
froid,"  we  should  cut  our  coat  according  to 
our  cloth ;  "  stretch  your  arm  no  further 
L  than 


(     146    ) 

than  your  sleeve  will  reach  ;"  and  "  let  your 
purse  be  your  master."  This  may  be  used  to 
restrain  those  whose  notions  are  too  lofty  and 
aspiring,  who  hazard  what  they  actually  pos- 
sess in  hunting  after  an  increase  of  fortune,  or 
of  preferment,  which,  if  acquired,  would  add 
little  to  their  comfort,  for  "  honour  and  ease 
are  seldom  bed-fellows,"  and,  "  he  that  in- 
creaseshis  riches  increases  his  sorrow."  Though 
the  world  is  indulgent  enough  to  look  upon 
the  debaucheries  and  even  the  vices  of  the 
wealthy  with  complacency,  yet  when  men  in 
inferior  situations  presume  to  follow  their  ex- 
amples, they  are  always  held  in  extreme  con- 
tempt. The  ass  attempting  to  imitate  the 
playfulness  and  familiarity  of  the  spaniel,  in- 
stead of  caresses  met  with  a  cudgel. 


Nosce  te  ipsiim. 

Know  thyself.  If  men  would  search  diligent* 
ly  their  owi\minds,and  examine  minutely  their 
thoughts  and  actions,  they  would  be  more  cau- 
tious in  censuring  the  conduct  of  others,  as 
they  would  find  in  themselves  abundantly  suf- 
ficient 


(     147    ) 

ficient  cause  for  reproof.  "  It  is  a  good  horse 
that  never  stumbles  ;"  and  he  is  a  good  man 
indeed  who  cannot  reproach  himself  with  nu- 
merous slips  and  errors.  "  Every  bean  has  its 
black,"  and  every  man  his  follies  and  vices. 
The  adage  also  teaches  us  to  set  a  proper 
value  upon  ourselves,  and  to  be  careful  not  to 
do  any  thing  that  may  degrade  us.  It  is  not 
known  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  this 
golden  rule ;  we  only  learn  that  it  is  of  very 
long  standing,  and  was  held  in  such  high  es- 
timation by  the  ancients,  that  it  was  placed 
over  the  doors  of  their  temples,  and  it  was 
also  supposed  by  them,  that  "  E  coelo  descen- 
dit,"  it  came  down  from  heaven. 

"  '  Man  know  thyself !'  this  precept  from  on  high. 
Came  down,  imagined  by  the  Deity ; 
Oh!  be  the  words  indelibly  imprest 
On  the  live  tablet  of  each  human  breast. 
Through  every  change  of  many  colour'd  life, 
Whether  thou  seek'st  a  blessing  in  a  wife ; 
Or  in  the  senate  dost  aspire  to  stand 
'Mid  holy  Wisdom's  venerable  band, 
Still  from  the  Gods  forget  not  to  implore 
Self-knowledge,  for  thy  bosom's  monitor." 

HODGSON'S  Juvenal. 

i-2  Ne 


(     148     ) 

Ne  quid  nimis. 

Too  much  even  of  the  best  of  things  will 
tire. 

"  The  sweetest  honey 
Is  loathsome  in  its  own  deliciousness." 

The  story  that  pleased  when  first  heard,  by 
frequent  repetition  becomes  disgusting.  We 
should  learn  to  keep  the  golden  mean,  and 
neither  passionately  praise  nor  violently  de- 
claim against  any  one. 

"  Ne  nimis  aut  laudes  Tydida,  aut  vituperes  me." 

For  as  there  are  no  men  totally  free  from  im- 
perfections, so  there  are  few  so  vicious  but 
they  have  some  good  qualities.  The  same 
rule  should  guide  us  in  ever}7  part  of  our  com- 
merce with  the  world  ;  we  should  be  neither 
too  gay  nor  too  slovenly  in  our  apparel,  nor 
too  liberal  nor  too  sparing  in  our  expenses; 
but  let  every  thing  be  adapted  to  our  circum- 
stances and  situation  in  life.  "  L'  abondanza 
delle  cose,  ingenera  fastidio,"  too  much  even 
of  a  good  thing  creates  disgust;  and  "  assez 
y  a,  si  trop  n'y  a,"  there  is  enough,  where 

there 


(     149     ) 

there  is  not  too  much  ;    and  "  enough,"  we 
say,  "  is  as  good  as  a  feast." 


Sponde,  Noxa  pr&sto  est. 

Become  surety,  and  danger  is  near  at  hand, 
or  "  be  bail  and  pay  for  it."     "  He  shall  be 
sore  vexed  that  is  surety  for  a  stranger,  and 
he  that  hateth  suretyship  is  sure."     As  it  is 
not   possible,  perhaps,  in  all   cases  and  situa- 
tions to  avoid  being  responsible  for  others,  it 
may  be  right  to  fix  some  rules  to  guide  us  in 
this   dangerous   adventure,    for  dangerous  it 
must,  even  under  the  most  favourable  circum- 
stances, be  esteemed,  as  by  that  act  we  engage 
that  the  party  for  whom  we  are  security  shall 
be  frugal,   industrious   and   honest ;    and    if 
he  fails  in   any  of  those  points,  we   subject 
ourselves  to  pay  or  make  good  any  deficien- 
cies that  may  occur  through  his  misfortune, 
inattention  or  delinquency.    The  person  there- 
fore, for  whom   we  purpose  being  bound,  (a 
strong  term,)  should  be  one  of  tried  fidelity, 
whom  we  have  long  known,  and  in  whose  wel- 
fare, either  as  being  a  near  relation  or  an  inti- 
L  3  mate 


(    150    ; 

mate  friend,  we  feel  ourselves  strongly  inte- 
rested ;  to  this  should  also  be  added,  that  the 
sum  for  which  we  become  surety,  be  not  so 
large  that  the  loss  of  it  would  materially  injure 
ourselves  or  family  :  "  we  should  so  light 
another's  candle  as  not  to  extinguish  our 
own."  "  Ni  fiez,  ni  porfies,  ni  apuestes,  ni 
prestes,  y  viviras  entre  las  gentes,"  that  is, 
neither  be  surety,  nor  contend,  nor  lay  wagers, 
nor  lend,  and  you  will  be  esteemed  in  the 
world.  Most  men  are  aware  of  the  danger  of 
being  security,  but  they  have  not  sufficient 
confidence  to  withstand  solicitation,  they  yield 
therefore  often  against  their  better  judgment. 
This  silly  bashfulness,  an  error  most  incident 
to  ingenuous  young  men,  should  be  strenu- 
ously resisted.  He  who  has  not  learnt  to 
deny,  is  only  half  educated  ;  he  should  be  put 
under  guardians  as  one  not  yet  of  age,  and 
unfit  to  manage  his  own  concerns.  In  all 
cases,  where  the  business  is  of  magnitude,  we 
should  require  time  before  we  comply ;  and  if 
after  due  consideration,  we  find  that  our  com- 
pliance might  involve  us  in  difficulties,  we 
should  take  care  not  to  suffer  our  determina- 
tion 


tion  to  be  shaken  by  any  further  solicitation  ; 
we  may  then  say  with  the  poet, 

"  Tis  better,  Sir,  I  should  you  now  displease, 
Than  by  complying,  risque  my  future  ease." 


Duabus  sedcre  Sellis. 

"  Avoir  le  cul  entre  deux  selles,"  "  between 
two  stools  we  ofttimes  come  to  the  ground." 
Irresolute  persons  who  adopt  neither  side  of  a 
proposition,  or  who  are  desirous  of  being  well 
with  both  parties  in  any  contest,  as  they  oblige 
neither  are  generally  despised  by  both.  Ci- 
cero fell  a  sacrifice  to  such  indecisive  conduct. 
Solon  established  a  law,  inflicting  a  severe 
punishment  on  persons  refusing  to  take  a  part 
in  public  commotions  :  by  such  secession  the 
country  was  deprived  of  the  advice  and  assist- 
ance of  the  very  persons  by  whose  prudence 
much  of  the  mischief  attending:  °n  civil  dis- 

^j 

sensions  might  be  prevented  ;  or  if  they  could 
not  entirely  appease  the  tumult  by  joining 
with  the  party  favouring  the  good  of  their 
country,  they  would  contribute  to  their  suc- 
cess. 

L  4  Nescts 


quid  serus  Vesper  vehat. 

You  know  not  what  the  evening  may 
produce,  or  how  the  present  appearances  may 
be  changed  :  no  business  shoulc^  be  depend- 
ed on  during  its  progress,  we  must  wait  for 
its  completion  before  we  give  our  opinion 
of  it ;  for,  "  la  fin  couronne  Toeuvre,"  "  it  is 
the  end  that  crowns  the  whole."  Though 
the  morning  be  fair,  the  evening  may  be 
dark  and  cloudy;  though  the  business  began 
with  favourable  auspices  and  seemed  to  pro- 
mise a  happy  conclusion,  it  may  still  fail ;  or 
though  the  early  part  of  our  lives  be  prosper- 
ous, the  end  may  be  most  disastrous  and  un- 
happy. "  La  vita  il  fine,  e  '1  di  loda  sera," 
the  end  commends  the  life,  the  evening  the 
day :  "  do  not  halloo,  therefore,"  we  say, 
"  until  you  are  out  of  the  wood  ;"  that  is,  un- 
til you  have  completely  escaped  the  danger. 

"  Prosperity  doth  bewitch  men,  seeming  clear; 

But  seas  laugh,  and  shew  white  when  rocks  are  near." 


Simla , 


(     153    ) 

Simla,  Simla  est,  etiamsl  aurea  gestet  Insignia. 

An  ape  is  an  ape,  though  dressed  in   the 
most  splended  apparel,  or 

"  An  ape  is  an  ape,  a  varlet's  a  varlet, 
Though  they  be  clad  in  silk  or  scarlet." 

This  may  be  applied  to  persons  who,  born 
and  educated  among  the  common  people,  on 
being  advanced  by  fortune,  affect  the  manners 
of  gentlemen,  but  imitate  them  so  wretchedly, 
as  easily  to  shew  the  baseness  of  the  state 
from  which  they  have  been  raised.  "  One 
would  think  that  nature's  journeymen  had 
made  them,  they  imitate  humanity  so  abomi- 
nably." "  Asperius  nihil  est,  humili  cum 
surgit  in  altum,"  which  may  be  best  rendered 
by  our  English  adage,  "  Set  a  beggar  on 
horseback,  and  he  will  ride  to  the  devil."  "Tu 
fai  come  la  simia,  die  piu  va  in  alto,  pin 
mostra  il  cula,"  that  is,  "  an  ape,  the  higher 
he  climbs,  the  more  he  shews  his  tail." 
"  Aunque  la  mona  se  vista  de  seda,  mona  se 
queda,"  although  the  monkey  clothes  her- 
self in  silk,  she  is  still  a  monkey. 


Ira 


(     154    ) 

Ira  omnium  tardissime  scnescit. 

Anger  becomes  old,  that  is,  yields,  or  gives 
way  slowly.  When  the  mind  is  inflamed  to 
rage,  the  impression  is  long  in  wearing  out. 
"  Cui  placet,  obliviscitur ;  cui  dolet,  meminit ;" 
acts  of  kindness  are  soon  forgotten,  hut  the 
memory  of  an  offence  remains.  "  Favours 
are  written  on  glass,  injuries  on  stone." 
"  Segnius  homines  bonaquam  mala  sentiunt," 
affronts  affect  us  more  keenlv,  make  a  strong. 

*>    '  O 

er  impression  on  us,  than  kindness  ;  and  u  Bo- 
cado  comido,  no  gana  amigo,"  the  morsel  that 
is  eaten,  gains  no  friends.  There  are  some 
men  of  such  irritable  dispositions,  that  the 
slightest  opposition  will  excite  this  turbulent 
passion,  and  it  not  unfrequently  happens  that 
in  their  rage,  they  say,  or  do,  what  will  not 
be  forgotten,  or  cannot  easily  be  remedied. 
Anger  has  therefore  been  not  improperly 
called  "  a  short  madness,"  "  Ira  brevis  furor," 
or,  "  una  collera  subitanea,  e  una  pazzia 
passegera,"  men  under  the  influence  of  an- 
ger being  as  intractable  as  those  who  are 
insane ;  "  Sa3va  animi  tempestas,"  a  cruel 

tempest 


(     155     ) 

tempest  of  the  mind,  making  the  eyes  dart 
fire,  the  teeth  gnash,  and  the  tongue  to  falter. 
How  necessary  therefore  to  check  it  in  its 
commencement,  and  hefore  it  rises  to  that 
ungovernahle  height. 

"  give  me  that  man 

That  is  not  passion's  slave,  and  I  will  wear  him 
In  my  heart's  core,  ay  in  my  heart  of  hearts." 

Pythagoras  advises  to  efface  the  print  of 
the  caldron  in  the  ashes,  after  it  has 
boiled  ;  intimating  that  we  should  not  persist 
in  our  anger,  but  after  the  first  ebullition, 
endeavour  to  restrain  and  subdue  it.  Plato 
being  about  to  punish  a  servant  who  had 
offended  him,  raised  his  hand  for  the  purpose 
but  checking  himself,  and  yet  keeping  his 
hand  lifted  up,  as  if  in  the  act  of  striking, 
a  friend  who  was  present  asked  what  he  was 
going  to  do,  "  I  am  about,"  says  he,  "  to 
chastise  an  angry  man."  In  all  contentions 
or  disputes,  when  we  find  we  are  becoming 
warm,  it  would  be  wise  to  retire,  or  give  up 
the  contest. 

"  When  two  discourse,  if  the  one's  anger  rise, 
Then  he  who  lets  the  contest  fall,  is  wise." 

In 


In  Vino  Veritas. 

"  La  verclad  esta  en  el  vino,"  and  «'  Dans 
le  vin  on  dit  la  ve"riteV'  Wine  opens  the  heart 
and  makes  us  speak  the  truth.  "  Vin  dentro, 
senno  fuora,"  that  is,  "  When  wine  is  in,  wit 
is  out."  "  II  vino  non  ha  temone,"  "  wine 
hath  no  helm  or  rudder."  "  El  vino  no  trae 
bragas,  ni  de  paiio,  ni  de  lino,"  "  wine  wears 
no  breeches,  neither  woollen,  nor  linen."  Men 
intoxicated  with  wine,  are  easily  led  to  betray 
their  most  secret  thoughts.  "  Quod  in  corde 
sobrii,  id  in  lingua  ebrii,"  "  what  we  think 
when  sober,  when  drunk  we  blab."  "  As  fire 
discovers  the  properties  of  gold,  so  wine  lays 
open  the  hearts  of  men  ;"  and  certainly  in  a 
state  of  ebriety,  we  have  so  little  command 
over  ourselves,  that  there  are  few  things,  even 
those  regarding  our  personal  safety,  which  a 
crafty  man  might  not  extract  from  us. 

Though  drinking  to  excess,  is  in  general 
improper,  and  we  can  hardly  conceive  a  more 
despicable  character  than  an  habitual  sot, 
yet  occasional  intemperance  in  this  way  may 
be  excused.  "  Nonnunquam,"  Seneca  says, 

"  usque 


*'  usque  ad  ebrietatem  veniendum,  non  ut 
mergat  nos,  sed  ut  deprimat  curas,"  some- 
times we  may  extend  our  draught  even  to 
intoxication,  not  that  the  wine  may  drown  us, 
but  that  it  may  drown  our  cares.  It  was  for 
that  purpose  we  are  to  suppose  that  Cato  had 
such  frequent  recourse  to  the  bottle. 

"  Narratur  et  prisci  Catonis, 
Saspe  mero  caluisse  virtus." 

Sylvius,  an  eminent  French  physician, 
thought  that  taking  wine  to  intoxication 
once  in  a  month,  might  be  useful  in  strength- 
ening the/ligestive  power  of  the  stomach;  and 
the  late  Dr.  Cadogan,  who  lived  to  a  great 
age,  is  said  to  have  approved,  and  to  have 
followed  this  regimen. 

"  Qu'il  faut  a  chaque  niois, 
Du  rnoins  s'enyvre  une  fois." 

We  should  get  drunk,  at  the  least,  once  in  a 
month.  This  is  an  old  French  proverb,  fa- 
thered, I  know  not  on  what  authority,  upon 
Hippocrates.  But  as  some  men  are  quarrel- 
some when  intoxicated,  it  is  right,  to  remind 
them,  "  That  he  that  kills  a.  man  when  he  is 
drunk,  must  be  hanged  for  it  when  he  is 

sober." 


sober."  "  He  that  drinks  all  night,  and  is 
hanged  betimes  in  the  morning,  will  sleep  the 
soundlier  all  the  next  day,"  is  one  of  our 
jocular  proverbs  ;  as  is,  "  The  man  was  hang- 
ed, who  left  his  drink  behind  him  ;"  though 
this  is  said  to  have  been  done  by  a  thief,  on 
hearing  that  he  was  pursued.  He  was  taken, 
we  are  to  suppose,  and  hanged.  Of  such  stuff, 
are  some  of  our  old  proverbs  made.  "  Drunk- 
en folks  seldom  take  harm,"  is  as  true  perhaps 
as  "  Naught,  though  often  in  danger,  is  sel- 
dom hurt."  Neither  of  them  will  bear  a  very 
exact  scrutiny.  Not  alien  to  the  purport  of 
this  adage  are  the  following  lines, 

"  Dives  eram  dudum,  fecerunt  me  tria  nudum, 
Alea,  Vina,  Venus,  per  quse  sum  factus  egenus." 

I  was  rich  and  prosperous,  but  gaming, 
wine,  and  women  have  reduced  me  to  misery, 
Either  of  them  singly,  if  followed  up,  would 
be  sufficient  to  produce  that  effect. 


Bos  in  Lingua. 


He  has  an  ox  on  his  tongue.  The  Athenians 
had  a  piece  of  money  stamped  with  the  figure 

of 


of  an  ox,  whence  any  one  who  was  bribed  to 
be  silent,  was  said  to  have  an  ox  on  his 
tongue.  The  adage  was  also  applied  generally 
to  persons  who,  restrained  by  fear,  or  from 
motives  of  prudence,  avoided  giving  their 
opinion  on  any  subject.  It  is  said  to  have 
taken  its  rise  from  the  following  circumstance. 
Demosthenes  having  received  a  present  from 
the  Milesians,  who  wished  to  obtain  some 
favour  from  his  countrymen,  which  they  were 
apprehensive  he  would  oppose,  appeared  in 
the  court,  with  his  throat  muffled,  pretending 
that  he  had  so  violent  a  cold,  as  to  be  inca- 
pable of  speaking  ;  but  one  of  the  members  of 
the  court,  suspecting  the  trick,  observed  to 
his  brethren,  that  "  Demosthenes  had  an  ox 
on  his  tongue,"  intimating  that  it  was  not  a 
cold,  but  a  bribe  that  prevented  him  from 
speaking.  The  people  of  /Egina  had  a  piece 
of  money  stamped  with  the  figure  of  a  snail, 
with  this  motto,  "  Virtutem  et  sapientiam, 
vincunt  testudines,"  that  is,  money  is  more 
powerful  than  valour  or  wisdom* 


Currus 


(    160    ) 

Cur r us  Bovem  trahlt. 

"  Placing  the  cart,"  we  say,  "  before  the 
horse,"  literally,  The  car  draws  the  oxen. 
This  may  be  applied  to  any  thing  that  is  con- 
ducted preposterously ;  to  children  affecting 
to  instruct  their  parents,  pupils  their  masters; 
also  to  persons  beginning  a  business  before 
they  have  well  considered  it,  or  spending  a 
fortune  before  it  is  come  into  their  possession, 
which  is,  "  Eating  the  calf  in  the  cow's  belly.'* 
It  happens  when  a  waggon  going  down  a 
steep  hill  drags  the  cattle,  instead  of  being 
drawn  by  them,  which  gave  rise  to  the  adage. 


Pennas  incidere  alicui. 

To  clip  any  one's  wings,  to  check  him  in 
his  career,  "  To  take  him  a  peg  lower,"  ne- 
cessary sometimes  to  be  done  to  persons  who 
are  too  obtrusive  and  forward  ;  who  assume  a 
state,  and  consequence,  that  does  not  belong 
to  them,  or  who  thrust  themselves  into  busi- 
ness in  which  they  have  no  concern. 

Omnia 


Omnia  idem  Pulvis. 

\Ve  are  all  made  of  the  same  materials, 
"ejusdem  farinas,"  of  the  same  dust,  and  in 
the  grave  there  is  no  mark  by  which  we  may 
distinguish  the  dust  of  the  king  from  that  of 
the  clown.  As  the  philosophers  rarely  sought 
after,  and  therefore  seldom  acquired  wealth, 
they  were  frequent  in  admonishing  the  great 
men  of  the  world  of  this  truth,  "  that  death 
levels  all  distinctions,"  and  that  "  Pobreza  no 
es  vileza,"  poverty  is  no  disgrace. 

I  dreamt,  that  buried  in  my  native  clay, 

Close  by  a  common  beggar's  side  I  lay  : 

And  as  so  mean  a  neighbour  shock'd  my  pride, 

Thus  like  a  corpse  of  consequence  I  cried — 

"  Scoundrel,  begone!  and  henceforth  touch  me  not; 

"  More  manners  learn,  and  at  a  distance  rot." 

"  How  !  scoundrel!"  in  a  haughtier  tone  cried  he  ; 

"  Proud  lump  of  dirt,  I  scorn  thy  words  and  thee ; 

"  Here  all  are  equal — now  my  case  is  thine, 

"  That  is  thy  rotting  place,  and  this  is  mine." 

The  phrase,  "  He  is  of  the  same  kidney, 
stamp,  or  mould,"  is  never  used  by  us  but  to 
designate  a  worthless  character. 

M  Anulus 


(    162    ) 
Anulus  aureus  in  Naribus  Suls. 

It  is  putting  a  ring  of  gold  into  a  swine's 
snout,  or  "  casting  pearls  before  swine,"  may  be 
said  to  any  one  talking  learnedly  before  persons 
who  are  illiterate,  or  giving  rich  and  gaudy 
clothes  to  one  who  is  old  and  decrepid ; 
which,  instead  of  adorning,  would  only  serve 
-to  make  him  ridiculous.  "  As  a  jewel  of  gold 
in  a  swine's  snout,  so  is  a  fair  woman  without 
discretion." 


In  eburna  Vagina,  plumbeus  Gladius. 

This  is  putting  a  leaden  sword  into  an  ivory 
scabbard,  was  the  observation  of  Diogenes  the 
cynic,  on  hearing  very  foul  language  come 
from  the  mouth  of  an  elegant  young  man. 
Matching,  and  bringing  together  things  en- 
tirely dissimilar,  as  Hercules  and  an  ape,  the 
one  excelling  in  strength  and  courage,  the 
other  only  noticed  for  his  foolish  gestures, 
and  mischievous  tricks,  renders  the  parties 
subject  to  the  censure  implied  in  this,  and  the 
preceding  adages. 


(    163    ) 

Artem  quavis  alit  Terra. 

The  arts  are  of  every  country,  or  every 
country  is  willing  to  encourage  them.  Men 
of  knowledge,  particularly  in  any  of  the  arts 
that  administer  to  the  necessities,  or  con- 
venience of  mankind,  find  themselves  at  home 
in  every  country.  The  poet  Simonicles,  seeing 
all  the  passengers  in  a  vessel  in  which  he  was 
sailing,  and  which  was  in  danger  of  sinking, 
collecting  their  valuables,  said,  "  Omnia  mea 
mecum  porto,"  I  carry  all  my  valuables  about 
me,  let  me  but  escape  drowning,  and  I  have 
nothing  to  fear.  "  Quien  tiene  arte,  va  por 
toda  parte,"  he  who  has  learned  any  art,  may 
live  in  any  place,  every  country  being  ready 
to  entertain  such  inmates.  "  El  villano  en  su 
tierra,  y  el  hidalgo  donde  quiera,"  the  clown 
in  his  own  country,  the  gentleman  where  he 
pleases;  his  education  qualifying  him  to  live 
in  any  country. 


A  teneris  Unguiculis,  Ab  Incunabulis,  Cum 
Lacte   Nut  rids. 

It  was  his  disposition  from  earliest  infancy, 
M  2  he 


(     164     ) 

he  shewed  it  when  in  his  cradle,  he  sucked  it 
in  with  his  mother's  milk.  There  appears  to 
be  a  character  in  some  individuals,  implanted 
by  nature  itself,  which  neither  precept  nor  ex- 
ample can  alter.  Persons  related  to  each  other 
by  the  nearest  ties  of  consanguinity  ;  nursed 
and  educated  under  the  same  auspices ;  en- 
joying the  same  advantages,  stimulated  to 
action  by  the  same  difficulties,  have  been, 
found  as  dissimilar,  as  if  their  characters  had 
been  formed  in  climates  and  regions,  and 
under  circumstances  the  most  remote.  He 
who  will  reason  on  the  above  motto,  will  find 
ample  subject  of  discussion  in  the  brothers 
Titus  and  Domitian,  Julian  and  Gallus. 


Omnes  attrahens  ut  magnes  Lapis. 

Drawing  every  thing  to  it,  like  the  load- 
stone. Persons  of  mild  and  placid  disposi- 
tions, conciliate  the  most  rugged  and  harsh 
tempers,  as  the  magnet  attracts  iron. 

"  Ita  facillime 
Sine  invidia  laudem  invenias,  et  amicos  pares." 

By 


(     165    ) 

By  such  dispositions  men  easily  acquire  a 
good  name  without  envy,  and  procure  to 
themselves  friends. 


Magis  magni  Clerici  non  sunt  magis  sapicntes. 

The  greatest  clerks,  or  scholars,  are  not  the 
•wisest  men  ;  that  is,  they  have  not  the  greatest 
share  of  that  wisdom  which  is  necessary  for 
conducting  their  worldly  concerns.  To  excel 
in  any  art,  it  is  necessary  tlfat  our  attention 
be  applied  to  it,  if  not  exclusively,  at  the 
least  that  it  occupy  a  larger  share  of  it  than 
any  other  subject.  The  man  who  engages  in 
the  pursuit  of  literature,  will  find  he  has  little 
time  to  bestow  on  any  other  object ;  the 
acquisition  of  money  will  be  with  him  a  sub- 
ordinate concern  ;  he  has  been  taught  in  the 
course  of  his  studies,  to  consider  it  as  of  little 
value,  and  by  no  means  to  be  put  in  com- 
petition with  what  he  has  chosen;  no  wonder 
therefore  that  he  is  no  favourite  of  fortune, 
to  whom  he  never  paid  his  court,  or  that, 
others,  whom  he  considers,  and  the  world 
M  3  agrees 


agrees  in  placing  beneath  him,  receive  a  larger 
portion  of  her  goods,  than  fall  to  his  lot.  Of 
what  use,  Tasso's  father  asked  him,  after 
chiding  him  for  neglecting  the  study  of  the 
law,  which  he  had  recommended,  of  what  use 
is  this  philosophy,  with  which  you  are  so  en- 
amoured ?  "  It  has  enabled  me,  sir,"  Tasso 
replied,  "  to  bear  the  harshness  of  your  re- 
proof;" and  Aristotle,  being  asked  the  same 
question,  said,  "  to  do  willingly,  and  from  a 
conviction  of  its  propriety,  what  others  do  on 
compulsion." 


In  tuo  Regno  es. 

You  are  on  your  own  ground,  surrounded 
by  your  friends,  or  you  would  not  have  dared 
to  have  insulted  me,  or  in  your  own  house 
where  it  is  not  civil  to  contradict  you.  "  Chien 
sur  son  fumier  est  hardi,"  every  dog  is  brave 
on  his  own  dunghill.  "  Chacun  est  roi  en 
^a  maison,"  every  man  is  king  in  his  own 
house,  and  "  under  my  cloak,"  the  Spaniards 
say,  "a  fig  for  the  king;"  or,  which  is  also 
one  of  their  sayings,  "  Tan  se«or  es  cada  uno 

en 


(    167    ) 

en  su  casa,   como  el  rey   de  sus  alcavalas,' 
every  man  is  as  much  master  in  his  houseA  as 


the  king  is  of  his  taxes. 


Fontes  ipsi  sit  hint. 

Even  the  fountains  complain  of  being  thirs*' 
ty.  The  proverb  may  be  applied  to  persons 
who  greedily  hunt  after  the  goods  of  fortune, 
though  they  abound  in  them,  or  who  require 
of  their  friends  articles  \vhich  they  might  take 
from  their  own  stores.  Cicero  applied  it  in 
this  way  to  his  brother,  who  had  asked  him 
for  verses,  which  he  was  himself  much  more 
capable  of  making.  Juvenal  says,  if  Cicero, 
who  was  as  contemptible  as  a  poet,  as  he  was 
great  as  a  pleader,  had  made  verses  instead  of 
orations,  he  might  have  preserved  his  head. 
The  following  is  given  as  a  specimen  of  his 
poetry. 

"  O  fortunatam  natam,  me  consule,  Romam," 
which  is  thus  rendered  by  Dry  den, 

"  Fortune  fortuneri  the  failing  state  of  Rome, 
While  I  thy  consul  sole,  consoled  thy  doom;" 

>i  4  for 


(     16*8     ) 

for  which  he  might  have  been  whipped  at 
school,  but  would  have  been  in  no  danger  of 


losing  his  head. 


Lumen  Soli  mutuum  das. 

Affecting  to  explain  things  that  are  of 
themselves  abundantly  clear  and  intelligible, 
or  to  instruct  persons  in  matters  in  which  they 
are  well  informed,  is  like  holding  a  light  to  the 
sun — "  Holding,"  Shakespeare  says,  "thy  far- 
thing candle  to  the  sun." 


In  Sylvam  Lignaferre. 

"  Porter  de  Teau  a  la  mer,"  carrying  wood 
to  the  forest,  coals  to  Newcastle,  or  water  to 
the  ocean.  Adding  to  the  stores  of  those  who 
already  abound,  or  aiding  those  who  have  no 
need  of  assistance,  and  neglecting  persons  who 
are  in  real  want,  subjects  any  one  to  the  cen- 
sure implied  in  this  adage. 


Vdocem 


(    169    ) 

Velocem  tardus  assequitur. 

"  The  race  is  not  to  the  swift,  nor  the  battle 
to  the  strong."  Ingenuity  and  perseverance 
will  often  prevail  over  strength  and  swiftness, 
as  the  slow  tortoise  won  the  race  against  the 
swift  hare.  The  adage  may  be  used  whenever 
we  find  persons  of  weak  intellects,  or  of  no 
great  strength,  or  agility,  advancing  them- 
selves above  others  who  are  far  superior  to 
them  in  those  qualities. 


Nosce  Tempus. 

"  Cada  cosa  en  su  tiempo,  y  nabos  en  Ad- 
viento,"  every  thing  in  its  season,  and  turnips 
in  Advent.  Choose  the  proper  season.  "Make 
hay  while  the  sun  shines."  A  maxim  of  great 
importance  in  life.  A  thing  proper  in  itself, 
if  unseasonably  done,  may  be  mischievous. 
The  golden  ball  is  held  out  to  every  man  once 
in  his  life,  if  not  then  laid  hold  of,  it  may 
never  again  be  offered.  "Accasca  in  un  punto, 
quel  che  non  accasca  in  cento  anni,"  that  may 
happen  in  a  moment,  which  may  not  again 
occur  in  an  hundred  years,  therefore  "  keep 

your 


(     170    ) 

your  hook  always  baited,"  that  is,  be  always 
prepared,  for  as  Shakespeare  has  well  noted, 

"  There  is  a  tide  in  the  affairs  of  men, 

Which  taken  at  the  flood,  leads  on  to  fortune; 
Omitted,  all  the  voyage  of  their  life, 
Is  bound  in  shallows,  and  in  miseries." 

The  ancients  pictured  Time  with  wings  on  his 
feet,  and  standing  on  a  wheel ;  with  a  lock  of 
hair  on  his  forehead,  but  bald  behind  ;  inti- 
mating, that  time  was  perpetually  moving,  and 
once  suffered  to  pass  by,  it  could  not  be  re- 
called. Hence  we  are  admonished,  "  to  take 
Time  by  the  forelock. " 

"  elapsum  semel,- 

Non  ipse  possit  Jupiter  reprehendere." 

For,  if  suffered  to  escape,  not  Jupiter  himself 
can  reclaim  him. 


Olet  Lucernam. 

"  It  smells  of  the  lamp."  The  ancients  used 
lamps  when  they  studied  by  night,  therefore 
any  discourse  or  work,  that  was  extremely 
elaborated  and  polished,  was  said  to  smell  of 
the  lamp,  or  to  have  had  bestowed  upon  it  the 
"  JLimjE  labor  et  mora." 

Noct* 


(    171    ) 

Nocte  latent  Mendce. 

Faults,  or  defects,  in  the  complexion  or  form 
of  women,  are  concealed  by  darkness.  "  Ne 
femina,  ne  tela  a  lume  de  candela,"  \yomen, 
and  linen,  shew  best  by  candle-light.  Night 
also  throws  her  cloak  over  evil  actions.  Hence 
the  Spaniards  say,  "  La  noche  es  capa  des 
peccadores." 

Mafe  parta,  mate  dilabuntur. 

"  111  gotten,  ill  spent.  "  "  Lightly  come, 
lightly  go,"  and  "  what  is  gotten  over  the 
devil's  back,  is  spent  under  his  belly."  Riches 
obtained  by  unjust  means,  are  frequently  squan- 
dered in  vicious  and  disgraceful  pursuits. 

"  What  is  well  got,  may  meet  with  disaster, 

But  what  is  ill  got,  destroys  both  itself  and  its  master." 

"  La  farina  del  Diavolo,  va  tutta  in  crusca," 
the  devil's  meal  turns  all  to  chaff.  "Vien  pres- 
to consummate,  1'ingiustamente  acquistato," 
what  is  unjustly  acquired,  is  quickly  con- 
sumed. Juvenal,  more  consonant  perhaps  to 
common  experience,  says, 

"  De  raal«  quaesitis,  vix  gaudet  tertius  haeres." 

The 


The  fortune  that  is  acquired  by  fraud  or  rapine, 
scarcely  descends  to  the  third  generation. 

There  is  something  curious  in  pursuing  thjs 
simple,  moral  observation  into  real  history. 
Of  all  the  companions  of  William  the  Con- 
queror, who  obtained  the  chief  military  digni- 
ties under  his  jurisdiction,  it  is  worth  observ- 
ing, that  hardly  any  one  had  any  immediate 
male  descendants  in  the  third  generation. 
When  Henry  the  Second  ascended  the  throne 
in  1154,  only  seventy  years  after  the  Con- 
queror's death,  there  was  no  earl  in  England, 
descended  in  the  male  line  from  one  who  had 
been  an  earl  under  the  Conqueror.  The  Con- 
queror himself,  as  is  well  known,  faad  no  male 
issue  in  the  third  generation.  Alexander  and 
Caesar  had  no  descendants.  Will  the  Emperor 
of  the  French  prove  an  exception  to  Juvenal's 
observation  ? 


OccultcB  Musices  nullus  Respectus. 

Talents  that  are  concealed,  are  of  no  use. 
Though  a  man  shall  have  cultivated  his  mind 
with  the  greatest  care,  and  shall  have  acquired 

a  large 


(     173     ) 

a  large  portion  of  knowledge,  if  opportunity 
be  wanted  of  producing  it  to  the  public,  he 
will  reap  little  profit  from  his  attainments. 

"  Scire  tuum  nihil  est,  nisi  te  scire  hoc,  sciat  alter." 

There  is  little  pleasure  in  knowing  any  subject, 
unless  we  are  satisfied  that  others  know  that 
we  are  in  possession  of  such  knowledge.  To 
make  learning  useful,  it  must  be  communi- 
cated. "Take  from  the  philosopher,"  Rousseau 
says,  "the  pleasure  of  being  heard,  and  his 
desire  for  knowledge  ceases."  Seneca  carries 
this  still  further.  "  Si  cum  hac  exceptione 
detur  sapientia,  ut  illam  inclusam  teneam, 
nee  enunciem,  rejiciam, "  if  wisdom  were 
offered  to  me,  on  this  condition,  that  I  should 
not  communicate  it,  I  would  not  accept  it. 
"  Quis  enim  virtutem  ipsam  amplectitur,  pras- 
mia  si  tollas  ?"  for  who  would  embrace  even 
virtue  itself,  but  for  the  attending  reward  ? 


Lupi  ilium  priores  viderunt. 

The  wolves  have  seen  him ;  or,  which  is 
more  consonant  to  the  English  adage,  "  He 
has  seen  a  wolf,"  and  to  the  French,  "  II  a  vu 

le 


(    174    ) 

le  loup,"  which  was  said  of  any  one,  who,  bold 
and  forward  with  his  tongue,  became  suddenly- 
less  talkative  and  intrusive. 

"  Edere  non  poteris  vocem,  lupus  est  tibi  visus." 
You  are  silent,  I  perceive,  you  have  seen  a  wolf. 

It  was  anciently  believed  that  the  wolf,  by 
some  occult  power,  struck  those  whom  it 
looked  on  dumb,  as  the  basilisk  was  said  to 
strike  them  blind.  The  adage,  as  it  is  now 
used,  is  supposed  to  have  taken  its  rise  from 
a  story  in  Theocritus,  who  relates  that  a  lover 
was  suddenly  struck  dumb,  in  the  midst  of 
his  courtship,  by  the  appearance  of  a  rival, 
named  Lycus,  which  in  the  Greek  language  is 
the  name  of  a  wolf. 

Una  Hirundo  non  efficit  Ver. 
"  Una  golondrina  no  haze  verano,"  and  in 
French,  for  the  adage  is  every  where  known, 
"Une  hirondelle  ne  fait  pas  le  printems," 
"  One  swallow  does  not  make  a  summer."  One 
single  piece  of  good  or  bad  fortune  should  not 
greatly  raise  or  depress  us,  what  folloM^s  may 
be  of  a  different  complexion.  From  a  single 
act  of  liberality,  or  the  contrary,  we  should 

not, 


(     175    ) 

not,  generally,  form  our  opinion  of  the  dis- 
position of  a  man,  or  from  a  single  speech,  of 
his  learning  or  ability.  A  few  warm  days 
occurring  in  the  winter,  brought  a  swallow,  it 
is  said,  from  his  hiding-place, which  being  seen 
by  a  prodigal  young  man,  he  parted  with  his 
cloak,  but  the  frost  returning,  he  soon  felt  the 
want  of  his  garment,  and  found  to  his  cost, 
that  "  cue  swallow  did  not  make  a  summer," 
which  thence,  it  is  said,  became  proverbial. 
"  Guarda  el  sayo,"  the  Spaniards  say,  "  para 
Mayo,"  do  not  leave  off  your  great  coat  until 
May,  or  you  will  be  obliged  to  take  to  it  again. 


In  utramvis  dormire  Aurem. 

He  may  sleep  on  either  ear.  His  fortune 
is  made,  he  may  now  sleep  at  his  ease ;  or  as 
we  say,  "  His  name  is  up,  he  may  go  to  bed." 
"  Bonne  renomme'e  vaut  mieux  que  ceinture 
dore'e,"  a  good  name  is  rather  to  be  chosen 
than  riches;  though  the  French  proverb  is 
founded  on  an  old  law  among  them,  prohibit- 
ing any  but  women  of  good  fame,  from  wear- 
ing a  golden  girdle.  We  sleep  more  soundly 

and 


and  quietly  lying  on  one  side,  than  on  the  back. 
To  sleep  on  either  ear,  means  to  enjoy  undis- 
turbed repose,  which  those  only,  whose  minds 
are  free  from  care,  may  expect.  But  how  few 
can  boast  of  this  exemption  !  Withers,  an  in- 
different poet  in  the  time  of  James  the  First, 
was  used  to  say,  "  Nee  habeo,  nee  careo,  nee 
euro,"  I  neither  have  any  thing,  want  any 
thing,  nor  care  for  any  thing.  But  he  must 
soon  after  have  changed  his  song,  for  siding 
with  Parliament  in  the  troubles  that  arose  in 
the  next  reign,  he  was  taken  by  the  king's 
party,  and  sentenced  to  be  hanged.  From 
this  danger  he  was  rescued  on  the  intercession 
of  Waller,  who  pleaded  for  him,  it  is  said,  "in 
order  that  there  might  be  one  worse  poet 
living  than  himself."  The  Spaniards,  consonant 
to  this  proverb,  say,  "  Cobra  buena  fama,  y 
echate  a  dormir,"  get  a  good  name,  and  go  to 
sleep;  and  the  French,  "  Qui  a  bruit  cle  se 
lever  matin,  peut  dormir  jusques  a  diner." 
Not  alien,  in  its  sense  also  is,  "Give  a  dog  an 
ill  name,  and  hang  him^"  "  Famas  laboranti 
non  facile  succurritur,"  it  is  not  easy  to  re- 
cover a  lost  character. 

A  It  era 


(     177    ) 

Altera  Manufert  Lapidem,  altera  Panem 

ostentat. 

Holding  in  one  hand  a  stone,  in  the  other 
bread,  from  the  custom  of  enticing  dogs,  whom 
we  mean  to  beat,  by  holding  out  to  them  a 
piece  of  bread  ;  or  a  horse,  when  we  want  to 
harness  him,  by  shewing  him  corn.  The  an- 
cients, by  this  apothegm,  typified  persons  of 
deceitful  and  treacherous  dispositions, 

"  Tel  par  devant  fait  bon  visage, 
Qui  derriere  mord  et  outrage," 

who  speak  fair,  but  mean  foul ;  whose  words 
are  honey,  but  their  actions  gall ;  who  wound 
while  they  flatter  ;  who  gain  your  confidence 
to  betray  you.  "  AlterA  manu  scabunt,  altera 
feriunt,"  who  strike  with  one  hand,  while  they 
tickle  with  the  other  ;  "  who  cover  with  their 
wings,  while  they  bite  with  their  beaks." 


Ex  eodem  Ore  calidum  etfrigidum  efflare. 

"  Blowing  hot  and  cold  with  the  same 
breath."  This  those  persons  are  said  to  do, 
who  praise  what  they  had  before  condemned, 
or  condemn  what  they  had  once  commended, 

N  according 


(     178     ) 

according  as  it  suits  their  purpose.  The 
adage  is  founded  on  the  well  known  apologue 
of  a  Satyr,  who  received  a  poor  man,  nearly 
frozen  to  death,  into  his  hut.  Observing  the 
man  to  blow  or  breathe  into  his  hands,  the 
Satyr  asked  him,  for  what  purpose  he  did 
that  ?  "  To  warm  them,"  the  poor  man  said. 
Seeing  him  afterwards  blow  into  a  bason  of 
pottage  he  had  given  him,  he  asked  him, 
"And  for  what  purpose  do  you  blow  into  your 
pottage?"  and  the  man  telling  him  that  it  was 
"  To  cool  it,"  the  Satyr  turned  him  out  of 
doors,  declaring  he  would  have  no  commu- 
nication with  one,  who  could  blow  hot  and 
cold  with  the  same  breath. 

Unico  Digitulo  scalpit  Caput. 

Scratching  the  head  with  a  single  finger, 
which  it  seems  was  done  by  the  fops  in  Greece 
and  Rome,  that  they  might  not  discompose 
the  economy  of  their  hair.  The  phrase  was 
therefore  applied  to  men  of  nice  and  effeminate 
manners,  and  implied  that  they  paid  more 
attention  to  their  dress  than  to  the  acquire- 
ment 


ment  of  more  valuable  endowments.  This 
pro  verb,  which  originated  among  the  Grecians, 
as  did  indeed  nearly  the  whole  of  the  collec- 
tion made  by  Erasmus,  could  only  be  used  by 
the  Romans  after  they  had  conquered  that 
country,  and  had  begun  to  adopt  their  man- 
ners, in  which  they  became  such  proficients, 
as  in  time  to  outstrip  their  teachers  in  volup- 
tuousness and  vice,  as  far  as  they  had  before 
excelled  them  in  magnanimity  and  courage. 


Lentiscum  mandere. 

Chewing  mastic.  The  juice,  or  gum  of  the 
mastic  tree,  was  early  used  as  a  dentrifice, 
being  found  to  make  the  teeth  white,  and  to 
strengthen  and  preserve  the  gums.  Tooth- 
picks were  also  made  of  the  wood,  which  those 
who  were  more  than  ordinarily  attentive  to 
their  mouths,  used  frequently  to  chew,  which 
subjected  them  to  the  censure  implied  in  this 
and  in  the  preceding  adage,  of  being  too  nice 
and  delicate  in  their  persons.  Those  who 
could  not  get  mastic  toothpicks,  made  use 

x  2  ef 


(     180     ) 

of  quills,  as  appears   from  the  following  by 
Martial. 

"  Lentiscum  melius,  sed  si  tibi  frondea  cuspis 
Defuerit,  denies  penna  levare  potest." 


CCECUS  Cceco  Dux. 

The  blind  leading  the  blind.  Men  incapable 
of  managing  their  own  affairs,  pretending  to 
conduct  those  of  others,  or  young  men  ad- 
vising with  others  equally  inexperienced  as 
themselves,  instead  of  following  the  counsel 
of  their  elders,  are  like  blind  men  trusting  to 
the  guidance  of  the  blind.  "But  if  the  blind 
lead  the  blind,  both  shall  fall  into  the  ditch." 
"  Rehoboam  lost  his  kingdom,"  Lord  Verulam 
observes,  "  not  from  refusing  counsel,  but 
from  taking  counsel  from  young  and  incon- 
siderate men.  Young  men,"  he  goes  on  to 
say,  "  in  the  conduct  of  affairs,  embrace  more 
than  they  can  hold,  stir  more  than  they  can 
quiet;  fly  to  the  end,  without  considering  the 
means.  They  use  extreme  remedies  at  first,' 
and,  which  doubleth  all  errors,  they  will  not 

acknowledge 


acknowledge  or  retract  them ;  like  an  un- 
steady horse,  that  will  neither  stop  nor  turn." 


Sine  Cortice  nature. 

To  swim  without  bladders,  cork,  or  any  of 
the  aids  usually  given  to  learners.  The  pro- 
verb may  be  applied  to  persons  who  have 
made  such  progress  in  the  knowledge  of  any 
art,  that  they  are  no  longer  in  want  of  masters. 

"Sitnul  ac  duraverit  Eetas 

Membra  animumque  tuum,  nabis  sine  cortice," 

when  time  shall  have  strengthened  your  body, 
and  the  powers  of  your  mind,  you  may  swim 
without  corks,  that  is,  you  will  no  longer  stand 
in  need  of  a  monitor  to  advise  and  instruct  you. 


Ut  possumus,  quando  ut  volumus  non  licet,  or 
"  Non  uti  libet,  sed  uti  licet,  sic  vivimus" 

We  should  learn  to  live  as  we  can,  since  we 
cannot  live  as  we  would.  "  We  should  make  a 
virtue  of  necessity,"  and  be  contented  though 
we  should  not  be  able  to  attain  what  our  am- 
bition or  cupidity  grasps  at.  So  unbounded  are 
the  desires  of  men,  that  even  those  who  have 
N  3  abundance, 


abundance,  rarely  or  never  think  they  have 
enough.  Happiness  does  not  consist  so  much 
in  the  largeness  of  our  possessions,  as  in  our 
moderating  our  desires,  and  using  properly 
what  we  have. 

"  Haec  perinde  sunt,  ut  illius  animus,  qui  ea  possidet, 
Qui  uti  scit,  ei  bona,  illi  qui  non  utitur  recte,  mala." 

The  real  wants  of  nature  are  few,  and  ordina- 
rily attainable  by  such  a  portion  of  industry, 
as  we  are  most,  if  not  all  of  us,  capable  of 
exerting,  provided  we  are  careful  to  dispense 
frugally  what  we  get  by  our  industry  or  in* 
genuity. 

"  Man  wants  but  little  here  below, 
Nor  wants  that  little  long." 

u  De  hambre,"  the  Spaniards  say,  "a  nadie  vi 
morir,  de  mucho  comer  a  cien  mil,"  I  never 
saw  a  man  die  of  hunger,  but  thousands  die  of 
over  feeding.  The  follo\ving  from  St.  Austin's 
Confessions,  as  rendered  by  Burton,  is  so  much 
to  the  purpose  of  the  present  argument,  that 
I  am  induced  to  insert  it. 

"Passing  by  a  village  in  the  territory  of 
Milan,"  the  writer  says,  "  I  saw  a  poor  beggar 
that  had  got,  belike,  his  belly  full  of  meat, 

jesting 


(     183    ) 

jesting  and  merry.  I  sighed,  and  said  to  some 
of  my  friends  that  were  then  with  me,  what  a 
deal  of  trouble,  madness,  pain,  and  grief,  do  we 
sustain,  and  exaggerate  unto  ourselves,  to  get 
that  secure  happiness,  which  this  poor  beggar 
hath  prevented  us. of,  and  which  we  perad ven- 
ture shall  never  have  !  for  that  which  he  hath 
now  attained  with  the  begging  of  some  small 
pieces  of  silver,  a  temporal  happiness,  and  pre- 
sent heart's  ease,  I  cannot  compass  with  all 
my  careful  windings,  and  running  in  and  out. 
And  surely  the  beggar  was  very  merry,  but  I 
was  heavy  :  he  was  secure,  but  I  timorous. 
And  if  any  man  should  ask  me  now,  whether 

V 

I  had  rather  be  merry,  or  still  so  solicitous  and 
sad,  I  should  say,  merry.  If  he  should  ask 
me  again,  whether  I  had  rather  be  as  I  am,  or 
as  this  beggar  was,  I  should  sure  choose  to  be 
as  1  am,  tortured  still  with  cares  and  fears,  but 
out  of  peevishness,  and  not  out  of  truth."  As 
St.  Austin  was  a  bishop,  wealthy  and  in  great 
authority,  we  learn  from  this  simple  story,  of 
how  little  avail  wealth  and  power  are  in  pro- 
curing to  us  happiness.  The  proverb  may  be 
used  by  any  one  not  meeting  with  the  success 
N  4  he 


(     184     ) 

he  expected  from  his  exertions,  signifying 
that  he  should  still  receive  gratefully  and  con- 
tentedly what  had  fallen  to  his  lot. 


Ut  Sementem  feceris,  it  a  et  metis. 

As  you  have  sown  so  you  must  expect  to 
reap.  "  Quien  mala  cama  haze,  en  ella  se 
yaze,"  "  Comme  on  fait  son  lit,  on  se  couche," 
"  as  you  have  made  your  bed,  so  you  must 
lie:"  you  must  not  expect  corn  from  thistles, 
or  health  and  prosperity  from  intemperance 
and  prodigality.  "  No  hay  dulzura  sin  sudor," 
"  there  is  no  sweet  without  sweat,"  and  "  No 
hay  ganancia,  sin  fatiga,"  "  no  gains  without 
pains ;"  "  he  that  will  not  work,  must  not  ex- 
pect to  eat ;  "  qui  est  oisif  en  sa  jeunesse, 
travaillera  en  sa  vieillesse,"  it  is  only  from 
being  industrious  and  frugal  when  young,  that 
we  may  hope  for  comfort  and  plenty  in  our 
old  age. 

"  Quin  ubi  qua?  non  decent, 
Haud  veritus  es  patrare,  fer  quae  non  libeat." 

As  you  were  not  afraid  to  do  what  was  un- 
fitting, bear  now  what  is  unplcasing  as  the 

consequence 


(     185     ) 

consequence  of  your  misdoing.  Zeno  having 
detected  his  servant  in  thieving,  ordered  him 
to  be  whipped ;  the  servant,  in  excuse  for 
what  he  had  done,  said  it  was  decreed  by  the 
fates  that  he  should  be  a  thief,  alluding  to  the 
doctrine  which  he  had  heard  his  master  main- 
taining ;  and  so  it  was,  said  Zeno,  that  you 
should  be  whipped.  That  our  actions  are  in 
some  degree  governed  by  fate  is  a  very  early 
dogma,  and  is  not  entirely  abandoned, 

"  And  when  weak  women  go  astray, 
Their  stars  are  more  in  fault  than  they." 

The  Duke  de  Rochefoucault  seems  to  have 
acknowledged  the  principle  :  "  II  semble  que 
nos  actions  aient  des  e"toiles  heureuses  on  mal- 
heureuses,  a  qui  elles  doivent  une  grande  par- 
tie  de  la  louange  et  du  blame  qu'on  leur 
donne  :"  our  actions  seem  often  to  be  under 
the  influence  of  good  or  bad  stars,  to  which 
rather  than  to  our  prudence  or  misconduct, 
the  principal  part  of  the  praise  or  blame  they 
may  merit,  should  be  attributed. 

"  Committunt  multi  eadem  diverse  crimina  fato, 
Ille  crucem  sceleris  pretium  tulerit,  hie  diadema." 

How  different  the  fates  or  fortunes  of  men! 

the 


(     186    ) 

the  same  act  of  villany  that  brings  one  man 
to  the  gallows,  raises  another  to  a  throne. 
This  is  consonant  also  to  an  old  English  pro- 
verb, "  one  man  may  steal  a  horse,  more  safely 
than  another  may  look  at  him  over  a  hedge ;" 
also,  "one  man's  meat  is  another  man's  poison." 


Deorum  Cibus  est, 

Meat  fit  for  the  Gods,  who,  according  to 
Homer,  feasted  only  on  nectar  and  ambrosia, 
which  were  supposed  to  be  of  such  tenuity  as 
to  pass  off  by  transpiration,  diffusing  around 
them  rich  perfumes :  as  digestion  was  per- 
formed without  labour  to  the  stomach,  the 
bodies  of  the  gods  were  supposed  never  to  be- 
come old  or  to  be  subjected  to  decay.  The 
phrase  is  applied  hyperbolically,  to  any  very 
rich  and  superb  entertainment ;  it  is  a  feast 
fit  for  the  gods. 


Multis  Ictibus  dejlcitur  Quercus. 

There  is  nothing  so  difficult,  but  it  may  be 
effected  by  perseverance;  even  the  massive  and 

sturdy 


(     187    ) 

sturdy  oak  by  repeated  strokes  of  the  axe  is  at 
length  thrown  down.  "  Gutta  cavat  lapi- 
dem,"  and  the  constant  dripping  of  water 
wears  and  hollows  the  solid  stone  :  "  el  que 
trabaja,  y  madra,  hila  ora,"  he  that  labours 
and  perseveres,  spins  gold  :  "  le  labeur  sur- 
monte  tout,"  by  labour  and  perseverance,  all 
difficulties  are  surmounted. 


Tertius  Cato. 

He  is  a  third,  or  another  Cato,  was  Said 
ironically  of  persons  affecting  a  more  than  or- 
dinary degree  of  gravity,  and  sanctity  of  man- 
ners. The  two  Catos,  who  were  in  their  time 
models  of  wisdom,  virtue  and  patriotism,  were 
in  such  high  esteem  among  the  Romans,  that 
they  even  believed  that  they  had  been  sent 
into  the  world  by  the  gods,  for  the  purpose  of 
suppressing  vice  and  banishing  it  from  the 
earth.  To  compare  any  one  therefore  to 
them,  or  to  call  him  a  third  Cato,  would  have 
been  the  highest  compliment  that  could  have 
been  paid  to  any  human  being,  but  as  they 

despaired 


(     188     ) 

despaired  of  seeing  ag^n  such  a  character, 
the  phrase  was  never  used  but  to  ridicule  such 
persons  as  endeavoured  to  assume  the  appear- 
ance without  any  just  pretensions  to  the  ac- 
complishments of  those  great  men.  Of  such 
persons,  we  usually  say,  "  he  is  a  second 
Solomon ;"  and  the  jew  in  the  Merchant  of 
Venice,  "  he  is  a  second  Daniel." 


Sapientum  octavus. 

An  eighth  wise  man.  This  was  applied  iro- 
nically to  persons  who  were  severe  censors  of 
the  morals  of  others,  but  not  very  attentive  to 
propriety  in  their  own  conduct.  The  ancients 
seem  to  have  selected  seven  of  the  philoso- 
phers, who  were  believed  to  excel  the  rest  in 
wisdom  and  virtue,  and  called  them  the 
"  seven  wise  men,"  and  were  as  little  disposed 
to  add  to  the  number,  as  to  admit  there  could 
be  a  third  Cato.  It  is  not  with  certainty 
agreed  by  any  of  the  writers  whose  works 
have  come  down  to  us,  who  the  seven  wise 
men  were. 

Fel 


(     189    ) 

Vtl  C&co  appareat. 

Even  a  blind  man  might  perceive  it,  may 
be  said  metaphorically,  of  a  proposition  so 
clear  and  perspicuous,  that  it  might  be  com- 
prehended by  the  weakest  intellects.  Even  a 
child  may  understand  it. 


Ex  Quercubus  ac  Saxis  nati. 

This  was  used  figuratively  to  designate  per- 
sons of  harsh  and  cruel  dispositions,  who 
could  by  no  intreaties  be  moved  to  compas- 
sion ;  they  could  not  be  the  progeny  of  men, 
but  must  have  been  produced  by  trees  or 
rocks,  or  some  such  unfeeling  bodies.  Pope 
makes  one  of  his  shepherds  say, 

"  I  know  thee,  Love,  on  foreign  mountains  bred, 
Wolves  gave  thee  suck,  and  savage  tigers  fed ; 
Thou  wert  from  ^Etna's  burning  entrails  torn, 
Got  by  fierce  whirlwinds,  and  in  thunder  born." 


Virum  improbum  vel  Mm  mordeat. 

Even  a  mouse  may  strike  terror  into  the 
mind  of  a  man  who  has   been  guilty  of  any 

great 


great  crime;  conscious  of  his  iniquity,  he 
hears  a  pursuer  in  every  the  lightest  noise,  for, 
*'  a  guilty  conscience  needs  no  accuser  ;"  this, 
at  the  least,  is  the  case  with  persons  only  com- 
mencing their  career  of  sin,  for  veterans  in 
iniquity  are  not,  perhaps,  so  easily  affrighted. 

"  Pavore  carent  qui  nihil  commiserunt ;  at  poenam 
Semper  ob  oculos  versari  putant  qui  peccarunt." 

The  innocent  are  free  from  fear ;  but  the 
guilty  live  under  the  perpetual  apprehension 
that  their  crimes  will  be  discovered,  and  that 
the  punishment  they  have  merited  will  over- 
take them.  "  Vivir  bien  destierra  miedo," 
to  live  well  banishes  fear. 


Bis  dat  qui  cito  dat. 

"  Quien  da  presto,  da  dos  veces,"  "  he 
gives  twice  who  gives  in  a  trice;"  and  "  dono 
molto  aspettato,  e  venduto  non  donato,"  a 
gift  long  expected  or  waited  for,  is  not  given 
but  sold  :  benefits  are  not  so  much  esteemed 
for  their  value,  as  for  the  readiness  with  which 
they  are  bestowed.  "  Say  not  to  your  neigh- 
bour, go  and  come  again,  and  to-morrow  I  will 

give, 


give,  when  tbou  hast  it  by  thee :"  the  assist- 
ance which  is  not  given  early  is  frequently 
unavailable :  I  thank  you,  what  you  now 
offer  might  have  been  useful ;  but  the  time  is 
past,  the  mischief  your  present  might  have 
prevented,  is  fallen  upon  me.  <l  Ingratum 
est  beneficium  quod  diu  inter  manus  dan- 
tis  haesit,"  the  kindness  that  is  long  delay- 
ed loses  its  value;  "  at  bis  gratum  est,  quod 
ultro  offertur,"  but  the  favour  which  comes 
unsolicited,  is  doubly  grateful.  "  Hope  de- 
ferred niaketh  the  heart  sick  :"  the  petitioner 
has  paid  by  anxious  expectation  more  than 
the  value  of  the  gift ;  or  he  has  learned, 
while  waiting  for  assistance,  how  to  bear  his 
trouble,  and  has  accommodated  himself  to  his 
situation.  "  Quo  mihi  fortunas,  si  non  con- 
ceditur  uti  ?"  Of  what  use  is  fortune,,  when  I 
am  no  longer  in  a  capacity  of  enjoying  it  ? 
"  Is  not  a  patron,"  Dr.  Johnson  says  to  the 
Earl  of  Chesterfield,  "  one  who  looks  with  un- 
concern on  a  man  struggling  for  life  in  the 
water,  and  when  he  has  reached  the  land,  en- 
cumbers him  with  help?  The  notice  which  you 
have  been  pleased  to  take  of  my  labours,  had 

been 


(     192     ) 

been  kind;  but  it  has  been  delayed  until  I 
am  indifferent,  and  cannot  enjoy  it;  till  I  am 
solitary  and  cannot  impart  it;  till  I  am 
known  and  do  not  want  it." 

"  How  little  knowest  thou  who  hast  not  tried, 
What  hell  it  is,  in  suing  long  to  bide, 
To  waste  long  days  that  may  be  better  spent, 
To  pass  long  nights  in  cheerless  discontent; 
To  speed  to-day,  to  be  put  back  to-morrow, 
To  live  on  hope,  to  die  with  pain  and  sorrow." 


CaudcE  Pilos  equince  paullatim  oportet  evellere. 

Allow  me  to  do  that  slowly  and  gradually, 
which  cannot  be  effected  suddenly  and  with 
violence.  "  Piuma  a  piuma  se  pela  1'occha," 
feather  by  feather  the  goose  \vas  stripped  ; 
"  Petit  a  petit  Toiseau  fait  son  nid,"  and  by 
little  and  little  the  bird  makes  its  nest. 

"  Si  leonina  pellis  non  satis  est,  vulpina  addenda  ;" 
"  The  lion's  skin,  too  short,  you  know, 
Was  lengthened  by  the  fox's  tail/' 

The  adage  took  its  rise  from  a  story  told  by 
Plutarch  of  Sertorius  a  Roman  general,  who 
finding  his  soldiers  were  not  pleased  with  his 
wary  and  cautious  mode  of  conducting  a  war 

in 


(193    ) 

in  which  he  was  engaged,  he  ordered  two  of 
his  men,  the  one  young,  lusty  and  strong,  the 
other,  old  and  feeble,  to  strip  the  tails  of  two 
horses,  that  were  brought  to  them,  of  their 
hair;  the  young  man,  grasping  the  whole  of 
the  tail  in  his  hand,  pulled  it  with  all  his 
strength,  and  continued  his  exertions  until 
he  had  completely  tired  himself,  without  ef- 
fecting the  business  :  the  old  and  feeble  man 
on  the  contrary,  by  plucking  a  few  hairs  only 
at  a  time,  very  soon  stripped  the  tail  bare  and 
so  accomplished  his  purpose,  with  but  little 
difficulty.  Then  Sertorius,  addressing  himself 
to  his  soldiers  said,  "  videtis,  commilitones, 
quanto  plus  posset  ingenium  quam  vires," 
you  see,  my  fellow  soldiers,  of  how  much  more 
value  deliberation  is  than  strength. 

Sonus  Dux  bomim  reddit  Comitem. 

A  good  general  makes  a  good  soldier,  a 
good  master  good  servants,  a  good  father 
good  children,  a  good  magistrate  good  citi- 
zens, not  only  because  each  in  their  station, 
will  take  care  that  those  under  their  authority 
o  shall 


(     194    ) 

shall  be  instructed  in  every  thing  that  is  ne- 
cessary to  enable  them  properly  to  perform 
their  several  duties,  but  they  will  themselves 
be  careful  that  they  set  only  good  examples, 
which  they  know  to  be  more  efficacious  and 
more  likely  to  induce  good  manners  than  sim- 
ple instruction  ;  for  "  precepta  ducunt,  at  ex- 
empla  trahunt;" 

"  Example  draws  where  precept  fails, 
And  sermons  are  less  read  than  tales." 

This  regimen,  however,  will  not  always  produce 
the  desired  effect.  For  though  the  parent  and 
the  master  shall  have  diligently  performed 
their  parts,  there  are  too  many  opportunities 
and  too  manv  incentives  to  vice  to  be  found 

w 

abroad,  to  hope  that  the  pupil  will  entirely 
escape  infection.  Hence  it  not  unfrequently 
happens,  that  the  most  prudent  and  worthy 
parents  have  to  lament  the  delinquency  of 
their  children,  though  the  greatest  care  had 
been  taken  to  instil  and  ingraft  into  them 
when  young,  the  principles  of  honour  and  in- 
tegrity ;  for  "  many  a  good  cow  hath  a  bad 
ealf,"  and  "  a  good  Jack,  does  not  always 

make 


(     195     ) 

make  a  good  Jill."    The  sentiment  therefore 
contained  in  the  following  lines, 

"  Youth,  like  the  softened  wax,  with  ease  will  take 
Those  images  which  first  impressions  make  ; 
If  those  be  fair,  their  lives  will  all  be  bright; 
If  foul,  they  '11  cloud  them  o'er  with  shades  of  night.'' 

though  frequently,  is  not  universally  true. 
jElius  Spartianus,  in  the  life  of  the  Emperor 
Severus,  shews  by  many  examples,  that  men 
famed  for  learning,  virtue,  or  valour,  have,  for 
the  most  part,  either  left  behind  them  no  chil- 
dren, or  such  as  it  had  been  more  for  their 
honour  and  the  interest  of  human  affairs,  that 
they  had  died  childless.  To  the  instances 
produced  by  this  writer,  Mr.  Ray  adds  from 
our  own  history,  "  that  Edward  the  First,  a 
wise  and  valiant  prince,  left  us  Edward  the 
Second ;  Edward  the  Black  Prince,  Richard 
the  Second;  and  Henry  the  Fifth,  a  valiant 
and  successful  king,  Henry  the  Sixth." 


Litem  parit  Lis,  Noxa  item  Noxam  parit* 

One  dispute,  or  one  injury  produces  ano- 
o  2  ther. 


(    '96    ) 

ther.  Where  the  parties  are  of  litigious  dis- 
positions, and  will  neither  of  them  give  way, 
it  happens  not  unfrequently,  that  from  the 
most  trifling  causes,  the  most  serious  con- 
tentions arise,  terminating  in  a  duel,  or  in  a 
suit  at  law,  often  more  disastrous  than  a  duel. 
"  Nescios,  y  porfiados,  hacen  ricos  los  lat- 
rados,"  fools,  and  contentious  persons,  th6 
Spaniards  say,  make  the  lawyers  rich  ;  they 
also  say,  "  Mas  vale  mala  avanencia,  que 
buena  sentencia;"  and  the  Italians,  "  Meglio 
e  magro  accordo,  che  grassa  sentenza,"  "  A 
lean  agreement  is  better  than  a  fat  sentence;" 
to  which  we  have  added,  not  less  sensibly 
and  impressively,  "  Agree,  for  the  law  is 
costly." 

Nothing  is  more  generally  known,  or  more 
commonly  deprecated,  than  the  misery  often 
occasioned  by  contention,  and  yet  how  very 
little  influence  does  this  knowledge  seem  to 
have  on  our  conduct !  There  are  few  of  us 
but  can  tell  stories  of  families  reduced  to  in- 
digence from  having  too  hastily  engaged  in  a 
suit  at  law,  in  defending  a  doubtful  right  to 
a  slip  of  land,  or  other  equally  insignificant 

object, 


(     197    ) 

object,  claimed    perhaps  by   some    wealthy 
neighbour.     "  Should  I  suffer  myself  to  be 
imposed  upon  ?"     Better  suffer  a  small  impo- 
sition, than  a  great  injury.     No  one  can  tell 
on  entering  into  a  lawsuit,  how  or  where  it 
will  terminate  ;    but  of  one  thing  we  are  very 
certain,  the  expense,  unless  the  object  be  very 
considerable,  will  exceed  the  sum  for  which 
we  are  contending,  for  "  Law  is  a  bottomless 
pit,"  an  insatiable  gulph,  and  it  should  be  our 
care  to  keep  out  of  its  reach.     The  only  dif- 
ference made  by  the  painter  between  two  men, 
one  of  whom  had  gained,  and  the  other  lost 
his  cause,  was,  that  to  the  unsuccessful  party 
he  gave  a  ragged  coat,  and  a  gloomy  despond- 
ing countenance  :  to  him  who  had  succeeded 
he  gave  an  equally  ragged  coat,  but  expressed 
in  his  look  a  savage  joy,  not  at  the  profit  he 
had   made,   for  his  apparel  shewed   the  low 
state  of  his  finances,  but  that  he  had  been  able 
to  effect  the  ruin  of  his  opponent.     "  Be  not 
easily  provoked,"  Lord  Burleigh  admonishes 
his  son,  "  to  enter  into  a  suit  at  law,  lest  in 
the  end  it  prove  no  greater  refuge  than  did 
the  thicket  of  brambles  to  a  flock  of  sheep, 
o  3  that, 


(     198    ) 

that,  driven  from  the  plain  by  a  tempest,  ran 
thither  for  shelter,  and  there  lost  their  fleeces." 


Parturiunt  Monies,  nascetur  ridiculus  Mus. 

"  The  mountain  laboured  and  brought  forth 
a  mouse."  "  La  montagne  est  accouch6e 
d'une  souris."  This  may  be  applied  to  persons 
introducing  a  story  with  great  pomp  and 
solemnity,  which  turns  out  to  be  trifling  and 
insignificant ;  to  vain  and  empty  boasters, 
who  have  neither  the  power,  nor  perhaps  the 
inclination  to  do  what  they  are  very  free  in 
promising;  or  when  any  project,  of  which 
great  hopes  were  formed,  proves  abortive. 


Thesaurus  Carbones  erant. 

Searching  for  a  treasure,  they  found  only 
charcoal,  may  be  said  of  persons  who  are  dis-. 
appointed  in  their  expectations,  who,  after 
great  labour  and  expense,  find  the  object  of 
their  search  of  little  value;  the  end  of  nume- 
rous expensive  speculations.  Charcoal  being 

of 


of  a  nature  to  last  for  ages  when  buried  under 
ground,  was  used  by  the  ancients  to  mark  the 
boundaries  of  lands.  A  trench  being  dug, 
dividing  the  property  of  two  individuals,  it 
was  rilled  with  charcoal,  and  then  covered 
with  soil,  in  which  stakes,  at  regulated  dis- 
tances, were  placed.  The  stakes  might  be 
removed,  but  the  charcoal  remaining,  would 
for  ever  shew  the  original  boundaries  of  the 
land. 


Dives  aut  miquus  est,  aut  iniqui  Hceres. 

A  rich  man  is  either  a  knave  or  heir  to  a 
knave.  "  How  can  you  be  a  good  man," 
Sylla  was  asked,  "  possessing  such  immense 
wealth,  though  you  received  nothing  from 
your  parents?"  Consonant  to  this  opinion  is 
the  English  adage,  "  Happy  is  the  man  whose 
father  went  to  the  devil;"  and 

"  Jt  is  a  saying  common  more  than  civil, 
The  son  is  blest,  whose  sire  is  at  the  devil." 

Large  fortunes  made  in  a  small  space  of 
time,  are  rarely  found  to  be  acquired  by  fair 
and  honourable  practices ;  as  is  expressed  in 

o  4  a  pas- 


(     200     ) 

a  passage  in  one  of  the  comedies  of  Menander, 
"  Nunquam  vir  aequus  dives  evasit  cito.'r 
"  Seek  not,"  Lord  Verulam  says,  "  great 
riches,  but  such  as  thou  mayest  get  justly,  use 
soberly,  distribute  cheerfully,  and  leave  con- 
tentedly." Solomon  advises,  "  to  beware  of 
hasty  gathering  of  riches."  Riches  obtained 
by  the  ordinary  means  of  industry,  increase 
slowly,  and  it  is  only  by  bold  and  hazardous 
speculations,  that  they  are  made  to  accumu- 
late rapidly.  The  most  honourable  merchants, 
or  those  so  esteemed,  who  acquire  very  large 
fortunes,  can  hardly  be  said  to  obtain  them 
justly.  For  though  they,  none  of  them,  con- 
fine their  traffic  within  their  own  capitals,  yet 
if  they  are  successful,  they  receive  the  whole 
of  the  profit ;  but  if  their  speculations  prove 
unfortunate,  they  involve  in  their  fall  all  who 
were  unlucky  enough  to  give  them  credit. 
"  The  first  article,  that  a  young  trader  offers 
for  sale,"  our  proverb  says,  "  is  his  hipnesty." 


Hie  Funis  nihil  attraxlt. 

This  bate  has  taken  no  fish.  This  argument 

has 


(     201     ) 

has  not  prevailed,  or  this  scheme  has  not  an- 
swered ;  some  other  mode  must  be  tried,  which 
may  be  more  successful.  "  Semper  tibi  pen- 
deat  hamus,"  have  your  hook  always  bated ; 
though  you  should  fail  again  and  again,  con- 
tinue your  exertions,  you  will  succeed  at 
length.  "  Quis  enim  totum  diem  jaculans, 
non  aliquando  conlineat?"forwhosoevershoots 
often  will  at  length  hit  the  mark.  To  the  same 
purport  is,  "  Omnem  movere  lapidern,"  "  leave 
no  stone  unturned,"  try  every  expedient  that 
is  likely  to  be  successful. 


Merx  ultronea  putet. 

"  Profferred  service  stinks."  We  are  apt  to 
esteem  of  little  value,  what  is  obtained  with 
small  labour.  The  proverb  seems  to  have 
taken  its  origin  from  the  mistrust  entertained 
of  any  goods  pressed  upon  us  with  too  much 
earnestness  by  the  venders ;  from  that  cir- 
cumstance, concluding  them  to  be  damaged 
or  faulty. 

"  Laudat  venales  qui  vult  extrudere  merces," 

every  man  praising  the  articles  he  wishes  to 

dispose 


C 

dispose  of;  the  purchaser,  on  the  other  hand, 
labours  as  hard  to  depreciate  what  he  is  about 
to  buy.  "  It  is  naught,  it  is  naught,  says 
the  buyer,  but  when  he  is  gone  he  vaunteth." 
"  Chi  comprar  ha  bisogno  di  cent'  ochii,  chi 
vende  n'  ha  assai  de  uno,"  he  who  buys  hath 
need  of  an  hundred  eyes,  who  sells  hath 
enough  of  one.  We  are  all  of  us  also  solicitous 
of  obtaining  intelligence  that  is  attempted  to 
be  kept  secret,  or  which  is  known  to  a  few 
persons  only,  and  listen  to  it  with  more  atten- 
tion than  to  information  equally  important, 
but  of  more  easy  acquisition. 


Fuimiis  Troes,  and  "  Aquifye  Troy  a." 

Troy  once  was,  that  is,  Troy,  though  now 
destroyed,  was  once  a  great  and  powerful  city. 
It  may  be  used  by  persons  whose  families,  or 
countries,  formerly  in  repute,  have  fallen  to 
decay.  Time  was  when  we  were  of  some  note 
or  value.  "  Fui  Caius,"  is  the  inscription  that 
Dr.  Caius,  or  Keys,  the  founder  of  a  college 
of  that  name  at  Cambridge,  ordered  to  be  in- 
scribed on  his  monument. 


Post 


(     203     ) 

Post  Festum  venisti. 

"  You  are  come  a  day  after  the  fair,"  the 
business  is  done,  there  is  now  no  want  of  your 
assistance,  may  be  said  to  tardy  and  indolent 
persons,  who  are  always  too  late,  whether  en- 
gaged in  business  or  pleasure.  To  which  how- 
ever they  may  answer,  "  II  vaut  mieux  tard 
que  jamais,"  "  Better  late  than  never,"  and 
"  Better  come  at  the  end  of  a  feast,  than  at 
the  beginning  of  a  fray." 


Illotls  Pedibus  ingredi. 

Entering  with  unwashed  feet.  Alluding  to 
the  custom  of  washing  the  feet,  anciently 
practised  by  all  persons,  before  the}^  entered 
any  sacred  place,  or  sat  down  to  their  repasts. 
It  was  used  to  be  applied  to  persons  talking 
confidently  on  subjects  they  did  not  under- 
stand, or  irreverently  on  sacred  subjects;  or 
to  those  who  intruded  themselves  into  busi- 
ness, without  having  previously  prepared 
themselves  by  study  and  application.  As  the 
ancients  wore  sandals,  and  no  stockings,  their 

feet 


(     204     ) 

feet  and  legs  were  exposed  to  the  mud  and 
dirt,  and  required  to  be  washed,  when  they 
had  walked  any  considerable  distance,  both 
for  the  sake  of  cleanliness  and  refreshment. 
After  washing  they  were  usually  anointed  with 
sweet-scented  oil.  This  custom,  at  first  adopted 
from  necessity,  became  at  length  a  religious 
ceremony. 


Palinodiam  canere. 

This  was  used  to  be  said  to  persons,  who 
had  been  obliged,  to  use  a  phrase  common  in 
this  country,  "  to  eat  their  words,"  to  retract 
the  judgment  or  opinion  they  had  given  on 
any  person  or  subject ;  to  praise  what  they 
had  before  condemned,  or  to  censure  what 
they  had  commended.  The  allegorical  punish- 
ment of  the  Braggadochio,  in  all  the  old  play- 
writers,  is  to  be  forced  to  "  eat  their  swords." 

The  following  fable  is  related,  as  having 
given  origin  to  this  adage.  The  poet  Stesi- 
chorus,  having  in  a  copy  of  verses  severely 
censured  the  conduct  of  Helena,  as  a  punish- 
ment for  his  offence,  he  was  deprived  of  his 

sight 


(     205     ) 

sight  by  the  gods  her  protectors.  Under- 
standing the  cause  of  his  disaster,  in  a  sub- 
sequent poem,  he  raised  and  extolled  her 
character,  as  highly  as  he  had  before  censured 
her.  Having  therefore  sung  his  palinodia, 
retracted  his  censure,  which  is  implied  by  the 
term,  he  was  restored  to  his  sight. 


Senecta. 

Living  like  an  old  eagle.  Syrus  meeting 
Chremes  early  in  the  morning,  whom  he  knew 
to  have  drunk  hard  the  night  before,  addressed 
him  with  this  phrase,  intimating  that  drinking 
suited  him  as  it  did  an  old  eagle.  The  eagle, 
Pliny  says,  is  in  the  latter  part  of  its  life  in- 
capable of  eating  any  solid  food,  the  upper 
mandible  growing  to  such  a  length,  and  be- 
coming so  hooked,  that  it  can  only  open  its 
mouth  sufficiently  to  suck  the  blood  of  the 
animals  it  takes.  Old  topers  therefore  who 
usually  eat  but  little,  may  be  said  like  that 
bird,  if  the  story  is  correct,  to  live  on  suction. 
The  adage  may  be  applied,  and  with  more 
propriety,  perhaps,  to  persons  enjoying  a  high 

state 


(     206     ) 

state  of  health,  spirits,  and  activity  to  an  ex- 
treme old  age,  which  the  eagle,  upon  better 
grounds,  is  known  to  do. 


Matura  Satio  sape  decipit,  sera  semper  mala  est. 

Corn  early  sown  may  disappoint  your  ex- 
pectation, but  sown  too  late,  you  will  certainly 
lose  your  seed  and  your  labour.  A  proper 
and  seasonable  time  is  to  be  chosen  for  per- 
forming all  business ;  if  it  be  too  precipitately 
undertaken,  and  before  you  have  made  the 
necessary  preparation,  it  will  rarely  succeed  ; 
but  if  it  be  delayed  too  long,  and  the  oppor- 
tunity suffered  to  pass  by,  that  can  never  be 
.recovered,  and  the  business  will  altogether 
fail.  The  proverb  probably  took  its  rise  from 
the  following  passage  in  Cato's  treatise  De  Re 
Rustica :  "  Res  rustica  sic  est,  si  unam  rem  sero 
feceris,  omnia  opera  sero  facies,"  such  is  the 
nature  of  husbandry  that  if  one  process  be 
performed  too  late,  the  whole  of  the  business 
will  fail. 

Ele- 


(     207    ) 

Elephantus  non  capit  Murem,  nee  Aquila 
Muscas. 

The  elephant  disdains  to  contend  with  a 
mouse,  neither  will  the  eagle  stoop  to  catch  a 
fly.  The  brave  man  is  not  easily  provoked  to 
punish  a  coward,  and  men  of  enlarged  and 
liberal  minds  are  above  noticing  the  paltry 
censures  of  trifling,  and  insignificant  scribblers. 


De  Pilo  pendet.     De  Filo  pendet. 

"  Colgar  cle  un  hilo,"  it  hangs  by  a  hair,  by 
a  thread,  as  the  life  of  a  man  does,  who  is  at 
sea  in  a  violent  storm  ;  it  may  be  said  in  all 
cases  of  great  and  imminent  danger,  also  when 
the  result  of  any  business  depends  on  some 
minute  circumstance.  The  adage  is  said  to 
have  taken  its  rise  from  a  device  of  Dionysius, 
tyrant  of  Syracuse,  who  ordered  one  of  his 
courtiers,  who  had  too  highly  extolled  the 
pleasures  of  royalty,  to  be  placed  at  a  splendid 
banquet,  attended  by  numerous  servants,  all 
ready  to  obey  his  orders,  and  surrounded  with 
.every  thing  that  might  serve  to  exhilarate  his 

spirits : 


(    208     ) 

spirits:  but  over  his  head,  suspended  by  a  single 
hair,  was  a  massive  sword,  which  threatened 
every  moment  to  fall  upon,  and  kill  him.  The 
thought  of  the  danger  in  which  he  was  placed, 
took  from  him  all  relish  for  the  dainties  before 
him,  and  made  him  request  that  he  might  be 
allowed  to  descend  to  his  former  state  of  pri- 
vacy and  safety.  The  tyrant,  by  this  con- 
trivance, meant  to  shew,  that  if  royalty  has  its 
pleasures,  it  is  also  surrounded  with  dangers, 
that  may  well  be  thought  to  balance  its  en- 
joyments. "  If  thou  knewest,"  he  said,  "  with 
what  cares  and  anxieties  this  robe  is  stuffed, 
thou  wouldest  not  stoop  to  take  it  from  the 
ground."  "  None  think  the  great  unhappy, 
but  the  great." 


Elephantem  ex  Muscdfads. 

Persons  speaking  hyperbolically,  and  mag- 
nifying small  and  insignificant  objects,  or 
treating  little  offences  as  great  and  serious 
crimes,  may  be  said  to  make  elephants  of  flies, 
"  mountains  of  mole-hills." 


In 


(     209    ) 
In  Laqueos  Lupus. 

The  wolf  is  fallen  into  a  snare,  was  said, 
When  a  crafty  and  bad  man,  who  had  been  a 
plague  to  his  neighbours,  was  visited  by  any 
great  misfortune,  or  suffered  a  considerable 
loss,  particularly  if  this  happened  when  he 
was  contriving  mischief  for  some  other  person. 
"  Craft,"  we  say,  "  bringeth  nothing  home," 
that  is,  nothing  that  is  permanent. 

Annosa  Vulpes  hdud  capitur  Laqueo. 

"  Old  birds  are  not  to  be  caught  with 
chaff."  An  old  fox  is  not  easily  taken  ;  or 
with  the  French,  "  Un  renard  n'est  pas  pris 
deux  fois  a  un  piege,"  he  is  not  to  be  twice 
taken  in  the  same  snare ;  but  "  Enfin  les  re- 
nards  se  troiivent  chez  le  pelletier,"  at  length 
they  come  to  the  furrier,  "  Tutte  le  volpe  si 
trovano  in  pelliceria."  The  tricks  of  crafty 
and  bad  men  are  not  easily  detected,  but 
though  such  may  escape  for  a  time,  they  are 
usually  caught  at  last.  "  Mucho  sabe  la  zorra, 
pero  mas  el  que  la  toma,"  the  fox  is  cunning, 
but  he  is  more  cunning  who  takes  him. 

p  C apt  antes 


(     210     ) 
Captantes  capti  sumus. 

"The  biter  is  bit."  Attempting  to  lead 
another  into  an  error,  I  am  fallen  into  one 
myself,  from  which  I  am  not  likely  easily  to 
escape.  Assaying  to  mortify  another,  by  plac- 
ing him  in  a  ridiculous  light  before  his  com- 
panions, he  has  turned  the  jest  upon  me,  and 
covered  me  with  confusion.  Augustus  Csesar, 
seeing  a  young  man  from  the  country,  who 
in  his  features  very  much  resembled  his  own 
family,  asked  him,  by  way  of  scoff,  whether 
his  mother  had  ever  been  at  Rome?  No,  said 
the  youth,  but  my  father  has.  Princes  endea- 
vouring to  enlarge  their  dominions  at  the  ex- 
pense of  their  neighbours,  are  themselves  not 
unfrequently  obliged  to  yield  up  a  part,  or 
perhaps  the  whole  of  what  they  before  pos- 
sessed. "He  hath  graven  and  digged  a  pit, 
and  is  fallen  into  it  himself." 


JEthiopcm  ex  Vultujudico. 

The  ^Ethiopian  may  be  known  by  his  coun- 
tenance,  being  too  distinctly  marked  to  be 

mistaken 


(     211     ) 

mistaken  even  on  the  slightest  view  of  him ; 
but  neither  persons,  nor  things,  are  in  general 
to  be  judged  of  by  a  superficial  view  of  them, 
for,  "  all  is  not  gold  that  glitters."  Men  are 
not  to  be  estimated  to  be  friends,  merely  for 
professing  themselves  to  be  so.  "  Del  dicho 
al  hecho  ay  gran  trecho,"  there  is  a  great 
difference  between  saying  and  doing,  and, 
"  Tierra  negra  buen  pan  lleva,"  black  earth 
produces  white  bread ;  we  therefore  say, 

De  Fructu  Arborem  cognosce. 

A  tree  is  known  by  its  fruit,  and  the  real 
value  of  a  man  by  his  actions. 


Satius  e$t  recurrere,  quam  currere  mall. 

It  is  often  better  to  return,  than  to  go  on  ; 
that  is,  when  any  one  finds  he  has  taken  a 
wrong  road,  it  is  better  to  turn  back  than  to 
proceed,  as  the  further  he  goes  on,  the  further 
he  will  be  from  the  place  he  proposes  visiting. 
This  is  the  plain  and  literal  sense  of  the  adage ; 
but  it  is  used  to  recommend  to  us  to  leave 
any  scheme  or  project  in  which  we  may  have 
P2  en* 


engaged,  if  we  find  it  not  likely  to  answer  the 
intended  purpose,  and  not  through  pride,  and 
an  unwillingness  to  acknowledge  we  have  been 
in  an  error,  to  persist  until  we  have  suffered 
some  great  inconvenience,  or  mischief. 


In  Man  Aquam  gutzris,  or 
"  Insanus,  medio  Flumine  quceris  Aquam" 

Do  you  hunt  for  water,  though  surrounded 
by  the  ocean ;  why  particularise  one  fault  in 
a  man,  the  occurrences  of  whose  life,  offer 
only  a  continued  series  of  vice  and  immorality; 
or  censure  a  single  error  in  a  work,  in  which 
they  so  abound,  that  they  are  to  be  met  with 
in  every  page  ? 


Ut  Canis  e  Nilo. 

As  dogs  drink  of  the  river  Nile.  Menwhoarfe 
unsteady  in  business,  attending  to  it  by  starts 
and  snatches,  and  then  leaving  it  for  other  em- 
ployments, or  reading  books  in  the  same  de- 
sultory and  careless  manner,  are  said  to  take 

to 


(     213     ) 

to  them,  as  dogs  take  water  from  the  Nile, 
that  is,  hastily,  and  without  stopping  to  taste 
it.  This  the  dogs  are  said  to  do  through  fear 
of  the  crocodiles,  which  abound  in  the  upper 
part  or'  that  river.  A  person  inquiring,  after 
the  defeat  of  the  forces  of  Marc  Anthony  at 
Actium,  what  he  had  done  there,  was  an- 
swered by  his  friend,  "Ut  canis  in  ^Egypto, 
bibit  et  fugit,"  that  is,  as  the  dogs  do  in 
Egypt,  drink  and  run.  Marc  Anthony  is 
said  on  that  day  only  to  have  shewn  himself, 
and  seeing  the  superiority  of  the  forces  of  his 
adversary,  to  have  fled,  without  waiting  the 
result. 


Fluvius  cum  Mari  certas. 

Being  but  a  river,  do  you  compare  yourself 
to  the  ocean  ?  A  frog  trying  to  extend  herself 
to  the  size  of  an  ox,  burst,  we  are  told,  and 
became  an  object  of  derision  to  the  spectators. 
Men  of  slender  fortunes,  emulating  the  state 
and  splendor  of  the  wealthy,  are  ruined,  and 
are  despised  even  by  those  who  encouraged 
them  in  their  expenses. 

P  3  <*  Qui 


(    214    ) 

"  Qui  monte  plus  haul  qu'il  ne  doit, 
Descend  plus  has  qu'il  ne  voudroit." 

Those  who  attempt  rising  higher  than  they 
ought,  generally  mar  their  fortunes,  and  fall 
lower  than  they  would  have  done,  had  they 
been  less  ambitious. 


Leonem  ex  Unguibus  estimare.    Ex  Pede 
Herculem. 

Prom  the  size  of  the  talons,  you  may  esti- 
mate the  bulk  of  an  animal,  and  from  the 
foot,  the  stature  of  the  man  to  whom  it  be- 
longed. Also,  from  a  single  stratagem,  the 
wit  and  ingenuity,  and  from  a  letter,  or  con- 
versation, the  learning,  or  judgment  of  any 
one  with  whom  we  are  about  to  be  connected 
may  often  be  discovered.  The  rule,  how- 
ever, is  not  infallible,  for  bulk  does  not  always 
indicate  strength  or  courage;  neither  are  the 
qualities  of  the  mind  ordinarily  laid  open  at  a 
single  interview.  Hence  we  say,  "Fronti  nulla 
fides,"  mens'  characters  are  not  always  written 
on  their  foreheads,  and  "  No  es  todb  oro,  lo 
que  reluce,"  all  is  not  gold  that  glitters  ;  and 

"  straight 


"  straight  personages  have  often  crooked 
manners ;  fair  faces,  foul  vices ;  and  good 
complexions,  ill  conditions." 

It  is  known,  Plutarch  says,  that  the  Olympic 
stadium  was  of  the  length  of  six  hundred  feet, 
measured  by  the  foot  of  Hercules;  but  Pytha- 
goras, finding  that  the  stadium  used  in  other 
countries,  containing  the  same  number  of  feet 
of  men  of  the  ordinary  stature,  was  much 
shorter,  by  dividing  the  space  in  which  it  was 
deficient  into  six  hundred  parts,  he  determined 
the  exact  length  of  the  foot  of  Hercules,  and 
thence  of  his  stature  or  height,  which  he  found 
to  be  six  feet  seven  inches ;  and  Phidias  the 
statuary,  from  seeing  the  claw  of  a  lion, 
ascertained  the  size  of  the  animal,  whence  the 
proverbs. 

Extremis  Digitis  attingere. 
This  may  be  said  by  a  writer  or  orator,  who 
does  not  mean  to  enter  deeply  into  the  subject 
he  is  discoursing  of,   but  only  to  handle  it 
lightly,  not  to  grasp  or  take  hold  of  the  ob- 
ject, but  to  touch   it  with  the  ends  of  his 
fingers.     "Summis  labiis,"  persons  professing 
p  4  with 


with  their  lips,  more  than  they  intend,  has 
nearly  a  similar  meaning ;  and 

Summit  Naribus  olfacere, 

passing  an  opinion  upon  a  subject  from  a 
very  slight  inspection  or  examination  of  it. 
"  Molli  brachio,  et  laevi  brachio,"  are  also 
phrases  used  to  intimate  that  a  business  has 
been  hurried  over,  without  having  the  ne- 
cessary attention  paid  to  it.  In  handicraft 
business  we  should  say,  "bestow  a  little  more 
elbow-grease  upon  it," 


De  Fcece  haurire. 

To  drain  the  cask,  and  drink  to  the  bottom; 
metaphorically,  to  be  reduced  to  the  lowest 
state  of  misery  and  wretchedness. 


With  persevering  industry.  Like  to  school- 
masters, who  are  obliged  to  repeat  the  same 
lesson  to  an  hundred  different  boys,  and  many 
times  to  the  same  boys,  that  it  may  be  re- 
tained in  their  memories.  There  are  few  things 

impossible 


(     217     ) 

impossible  to  industry.  Iron,  by  repeated 
strokes  of  the  hammer,  becomes  at  length  soft 
and  pliable,  whence  the  adage. 


In  Quadrum  re  dig  ere. 
To  make  any  thing  perfectly  square;  meta- 
phorically, to  reduce  to  order.  Thus  the  parts 
of  any  object,  or  of  any  speech  or  composition, 
agreeing  together,  they  are  said  to  quadrate ; 
and  the  man  whose  conduct  is  consistent  and 
right,  is  said  "  to  act  upon  the  square."  The 
phrase  seems  to  be  derived  from  the  uniform 
and  apposite  consistency  of  that  figure,  whose 
every  side  and  angle  is  answered  by  its  op- 
posite. 

Dimidium  plus  toto. 

The  half  is  oftentimes  more,  or  better  than 
the  whole ;  that  is,  the  half  that  we  possess, 
or  that  may  be  acquired  with  safety,  is  better 
than  the  whole,  if  it  cannot  be  obtained  with- 
out danger.  By  this  enigmatical  adage,  in 
frequent  use  among  the  ancients,  is  recom- 
mended the  "  aurea  mediocritas,"  the  golden 

mean : 


(     218    ) 

mean ;  or,  moderation  in  our  pursuits  of  riches 
or  of  power.  It  is  better  to  be  contented  with 
a  middling  estate,  or  to  cease  speculating  when 
we  have  acquired  a  competency,  than  by  hunt- 
ing after  more,  to  hazard  what  we  already 
possess.  The  dog  catching  at  the  shadow  of 
a  piece  of  meat  which  he  saw  in  the  water,  lost 
that  which  he  held  in  his  mouth.  The  adage 
may  also  be  applied  to  persons  engaged  in 
controversy,  where  neither  party  will  give  way 
though  a  small  concession  on  each  side  might 
tend  to  their  mutual  profit.  Erasmus  applies 
it  to  the  dissensions  existing  between  the  Lu- 
therans and  the  Romanists,  which  then  raged 
with  great  violence,  neither  party  being  dis- 
posed to  recede  in  their  pretensions,  or  both  of 
them,  perhaps,  making  it  a  point  of  conscience 
not  to  yield.  "  Dum  enim  theologi  quidam, 
ac  prsesules,  nihil  omnino  volunt  de  suis  dog- 
matibus,  ac  jure  concedere,  veniunt  in  peri- 
culum  ne  perdant  et  ilia,  qure  bono  jure  tene- 
bant"  For  while  the  heads  of  the  Romish 
church  will  yield  nothing  to  the  adverse  party, 
there  seems  great  reason  to  apprehend  they 
will  lose  much  of  what  they  would  be  allowed 

to 


(    219    ) 

to  retain.  My  opinion,,  he  adds,  is,  that  rather 
than  hazard  losing  the  whole  of  the  authority 
they  contend  for,  that  they  give  up  a  portion 
of  it,  it  being  hetter  to  preserve  the  half, 
than  by  contending  for  the  whole  to  lose  all. 
From  this,  and  other  passages  in  his  works,  it 
seems  clear  that  though  Erasmus  continued  to 
his  death  in  community  with  the  catholics,  he 
was  much  more  inclined  to  the  tenets  of  the 
Lutherans,  and  so  indeed  the  Lutherans  be- 
lieved, and  they  reproved  him  accordingly  for 
his  pusillanimity,  in  not  declaring  himself  more 
openly.  But  he  had  not  the  courage,  as  he 
frankly  acknowledged,  to  become  a  martyr. 
"  Non  omnes  ad  martyrium,  satis  habent  ro- 
boris ;  vereor  autem,  ne,  si  quid  incident  tu- 
multus,  Petrum  sim  imitaturus."  He  was  be- 
sides, as  he  says,  so  averse  to  contention,  that 
he  should  abandon  the  truth  itself,  if  it  could 
only  be  defended  by  tumult.  "  Mihi  adeo 
invisa  est  discard ia,  ut  veritas  etiam  displiceat 
seditiosa.  "  Hesiod,  to  whom  we  owe  this 
adage,  tells  us,  that  having  been, defrauded  of 
a  portion  of  his  estate  by  his  brother,  he  was 
thence  induced  to  turn  his  mind  more  sedu- 
lously 


(     220     ) 

x  r  \ 

lously  to  the  cultivation  of  what  remained, 
which  soon  became  so  productive,  that  he 
observed,  the  judges,  who  decided  the  cause, 
had  not  done  him  so  much  injury  as  was  ap- 
prehended, the  half  proving  in  the  event  to  be 
more  valuable  than  was  the  whole. 

"  Unhappy  they  to  whom  God  ha'nt  revealed, 
By  a  strong  light  which  must  their  sense  controul, 
That  half  a  great  estate's  more  than  the  whole  ; 
Unhappy,  from  whom  concealed  still  does  lye, 
Of  roots  and  herbs,  the  wholesome  luxury." 


Ole.o  tranquillior. 

Attend  to  me,  and  I  will  cure  you  of  your 
passions,  and  make  you  more  soft,  supple,  and 
pliant  than  oil,  "As  mild  as  a  turtle-dove." 
It  is  known,  that  oil  poured  into  water,  when 
in  the  highest  state  of  agitation  and  disturb- 
ance, renders  it  immediately  smooth  and  placid; 
hence  persons  of  peaceable  and  quiet  disposi- 
tions were  said  to  be,  "Oleo  tranquilliores,"  as 
those  of  haughty,  unsteady,  and  passionate 
tempers  were,  "  Iracundiores  Adria,"  more 
boisterous  and  turbulent  than  the  Adriatic 

sea, 


(     221     ) 

sea,  which  had  the  character,  though  not  very 
justly,  perhaps,  of  being  peculiarly  liable  to 
storms  and  tempests.  Pope  seemed  to  think 
that  his  verses  might  have  an  effect  on  the 
mind  similar  to  that  of  oil  on  water. 

"  Know  there  are  lines,  which  fresh  and  fresh  applied* 
Might  cure  the  arrantst  puppy  of  his  pride." 


Canis  in  Pr&sepi. 

Like  the  dog  in  the  manger,  who  would  not 
suffer  the  ox  to  eat  of  the  hay,  though  he 
could  make  no  use  of  it  himself.  Those  who 
have  large  collections  of  valuable  books,  which 
they  are  incapable  of  reading,  and  refuse  to 
let  them  be  consulted  by  others  who  might 
reap  information  from  them,  are  guilty  of  this 
vice,  as  indeed  is  every  one,  who  will  not  im- 
part, out  of  his  abundance,  to  those  who  are 
in  want. 


Summum  Jus  summa  Injuria. 

The  extreme  of  justice,  that  is,  strictly  ad- 
hering to  the  letter  of  the  law,  may  prove 
highly  injurious.  As  it  is  impossible  that  laws 

should 


(     222     ) 

should  be  so  framed  as  to  embrace  and  take 
in  every  species  or  degree  of  turpitude  or 
crimes ;  so  on  the  other  hand,  it  cannot  be 
avoided,  but  that  in  the  endeavour  to  restrain 
or  punish  vice,  general  regulations  will  be 
made  prohibiting  actions,  which,  under  cer- 
tain circumstances,  may  not  be  criminal,  or 
may  be  even  necessary  or  unavoidable.  Hence 
it  has  been  found  expedient  in  most  civilised 
countries,  to  lodge  a  power  in  the  supreme 
magistrate  of  pardoning  persons,  in  whose 
cases  some  alleviating  circumstances  appear, 
who,  by  rigidly  adhering  to  the1  letter  of  the 
law,  would  suffer  the  punishment  allotted  to 
the  act  he  had  committed.  Courts  of  equity  are 
also  formed,  empowered  to  correct  errors  in 
the  wording  of  deeds  or  instruments  by  which 
property  is  transferred,  when  it  appears  that 
by  following  the  direct  meaning  of  the  words 
the  intention  of  the  parties  would  be  defeated. 
By  a  law  of  the  Romans,  children  refusing  to 
support  their  aged  parents  were  condemned 
to  be  thrown  into  prison  ;  "  liberi  parentes 
alant,  aut  vinciantur."  But  should  the  son 
be  incapable  of  procuring  sustenance  for  him- 
self, 


(     223     ) 

self,  it  would  be  highly  injurious  to  condemn 
him  to  suffer  the  penalty  of  the  laws  :  a  simi- 
lar law  prevailed  at  Athens,  but  was  obliga- 
tory only  on  those  persons  whose  parents  had 
brought  them  up  to  some  business  or  calling. 
There  are  other  ways  in  which  this  popular 
adage  may  be  properly  applied, 

"  Insani  sapiens  nomen  ferat,  zequus  iniqui, 
Ultra  quam  satis  est,  virtutem  si  petat  ipsam." 

We  should  take  care  that  even  our  admiration 
of  virtue  be  not  carried  to  excess,  but  remem- 
ber, in  our  censures  of  the  conduct  of  others, 
to  make  allowance  for  slight  errors  and  imper- 
fections, such  as  are  incident  to  the  nature  and 
state  of  man,  which  occasions  that  even  our 
best  works  fall  very  short  of  perfection.  "  The 
archer  who  shoots  beyond  the  mark  misses  it, 
as  well  as  he  that  falls  short  of  it."  "  We  may 
grasp  virtue,"  Montaigne  says,  "  so  hard,  till 
it  becomes  vicious."  No  men  are  less  be- 
loved than  those  who  are  too  rigidly  nice  and 
exact  in  marking  small  errors  in  their  families, 
though  they  censure  nothing  but  what  is,  in 
a  degree,  reprehensible.  "  Quien  las  cosas 

much® 


(     224     ) 

mucho  apura,  no  vive  vida  segura,"  he  that  is 
over-nice  in  looking  into  small  errors,  will  never 
live  an  easy  and  quiet  life.  There  should 
be  a  medium  therefore  in  our  prosecution  of 
virtue,  as  well  as  in  every  other  pursuit. 


Aberrare  a  Scopo,  non  attingere  Scopum,  extra 
Scopum  jaculare. 

"  To  miss  the  mark,"  to  throw  beyond  or 
over-shoot  the  mark,  to  be  out  or  mistaken 
in  our  conjecture  upon  any  subject.  It  is 
applicable  to  any  one  who  in  conversation  or 
writing  wanders  from  the  subject  proposed 
for  discussion,  as  he  was  said  "  attingere  sco- 
pum,"  "  to  hit  the  mark,"  who  delivered  what 
was  pertinent  or  proper. 


Inexplebile  Dolium, 

A  cask  which  cannot  be  filled.  An  appe- 
tite that  can  never  be  satiated,  a  thirst  after 
riches  that  no  acquisition  of  fortune  can  sa- 
tisfy, have  been  aptly  enough  compared  to  a 

leaky 


(     225     ) 

leaky  vessel,  that  can  never  be  filled,  the  liquor 
running  out  as  fast  as  it  is  poured  in.  It 
may  also  be  applied  to  persons  who,  from  in- 
capacity or  inattention,  retain  nothing  that 
they  have  learned  :  it  is  labour  lost,  "  it  is  like 
pouring  water  into  a  sieve,"  to  attempt  in- 
structing such  persons. 


Aut  bibat,  aut  abeat. 

Either  drink  or  begone,  and  "  Odi  me- 
morem  compotorem,"  I  hate  the  man  who 
tells  what  is  said  at  the  table.  It  was  a 
custom  among  the  ancients,  and  it  is  still  fol- 
lowed, at  their  convivial  meetings,  to  place  one 
of  the  company  at  the  head  of  the  table  as 
president  or  moderator  for  the  day,  whose 
orifice  it  was  to  see,  among  other  things,  that 
each  of  the  guests  drank  his  portion  of  wine; 
and  this  was  one  of  the  laws  that  was  invaria- 
bly put  in  force,  "  either  drink  or  leave  the 
company,"  that  none  of  them  might  be  in  a 
state  to  take  advantage  of  any  unguarded 
expression  that  might  happn  to  be  used. 
"  Quando  a  Roma  fueres,  haz  como  vieres," 

Q  that 


that  is,  "  when  we  are  at  Rome,  we  should  do 
as  they  do  at  Rome;"  and  we  should,  at  least 
for  the  time,  accommodate  ourselves  to  the 
manners  of  those  persons  with  whom  we  asso- 
ciate. Antipater  of  Sidon,  who  had  possibly 
been  traduced  by  one  of  these  unfair  intru- 
ders upon  festivity,  expresses  his  indignation 
against  the  whole  tribe  as  follows  : 

"  Not  the  planet  that  sinking  in  ocean, 

Foretells  future  storms  to  our  tars; 
Not  the  sea  when  in  fearful  commotion, 

Its  billows  swell  high  as  the  stars ; 
Not  the  thunder  that  rolls  in  October, 

Is  so  hateful  to  each  honest  fellow, 
As  he  who  remembers  when  sober, 

The  tales  that  were  told  him  when  mellow." 

What  is  told  at  such  times  has  always  been 
considered  as  "  said  under  the  rose,"  or  under 
a  seal  of  secrecy,  of  which  the  rose  is  an  em- 
blem. The  Germans  were  used  to  have  a  rose 
in  painting  or  in  sculpture  on  the  ceilings  of 
the  rooms  in  which  they  caroused.  The  rose 
was  the  favoured  flower  of  Venus,  and  was  by 
Cupid  dedicated  to  Harpocrates,  the  God  of 
Silence,  the  votaries  to  his  mother  being  parti- 
cularly 


(     227     ) 

cularly  interested  that  their  rites  should  be 
kept  secret :  this  property  of  the  rose  is  cele- 
brated in  the  following  tetrastic  : — 

"  Est  Rosa  flos  Veneris  ;  quo  dulcia  furta  laterent, 
Harpocrati,  matris  dona,  dicavit  Amor; 
Inde  rosam  mensis  hospes  suspendit  amicis, 
Convivze  ut  sub  ea,  dicta  tacenda  sciant." 

"  The  Rose  was  born  for  beauty's  queen  ; 

Young  Love  in  playful  hour, 
From  eye  and  ear  her  thefts  to  screen, 
To  Silence  gave  the  flower. 

Hence  o'er  the  friendly  board  the  rose 

Suspended  blush'd,  to  shew 
That  he  who  would  the  joy  disclose, 

Is  mirth's  and  friendship's  foe." 

Cicero  seems  to  extend  the  meaning  of  the 
adage,  to  persons  declaiming  with  too  much 
violence  against  the  miseries  which  all  men 
suffer  more  or  less  in  this  life.  Either  be 
contented  with  what  you  meet  with  here,  or 
leave  them,  and  see  what  another  world  may 
afford  you.  With  more  propriety  it  may  be 
applied  to  persons  railing  at  the  laws  and 
manners  of  their  own  countries;  either  refrain 
from  your  censures,  or  go  to  some  place  where 
you  imagine  you  shall  fare  better. 

Q  2  Frigidam 


(     228     ) 

Frigidam  Aquam  eff under  e. 

"  To  throw  cold  water  on  a  business,"  to 
retard  its  progress  by  idle  scruples,  or  by  more 
than  necessary  caution,  is  at  least  the  manner 
in  which  the  phrase  is  used  by  us.  As  few 
great  actions  can  be  achieved  without  some 
danger,  or  any  work  of  eminence  performed 
without  hazard,  to  magnify  these  and  to  sup- 
pose them  to  be  inevitable,  because  they  are 
possible,  is  to  check  the  progress  of  invention 
and  improvement  in  the  world.  "  Chi  troppo 
s'assottiglia,  si  scavessa,"  who  refines  too  much 
concludes  nothing,  or  who  makes  himself  too 
wise,  becomes  a  fool.  "  He  that  regardeth 
the  wind,  shall  not  sow;  and  he  that  looketh 
at  the  clouds  shall  not  reap ;"  the  face  of  the 
sky  not  affording  certain  signs,  indicating 
that  the  weather  will  continue  for  a  sufficient 
space  of  time  favourable  to  those  operations  : 
we  therefore  say,  "  nothing  venture,  nothing 
have:" 

• "  Our  doubts  are  traitors, 

And  make  us  lose  the  good  we  oft  might  win, 
By  fearing  to  attempt." 

Stultus 


(     229     ) 

Stultus  qui  Pat  re  occiso,  Liber  os  relinquat. 

Having  killed  the  father,  you  should  have 
destroyed  the  children  also  ;  they  being 
spared,  will  at  some  future  time  revenge  the 
death  of  their  parent.  When  the  murderers  in- 
formed Macbeth,  that  they  had  killed  Banquo, 
but  that  Fleance  his  son  was  fled,  "  Then,"  said 
the  king,  "  you  have  scotched  the  snake,  not 
killed  him."  You  should  have  taken  care 
either  not  to  have  provoked  the  man,  or  you 
should  have  rendered  him  incapable  of  return- 
ing the  affront. 


Oportet  Testudinis  Carnes  aut  edere  aut  non 
edere. 

Either  eat  the  turtle,  that  is  eat  plentifully 
of  it,  or  leave  it.  "  Do  it  or  let  it  alone." 
This  is  said  to  unsteady  or  lukewarm  persons 
who  stand  long  hesitating,  who  will  neither 
take  nor  leave  what  is  offered  them,  or  who  set 
about  a  business  with  so  ill  a  will,  that  it  is 
impossible  it  should  succeed.  In  literature, 

Q  3  such 


(     230     ) 

such  waywardness  is  more  likely  to  make 
men  opiniative  coxcombs  than  to  improve 
their  understandings,  as  we  learn  from  these 
lines  of  Pope  : 

"  A  little  learning  is  a  dangerous  thing, 

Drink  deep,  or  taste  not  the  Pierian  spring; 
There  shallow  draughts  intoxicate  the  brain, 
But  drinking  largely  sobers  us  again." 

The  flesh  of  the  turtle  eaten  sparingly,  was. 
said  to  disagree  with  and  disturb  the  stomach, 
but  taken  plentifully,  to  be  innocent  and  salu» 
tary,  whence  the  adage.  This,  however, 
though  believed  by  the  ancients,  is  not  very 
probable ;  it  is  more  consonant  to  reason,  that 
it  soon  became  putrid,  and  was  therefore  not 
fit  to  be  long  kept. 


Ab  Ovo  usque  ad  Mala. 

From  the  eggs  to  the  apples,  from  the  begin-* 
ning  to  the  end  ;  it  was  said  when  a  story  or 
an  account  of  any  transaction  was  narrated 
circumstantially,  from  its  commencement  to 
its  termination.  Alluding  to  the  tables  of  the 

Romans, 


Romans,  at  which  eggs  were  first,  apples  last 
served. 


Bonce  Leges  ex  mails  Moribus  procreantur. 

Good  laws  are  the  offspring  of  bad  actions. 
If  men  were  all  just  and  honest,  there  would 
be  no  need  of  laws  to  restrain  them.  If  there 
were  no  diseases,  there  would  be  no  need  of 
physicians ;  if  no  crimes,  there  would  be  no 
occasion  for  judges,  or  executioners.  Solon 
being  asked  why  he  had  devised  no  punish- 
ment for  parricides,  said,  "  the  crime  was  so 
horrible,  he  could  not  suppose  it  would  ever 
be  committed." 


Similes  habent  Labra  Lactucas. 

"  Like  lips,  like  lettuce."  Thistles  suit  the 
rough  and  hard  lips  of  the  ass,  and  coarse  and 
plain  diet  the  stomach  of  the  clown  ;  employ- 
ments^ clothes,  and  entertainment  should  be 
adapted  to  the  persons  for  whom  they  are  pro- 
vided ;  a  dull  scholar  to  a  stupid  master,  and 
a  froward  wife  to  a  peevish  and  churlish  hus- 
Q  4  band. 


(     232     ) 

band.  "It  would  be  a  pity,"  we  say,  "  that 
two  houses  should  be  troubled  with  them." 
"  Tal  carne,  tal  cultello,"  the  knife  should 
suit  the  meat,  and  "  Dios  da  el  frio  confonne 
a  la  ropa,"  the  cold  is  fitted  to  the  coat.  The 
poor  man  with  his  thread-bare  and  tattered 
raiment,  is  no  more  incommoded  by  the  cold 
than  the  rich  man  who  is  clothed  with  furs 
and  velvets.  Hence  we  say,  "  God  suits  the 
back  to  the  burthen."  Whenever  we  hear 
that  a  mean,  sordid,  and  worthless  man  has 
committed  some  dirty  act,  we  say  it  was  of  a 
piece  with  the  man,  no  better  could  be  ex- 
pected of  him  ;  the  action  suited  him  as  this- 
tles do  the  mouth  of  an  ass,  and  this  is  the 
usual  way  of  applying  the  proverb.  To  the 
same  purport  is, 

Dignum  Patella  Operculum. 

A  cover  worthy  such  a  pot.  "  What  better 
could  be  expected  from  such  a  stock,"  or,  in 
a  favourable  way,  nothing  less  was  expected 
from  so  excellent  a  man ;  though  the  adage 
is  more  commonly  used  in  an  unfavourable 
sense.  We  have  however  a  phrase  which  seems 

to 


(     233     ) 

to  militate  against  the  sense  of  this  proverb, 
as  when  we  say  of  a  person  performing  un- 
willingly a  duty  imposed  upon  him,  "  he  looks 
like  an  ass  mumbling  of  thistles." 


Sijuxta  claudum  habit es,  subclaudicare  disces. 

If  you  dwell  with  the  lame,  you  will  learn 
to  limp  likewise.  We  are  all  prone  to  imitate 
those  with  whom  we  associate.  Those  who 
educate  child ren^  therefore  should  be  careful 
not  to  introduce  among  them  any  persons 
who  squint,  stammer,  or  have  any  remarkable 
defect  in  their  gait,  or  who  have  any  acquired 
habits  that  are  unseemly  or  disgusting.  But 
such  is  the  capriciousness  of  mankind,  that 
in  pursuit  of  the  idol  fashion,  they  will 
not  only  subject  themselves  to  inconvenience 
and  pain,  but  will  maim  and  distort  their 
bodies,  and  fancy  such  perversions  to  be  beau- 
ties. For  examples  of  this  kind,  we  need  not 
recur  to  the  ladies  in  China,  who  submit  to  be 
rendered  cripples,  in  order  to  distinguish  them- 
selves from  the  lower  classes  of  women  ;  or  to 
the  Esquimaux  and  other  uncultivated  people, 

who 


(     234     ) 

who  wear  fish  bones  stuck  through  their  ears 
and  nostrils,  and  deem  them  to  be  ornaments, 
who  suffer  themselves  to  be  tattooed,  or  com- 
mit an  hundred  other  extravagances,  to  add 
grace,  as  they  suppose,  and  dignity  to  their 
persons.  The  absurdity  of  these  customs  have 
been  equalled  at  the  least  by  the  ladies  in  this, 
and  perhaps,  in  every  other  country  in  Europe; 
the  high-heeled  shoes,  and  the  straight  and 
stiff  stays,  so  long  the  fashion  here,  occasion- 
ing to  those  who  wore  them  as  much  pain, 
and  were  as  prejudicial  to  their  health,  as  the 
practices  of  the  savages.  But  the  ladies  must 
not  be  allowed  to  bear  the  whole  of  the  ridi- 
cule attached  to  these  follies.  The  men  may 
justly  put  in  a  claim  for  their  share.  It  is 
known  that  Alexander  the  Great  carried  his 
head  a  little  over  the  left  shoulder.  This  de- 
fect in  the  prince  soon  became  a  fashion,  and 
then,  we  are  told,  "  not  a  soul  stirred  out  un- 
til he  had  adjusted  his  neck-bone  ;  the  whole 
nobility  addressed  the  prince  and  each  other 
obliquely,  and  all  matters  of  importance  were 
concerted  and  carried  on  in  the  Macedonian 
Court,  with  their  polls  on  one  side."  As 

Diony- 


(     235     ) 

Dionysius  was  purblind,  his  courtiers,  Plu- 
tarch says,  the  better  to  conciliate  his  favour, 
affecting  to  have  the  same  deficiency,  ran 
against  each  other,  when  in  his  presence, 
stumbled  over  stools,  chairs,  or  whatever  hap- 
pened to  stand  in  their  way  ;  and  he  speaks 
of  another  country,  where  the  courtiers  carried 
their  adulation  so  far,  that  many  of  them  re- 
pudiated wives  whom  they  loved,  in  compli- 
ment to  the  tyrant  who  had  put  away  his  wife, 
with  whom  he  was  disgusted.  Dr.  Heberden 
gives  a  more  recent  instance  of  a  similar  folly. 
"  When  Lewis  the  XIV.  happened  to  have  a 
fistula,  the  French  surgeons  of  that  time  com- 
plain of  their  being  incessantly  teazed  by  peo- 
ple who  pretended,  whatever  their  complaints 
were,  that  they  proceeded  from  a  fistula ;  and 
if  there  had  been  in  France,  he  adds,  a  mineral 
water  reputed  capable  of  giving  it  them,  they 
would  perhaps  have  flocked  thither  as  eagerly 
as  Englishmen  resort  to  Bath,  in  order  to  get 
the  gout,  the  fashionable  disease  of  this  coun- 
try." 


Cor  rum- 


(    236    ) 
Corrumpunt  Mores  bonos  Colloquia  pram. 

c 

"  Evil  communication  corrupts  good  man- 
ners." If  it  is  important  to  prevent  children 
in  particular  from  associating  with  those  who 
have  any  personal  defects,  lest  they  should 
adopt  them,  it  is  still  more  necessary  to  guard 
them  against  the  infection  of  depraved  morals; 
which  are  more  readily  imbibed,  take  deeper 
root,  and  are  with  greater  difficulty  removed 
than  those  affecting  only  the  person.  "  Cos- 
tumbre  haze  ley,"  custom  has  the  force  of  a 
law,  and  "  Mudar  costumbre  a  par  de  muerte," 
to  change  a  custom  is  next  to  death.  "  Tell 
me,"  we  say,  <{  with  whom  you  associate,  and 
I  will  tell  you  what  you  are."  "  Che  dorme 
co  cani,  si  leva  col  le  pulci,"  those  who  sleep 
with  dogs  rise  up  with  fleas,  and  "  La  mala 
compagnia,  e  quella  che  mena  huomini  a  la 
furca,"  it  is  bad  company  that  brings  men  to 
the  gallows.  "Company,"  Falstaff  says, 

"  Villanous  company  hath  undone  me  ; 
Till  1  knew  thee,  Hal,  I  knew  nothing." 

On  the  other  hand,  the  Spaniards  say,   "  Ari- 
mate  a  buenos,  v  seras  uno  dellos,"  associate 

*       V 

with 


(     237     ) 
with  the  good,  and  you  will  be  esteemed  one 


e> 

of  them. 


Conscientia  mills  Testes. 

Conscience  is  as  a  thousand  witnesses.  We 
therefore  say,  "  An  evil  conscience  needs  no 
accuser."  "  Heti  quam  difficile  est,  crimen 
non  prodere  vultu  !"  how  difficult  it  is  for  a 
person  accused  of  a  crime  to  avoid  betraying 
his  guilt  by  his  countenance.  No  man  who 
has  not  been  long  trammelled  in  wickedness 
can  bear  this  test.  "  Oh  coward  conscience, 
how  dost  thou  affright  me  !"  was  the  apos- 
trophe of  Macbeth,  after  having  murdered 
his  sovereign.  "  Labour,"  Lord  Bacon  says, 
"  to  keep  a  good  conscience  ;  for  he  that  is  dis- 
furnished  thereof,  hath  fear  for  his  bedfellow, 
care  for  his  companion,  and  the  sting  of  guilt 
for  his  torment."  The  following  lines  from 
the  Thirteenth  Satire  of  Juvenal  as  translated 
by  Mr.  Hodgson,  give  a  terrible  description 
of  the  power  of  conscience,  in  tormenting 
those,  who  may  perhaps  have  escaped  punish- 
ment by  the  insulted  laws  of  their  country, 

"Yet 


(     238     ) 

"  Yet  can  we  deem  those  traitors  free  from  pain, 
Who  the  quick  sense  of  villany  retain  ? 
Whom  secret  scorpions  to  confession  urge, 
While  torturing  conscience  shakes  her  bloody  scourge? 
To  them  belongs  more  dreadful  punishment 
Than  laws  can  execute,  or  judge  invent; 
By  day,  by  night,  condemn'd  to  hear  within, 
The  sleepless  witness  of  their  burning  sin. 
These  are  the  souls  who  shrink  with  pale  affright, 
When  harmless  lightnings  purge  the  sultry  night; 
Who  faint,  when  hollow  rumblings  from  afar, 
Foretel  the  wrath  of  elemental  war ; 
Nor  deern  it  chance,  nor  wind  that  caus'd  the  din, 
But  Jove  himself  in  arms  to  punish  sin." 

Not  alien  to  the  sense  of  the  proverb,  though 
dissimilar  enough  to  the  lines  just  quoted,  is 
the  following  story  : 

A  clergyman  with  whom  Brantome  was 
acquainted,  preaching  to  a  polite  audience 
on  conjugal  infidelity,  said  he  understood 
there  were  some  among  them,  who  were  so 
depraved  as  to  wink  at  the  infidelity  of  their 
wives,  in  favour  of  persons  from  whom  they 
were  soliciting  preferment.  And  now,  says 
he,  I  mean  to  strike  the  most  culpable,  lifting 
up  his  hand,  as  if  about  to  throw  something 
at  him,  on  which  a  majority  of  the  married 

men 


(     S39     ) 

men  stooped  down  their  heads  ;  waiting  a  small 
time,  until  they  had  recovered  their  seats,  he 
added,  I  did  suppose  that  some  among  you 
might  be  guilty,  but  I  did  not  before  know 
that  so  large  a  proportion  of  you  were  so. 


J\Iagistratus  Virum  indicat. 

The  office  shews  the  man.  Men  who  have 
opulence  and  power,  being  under  little  re- 
straint, shew  their  natural  dispositions,  which 
those  in  more  confined  circumstances  are 
obliged  to  check  and  subdue.  Galba,  who 
had  passed  through  all  the  offices  of  the  state 
\vith  honour,  when  at  length,  and  late  in  life, 
he  was  made  Emperor  of  Rome,  being  pos- 
sessed of  unlimited  power,  he  became  a 
monster  of  cruelty  and  avarice.  He  was, 
*'  Omnium  consensu,  capax  imperii,  nisi  irn- 
perasset,"  by  the  consent  of  all  he  would 
have  been  fit  for  the  supreme  command,  if 
he  had  not  attained  to  it ;  and  of  Caligula, 
Suetonius  says,  "Nee  servum  meliorem  ullum, 
nee  deteriorem  dominum  fuisse,"  there  never 

was 


(     240     ) 

was  a  better  servant,  nor  a  worse  master. 
Vespasian,  on  the  other  hand,  who  in  the  early 
part  of  his  life,  had  been  a  voluptuary,  and 
shewed  little  attention  to  business,  being 
raised  to  empire,  filled  his  post  with  so  much 
honor,  as  to  be  called  the  Delight  of  Man- 
kind. "•  Solus  imperatorum  Vespasianus  mu- 
tatus  in  melius,"  he  was  the  only  one  of  the 
emperors,  who  became  a  better  man  by  being 
raised  to  the  supreme  command. 


Manllana  Imperia. 

Any  exceedingly  harsh  and  severe  sentence 
or  punishment,  was  so  called  from  Titus  Man- 
lius,  who  ordered  his  own  son  to  be  first 
scourged,  and  then  beheaded,  the  usual  pu- 
nishment for  disobedience  of  military  orders, 
for  having,  in  the  heat  of  battle,  advanced 
beyond  his  rank  upon  the  enemy.  The  story 
adds,  that  Manlius,  being  some  time  after 
offered  the  consulship,  declined  accepting  it, 
telling  the  people,  that  as  they  could  not  bear, 
his  severity,  for  they  had  censured  him  for 

his 


(    241     ) 

his  cruelty,  so  neither  could   he  bear  their 
licentiousness. 


Sylosontis  Chlamys* 

The  garment  of  Syloson  ;  alluding  to  a  rich 
cloak  whicfo  Syloson  gave  to  Darius,  before  he 
came  to  the  empire.  The  prince,  pleased  with 
the  conduct  of  the  man  in  making  him  so 
grateful  a  present,  for  the  garment  was  exqui- 
sitely beautiful,  as  soon  as  he  was  advanced  to 
the  throne,  gave  him  the  sovereignty  of  the 
island  of  Samos.  The  proverb  may  be  applied 
to  any  one  conferring  small  favours  on  their 
superiors,  in  the  expectation  of  getting  some- 
thing of  greater  value.  Syloson,  the  story 
adds,  exercised  his  authority  with  so  much 
severity,  as  usually  happens  when  men  of  ob- 
scure birth  are  raised  to  high  rank  and  dignity, 
that  the  people,  tired  with  his  tyranny  and  ra- 
paciousness,  quitted  the  country  in  such  num- 
bers, as  in  time  to  reduce  it  almost  to  a  desert. 
This  gave  birth  to  the  following,  which  became 
also  proverbial. 


(     242     ) 

Opera  Sylosontis  ampla  Reglb. 

Which  may  be  rendered,  By  the  favour  of 
Syloson,  there  is  now  room  enough,  and  may 
be  applied  on  any  similar  occasion ;  and  it 
seems  as  if  the  present  Emperor  of  the  French 
wo'uld  make  room  enough  in  all  the  countries 
that  are  so  unfortunate  as  to  be  visifed  by  him. 
It  may  also  be  applied  where  any  one  has  by 
extravagance  emptied  his  coffers,  or  unfur- 
nished his  house. 


Dii  laneos  Pecks  habent. 

The  gods  have  their  feet  shod  with  wool. 
"  God  comes  with  leaden  feet,  but  strikes  with 
iron  hands.''  The  ancients,  by  this  enigmatical 
proverb,  intimated  that  the  judgments  of  the 
Deity  were  executed  in  so  silent  a  manner, 
that  trie  offenders  did  not  often  perceive  the 
approach  of  the  punishment  they  were  doomed 
to  suffer,  until  they  felt  the  stroke.  But, 
"where  vice  is,  vengeance  follows." 

"  Raro  antecedentera  scelestura 
Deseruit  pede  pcena  claudo." 

Punishment* 


(    243    ) 

Punishment,  though  deferred,  rarely  fails  ul- 
timately to  be  inflicted  on  those  who  have' 
offended. 

— — '  -      •-"  Vengeance,  though  slow  paced, 
At  length  o'ertakes  the  guilty,  and  the -wrath 
Of  the  incensed  powers,  will  fall  most  sure 
On  wicked  men,  when  they  are  most  secure." 

Zenone  modcratior. 

More  temperate  than  Zeno;  who,  both  by 
example  and  precept,  is  said  to  have  inculcated, 
in  his  disciples  the  advantages  of  being  plain 
in  their  apparel,  consulting  only  what  was  ne- 
cessary and  moderate  in  their  diet,  and  in  all 
other  sensual  enjoyments.  As  by  following  this 
regimen,  they  would  have  use  for  very  little 
money  for  their  personal  conveniences,  they 
might  more  readily  bestow  it,  either  for  the 
benefit  of  their  country,  or  on  necessitous 
individuals. 


Aurum  habet  Tolosanum. 

He  has  got  the  gold  of  Tolosa.    Tolosa  was 
a  town  in  Gallia  Narbonensis,  which  became  a 

R  2  Ro 


Roman  colony  under  Augustus  Caesar.  Csepio, 
one  of  the  consuls,  having  plundered  a  temple 
of  Minerva,  their  tutelar  deity,  became  from 
that  time  unfortunate  in  all  his  transactions; 
which  was  considered  as  a  judgment  upon  him 
for  his  sacrilege.  The  same  sentence  continues 
to  be  passed  on  persons  falling  to  decay,  after 
having  possessed  large  property,  acquired  by 
rapine :  "  I  thought  it  would  not  thrive  with 
him :"  a  harmless  prejudice.  To  the  same 
purport  is  the  adage  "  Equus  Sejanus,"  or  the 
horse  of  Seius,  which  whoever  possessed,  came 
to  a  miserable  end.  This  is  said  to  have  been 
the  fate  of  four  of  its  owners  in  succession. 
It  was  therefore  said  indifferently  of  persons 
who  were  very  unfortunate,  "  He  has  the  horse 
of  Seius,  or,  the  gold  of  Tolosa." 

Festina  lente. 

44  On  slow,"  a  frequent  motto  on  dials,  and 
giving  a  name  to  a  noble  family  in  this 
country  ;  but  to  be  considered  here,  as  afford- 
ing an  important  rule  for  human  actions. 
"  Tarry  a  little,  that  we  may  make  an  end  the 

sooner,'' 


(    245    ) 

sooner,"  was  a  favourite  saying  of  Sir  Amyas 
Paulet,  that  is,  let  us  consider  a  little  before 
we  begin,  and  we  shall  get  through  the  busi- 
ness with  less  interruption.  "  Qui  nimis  pro- 
pere,  minus  prospere,*'  too  much  haste  in  the 
beginning,  makes  an  unhappy  ending.  "  Pro- 
pera  propere,"  "  make  no  more  haste  than  good 
speed,"  for  "haste  makes  waste."  "  Sat  cito, 
si  sat  bene,"  "soon  enough,  if  well  enough." 
"Presto  et  bene,  non  conviene,"  hastily  and 
well,  rarely  or  never  meet.  "  Pas  a  pas  on 
va  bien  loin,"  step  by  step  we  may  to  a  great 
distance  go.  "  Chi  va  piano  va  sano,  e  anche 
lontano,"  who  goes  slowly,  goes  sure,  and  also 
far.  "  It  is  good  to  have  a  hatch  before  your 
door,"  that  you  may  be  stopped  a  minute  or 
two  before  you  get  out,  which  may  enable 
you  to  consider,  whether  you  have  taken  with 
you  every  thing  you  may  have  occasion  for 
in  the  business  you  are  going  upon.  From 
these  adages,  and  many  more  might  be  added, 
all  bearing  on  the  same  point,  we  see  how 
highly  the  precept  has  been  esteemed  in  all 
ages.  Erasmus  thought  it  of  such  general 
utility,  that  it  might  not  improperly  be  in- 
u  3  scribed 


(    246    ) 

scribed  upon  our  public  columns  and  build- 
ings, upon  the  doors  of  our  houses,  and  upon 
our  screens,  or  other  pieces  of  furniture,  and 
to  be  engraved  upon  our  rings  and  seals,  that 
it  might  be  met  by  us  whichever  way  we  turned 
our  eyes.  "  Poco  a  poco  van  lexos,  y  cor- 
riendo  a  mal  lugar,"  slow  and  softly  go  far,  the 
Spaniards  say,  and  haste  may  bring  the  busi- 
ness to  an  ill  conclusion. 


Difficilia  quce  pulchra. 

What  is  valuable  is  usually  of  difficult  ac- 
quisition. Things  that  are  rare  and  of  great 
utility  are  not  ordinarily  to  be  obtained  but 
with  much  labour.  Learning,  which  contri- 
butes so  much  to  distinguish  those  who  are 
possessed  of  it,  is  not  to  be  acquired  but  by 
long  and  continued  study  and  application.  It 
is  difficult  to  restrain  our  passions,  and  to  ac- 
quire habits  of  temperance  and  moderation, 
but  these  when  obtained  are  of  inestimable 
value.  The  difficulty  with  which  arts  and 
sciences  are  learned  is  so  great,  that  few 
would  undertake  the  labour  of  acquiring  them 

but 


(    247    0 

but  for  the  pleasure  and  advantages  they  hold 
out  to  those  who  possess  them. 

••    •   • "  Nothing  endears 

A  good,  more  than  the  contemplation       :  •      •  '• 
Of  the  difficulty  >ve  had  to  obtain  it."         .     ;  .  ;•• 

"  Non  est  e  terris  mollis  ad::  astral  via,," 
"  narrow  and  difficult  is  the  rway. thai 'Jeaids 'to 
life,  but  broad  and  easy  that  w/bidr$etods- to 
destruction,"  "  Difficilius  est  sarciie  coticor- 
diam,  qtiam  rumpere,"  how  easy  it  is  to  sow 
dissensions  and,  strife  among  men,  but  how 
difficult  to  bring  them  again  to  peace  and  har- 
mony ! 

Cumini  Sector. 

One  who  would  carve  or  split  a  cummin  seed. 
The  adage  was  applied  to  persons  who  were 
extremely  cautious, in  examining  into  the  evi- 
dence on  which  any  report  was  founded,  be- 
fore they  admitted  it  as  deserving  credit.  Of 
such  a  character  was  the  Emperor  Antoninus 
Pius,  to  whom  the  proverb  was  applied,  for  his 
patience  and  diligence  in  examining  into  the 
merits  of  the  causes  that  came  before  him; 

R  4  and 


and  if  all  persons  were  of  the  same  disposi- 
tion, it  would  put  a  stop  to  more  than  half 
the  broils,  dissensions,  and  disputes  which  add 
so  largely  to  the  catalogue  of  evils*  afflicting 
us ;  but  "  oiii  dire  va  par  ville,"  idle  reports 
that  have  no  foundation,  are  quickly  circu- 
lated and  easily  believed.  The  adage  is,  how- 
ever, more  commonly  applied  to  persons  of 
mean  and  sordid  dispositions,  and  has  the 
same  sense  as, 

Ficos  dividers, 

Persons  who  would  cut  a  fig  into  parts,  or 
as  we  say,  "  who  would  flay  a  flint."  "  He  will 
tlress  an  egg  and  give  the  broth  to  the  poor." 
Though  the  fruit  is  not  a  native  of  this  coun- 
try) yet  when  we  mean  to  .speak  contemptu- 
ously of  any  one,  we  say,  "  a  fig  for  him,"  and 
"  under  my  cloak,"  the  Spaniards  say,  "  a  fig 
for  the  king. " 


Neminijidas,  nisi  cum  quo  prius  Modium 
Salis  absumpseris. 

Or  as  the  French  say,  "  pour  bieu  connoitre 


(    249     ) 

iin  homme,  il  faut  avoir  mange  un  muid  de 
sel  avec  lui."  As  a  friend  is  "  alter  ipse,"  ano- 
ther self,  to  whom  the  most  secret  transactions 
of  your  life  may  be  communicated,  it  is  neces- 
sary you  should  be  well  acquainted  with  him, 
before  he  be  admitted  to  this  intimate  fami- 
liarity, or  that  you  should  have  known-  him, 
as  the  adage  expresses  it,  so  long  that  you 
might  have  eaten  a  peck  of  salt  with  him. 
Salt  among  the  eastern  nations  was  the  type 
of  hospitality,  and  for  its  many  useful  quali- 
ties, particularly  for  its  power  of  preserving 
bodies  from  putrefaction,  it  seems  to  have 
been  every  where  had  in  high  estimation  ; 
which  is  the  reason,  probably,  M'hy  it  is  named 
here  in  preference  to  bread,  or  other  articles 
also  in  daily  use  at  our  tables. 


Multas  Amicitias  Silentium  diremit. 

Silence  or  neglect  destroys  friendship.  "  Non 
sunt  amici  qui  degunt  procul,"  they  will 
not  ordinarily  long  continue  to  be  friends, 
who  live  at  a  great  distance  from  each  other. 

As 


As  we  should  not  be  'hasty  in  forming 
nections,  so  having -formed  tliem,  we  should 
cultivate  them  with  care,  and  strengthen  the 
intimacy  by  frequent  conversation  and  cor- 
respondence. "  Lontano  dag'li  occhi  lontano 
del  cuore."  "  Loin  des  yeux,  lorn  du  coeur," 
"  out  of  sight,  out  of  mind."  : 

Pulchrl  dixti.     Bd&  narras. 

You  have  made  out  a  pretty  story,  was 
used  to  be  said,  ironically,  to  any  one  who  had 
failed  egregiously  in  delivering  £  message  or 
telling  a  story ;  and  similar  forms  of  speech 
are  not  uncommon  among  ourselves. 


Rara  Avis. 

He  is  a  rare  bird  indeed,  was  used  to  be  said 
of  any  one  doing  an  act  of  unusual  generosity 
or  goodness;  or  of  a  man  of  such  strict  mo- 
rality, that  he  would  not  do  a  mean  or  unjust 
action  though  he  might  without  fear  or  de- 
tection obtain  a  fortune  by  it.  A'character 
which,  though  very  unco'mntoh  in  the  later 

ages 


(     251     ) 

ages  of  the  Roman  empire,  is,  I  trust  and  be- 
liev.e,  by  no  means  so  at  this  time,  in  this 
country  : 

"  Kara  avis  in  terris,  nigroque  simillima  cygno." 
•"  Corvo  quoque  rarior  albo." 

A  phenomenon  more  rare,  Juvenal  supposes, 
than  a  white  crow  or  a  black  swan. 


Naribus  trahere. 

"  Menar  uno  per  il  naso,"  It.  "  Mener  par 
le  nez,"  "  to  lead  any  one  by  the  nose."  To 
obtain  so  much  influence  or  such  command 
over  any  one,  as  to  induce  him  to  do  what- 
ever you  advise,  though  equally  averse  to  his 
inclination  and  his  interest.  The  phrase 
takes  its  origin  from  the  custom  of  leading 
animals  by  rings  passed  through  their  nostrils. 
This,  by  ecclesiastical  lawyers,  is  called  "  hav- 
ing the  advowson  of  a  man's  conscience." 
Does  not  this  apply  equally  to  the  leaders  of 
majorities  and  minorities  in  certain  assem- 
blies ? 


Ama 


(    252    ) 

Ama  tanquam  osurus.     Odcris  tanquam 
amaturus. 

Or,  as  the  Spaniards  say,  "  quando  estes  en 
enojo,  acuerdate  que  puedes  venir  a  paz,  y 
quando  estes  en  paz,  acuerdate  que  puedes 
venir  a  enojo,"  that  is,  when  you  are  angry 
with  any  one,  consider  that  you  may  be  re- 
conciled ;  and  when  you  are  friends  with  any 
one,  that  you  may  be  at  enmity  with  him ; 
therefore,  "  del  mal  que  hizieres  no  tengas 
testigo,  aunque  sea  tu  amigo,"  you  should  not 
be  so  communicative  even  to  your  most  inti- 
mate friend,  as  to  make  him  privy  to  your 
failings,  still  less  to  the  vices  of  which  you 
should  be  guilty,  as  it  might  tend  to  alienate 
him  from  you,  or  enable  him  to  do  you  an 
injury,  if  your  connection  should  by  any 
means  be  dissolved  ;  an  event  which,  from  the 
mutability  of  human  affairs  and  dispositions, 
should  always  be  considered  as  possible  at 
least  :  neither  should  you,  on  the  other 
hand,  reproach  your  enemy  so  bitterly,  or 
tax  him  with  faults  so  atrocious,  as  to  make 

it 


Jt  impossible  he  should  ever  forgive  you ; 
as  circumstances  may  occur  that  may  make 
it  your  mutual  advantage,  or  even  render 
it  necessary  that  your  acquaintance  should 
be  renewed.  Erasmus  states,  as  one  of  the 
evils  attendant  on  publishing  letters  to  and 
from  our  friends,  that  occurrences  may  happen 
obliging  us  to  change  our  opinions,  and  to 
censure  those  whom  we  had  commended,  or  to 
praise  those  whom  we  had  before  censured  : 
"  jam  et  illud  est  incommodi,  quod,  ut  nunc  res 
sunt  mortalium,  ex  amicissimis  nonnunquam 
reddantur  inimicissimi,  et  contra ;  ut  et  illos 
laudatos,  et  hos  doleas  attactos."  Erasmus 
speaks  feelingly  here,  finding  himself  called 
upon  in  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  to  censure 
Ulric  Hutton,  a  violent  and  turbulent  man, 
whom  in  his  early  works  he  had  liberally  com- 
mended. 

The  following  observation  of  the  poet 
Burns,  may  be  added  as  further  illustrating 
this  adage.  "  I  am  not  sure,"  he  says,  "  not- 
withstanding all  the  sentimental  flights  of  no- 
vel-writers, and  the  sagephilosophy  of  moralists, 
whether  we  are  capable  of  so  intimate  and  cor- 
dial 


(     254     ) 

dial  a  coalition  of  friendship,  as  that  one  mail 
may  pour  out  his  bosom,  his  very  thought, 
and  floating  fancy,  his  very  inmost  soul,  with 
unreserved  confidence  to  another,  without 
hazard  of  losing  part  of  that  respect  which  man 
deserves  from  man  ;  or  from  the  unavoidable 
imperfection  attending  human  nature,  of  one 
day  repenting  his  confidence."  Cicero  was, 
however,  of  opinion,  that  nothing  could  be 
more  hostile  to  the  idea  of  genuine  friendship, 
than  the  sentiment  contained  in  this  adage, 
neither  could  he  believe  that  it  was  the  saying 
of  so  wise  a  man  as  Bion,  to  whom  it  is  attri- 
buted. Certainly  it  is  not  in  accord  with  the 
picture  of  true  friendship,  given  in  the  eluci- 
dation of  the  first  and  third  adages  in  this: 
volume. 

Ne  Malorum  memineris* 

Do  not  revive  the  memory  of  troubles  that 
are  past.  "  Repeat  no  grievances."  The  thirty 
tyrants,  who  had  seized  upon  the  government 
of  Athens,  having  been  expelled  by  Thrasy- 
bulus,  he  enacted  a  law,  "Ne  quis  de  prasteritis 

actis 


actis  accusaretur,  aut  mulctaretur,"  that  nd 
persons  should  be  accused  or  punished  for  the 
part  they  had  taken  during  the  civil  dissen- 
sions. He  added,  "Ne  malorum  memoriam 
revoces,"  whieh  is  said  to  have  given  origin 
to  the  adage.  Not  alien  to  this  is  what  is  re- 
lated of  the  Emperor  Charles  the  Fifth.  When 
he  entered  Wittenburgh,  in  the  year  1547,  he 
was  much  pressed  by  the  Spaniards  who  were 
in  his  army,  to  destroy  the  monument  which 
had  been  erected  there  to  Luther,  but  he 
severely  reproved  them,  under  penalty  of  the 
forfeiture  of  their  lives,  from  disturbing  the 
ashes  of  that  celebrated  reformer,  to  whom  he 
had  nevertheless  been,  while  living,  an  impla- 
cable enemy ;  adding,  "  Nihil  mini  ultra  cum 
Luthero,"  I  have  nothing  further  to  do  with 
Luther,  he  is  now  amenable  to  another  and  a 
higher  tribunal;  neither  is  it  my  custom  to- 
war  with  the  dead,  but  with  those  who  are 
living,  and  appear  in  arms  against  me.  Similar 
to  this  was  the  conduct  of  Lewis  the  Eleventh. 
When  he  was  urged  to  deface  the  monument 
of  John,  Duke  of  Bedford,  who  had  been 
Regent  of  France  in  the  time  of  Henry  the 

Sixth: 


(     256    ) 

Sixth:  "  He  would  not,"  he  said,  "disturb  thft 
ashes  of  the  man,  whom  all  France  could  not 
repel  when  living."  Our  King  Charles  the 
Second,  being  recalled  from  banishment,  and 
put  in  possession  of  his  crown  and  kingdom, 
after  passing  an  act  of  amnesty,  required  of 
his  courtiers  that  they  should  make  no  further 
mention  of  their  past  sufferings,  and  on  any 
allusion  to  them  being  made,  he  was  used  to 
check  them,  reminding  them  of  one  of  his 
father's  golden  rules,  that  they  were  "  to  re- 
peat oo  grievances." 

Septennis  guum  sit,  nondum  edidit  Denies. 

Though  he  is  seven  years  of  age,  he  has  not 
yet  cut  his  teeth,  was  used  to  be  said  to  per- 
sons, who,  though  men  in  years,  were,  in  their 
actions,  and  in  their  understanding,  only 
children  ;  to  men  passing  their  time  in  idle 
and  boyish  amusements,  or  asking  questions 
on  subjects  so  trifling  and  common,  that  it 
would  be  disgraceful  even  for  children  to  be 
ignorant  of  them.  We  say  of  a  person  who 
suffers  himself  to  be  easily  outwitted,  "  he  has 

not 


(    257    ) 

not  got  all  his  teeth,"  or  "he  has  not  cut  his 
eye-teeth." 


Canis festinans  cacos  parit  Catulos. 

The  dog  hastening  to  produce  its  young, 
brings  them  into  the  world  blind,  that  is,  im- 
mature, and  before  they  are  completely  formed. 
This  was  used,  and  may  be  applied  to  persons 
who  are  in  so  much  haste  to  finish  what  they 
undertake,  that  they  leave  it  imperfect.  Those 
err  similarly,  who  are  too  precipitate  in  giving 
their  opinion  on  any  work,  or  action,  before 
they  have  had  time  to  examine  into  its  merit. 


Lingua,  quo  vadis  ? 

Tongue,  whither  are  you  going  ?  The  tongue 
has  been  compared,  and  not  unaptly,  to  the 
helm  of  a  ship;  though  it  makes  but  a  small 
part  of  the  vessel,  yet  upon  its  right  or  im- 
proper movement,  depends  the  safety  or  de- 
struction of  the  whole.  How  valuable  a  dis- 
creet and  eloquent  tongue  is,  and  on  the  other 
hand,  what  confusion  and  distress  a  hasty  and 

s  tur- 


(     258     ) 

turbulent  tongue  often  occasions,  we  all  of  us 
know ;  hence  the  phrase 

"  Vincula  da  linguae,  vel  tibi  vinc'la  dabit." 

Confine  your  tongue,  or  it  will  bring  you  into 
confinement.  Amasis,  king  of  Egypt,  having 
ordered  the  philosopher  Bias  to  send  him  the 
best  and  the  worst  part  of  a  victim  about  to 
be  sacrificed,  Bias  sent  him  the  tongue  of 
the  animal,  intimating,  that  according  as  it 
was  used,  that  was  the  part  which  was  capable 
of  producing  the  greatest  good,  or  the  greatest 
evil  to  the  possessor.  "  Tel  coup  de  langue, 
est  pire  qu'un  coup  de  lance,"  a  stab  with  the 
tongue  is  worse  than  a  thrust  with  a  lance. 


In  Node  Com  ilium. 

lt  La  notte  6  madre  di  pensiera,"  night  is  the 
mother  of  reflection.  "La  nuit  donne  conseil,'r 
consult,  or  take  counsel  of  your  pillow;  that 
is,  do  not  precipitately,  and  on  the  first  pro- 
posal, enter  into  any  engagement,  that  may 
have  a  material  influence  on  your  future  pro- 
spects in  life.  It  is  better  to  sleep,  that  is,  to 
deliberate  on  a  business  proposed  to  be  done, 

than 


than  to  be  kept  awake  by  reflections  on  its 
being  improvidently  finished.  Indeed  a  habit 
of  deliberating  before  you  act,  is  useful  in  in- 
ferior matters,  taking  care,  however,  that  it 
may  not  degenerate  into  a  futile,  and  trifling 
affectation  of  gravity,  that  may  make  you 
ridiculous.  Our  English  proverb  says,  "  On 
a  good  bargain  think  twice."  A  wise  man 
rarely  determines  on  the  merit  of  an  offer,  on 
the  first  view  of  it,  however  advantageous  it 
may  seem.  A  more  intimate  acquaintance  is 
wanted  to  enable  him  to  decide  on  its  actual 
value.  The  worth  of  the  object  may  be  greater 
than  the  price  at  which  it  is  offered  ;  but  he 
will  consider  whether  it  may  be  wanted  by  him, 
or  whether  by  purchasing  it  at  that  time,  he 
may  not  subject  himself  to  greater  inconve- 
niences, than  the  advantages  proposed  by  pos- 
sessing it  will  compensate.  "Bon  march6  tire 
1'argent  hors  de  la  bourse,"  "  a  good  bargain 
is  a  pick-purse."  People  are  often  induced  to 
buy  an  article  because  it  is  cheap,  but,  "Com- 
pra  lo  que  no  has  menester,  y  venderas  lo  que 
no  podras  escusar,"  "  buy  what  thou  hast  no 
need  of,  and  ere  long  thou  shalt  sell  thy  ne- 
s2  cessaries;" 


(     260     ) 

cessaries;"  and  "  Quod  non  opus  est  asse  carum 
est,"  what  is  not  wanted  is  dear  even  at  a 
farthing. 

Fronti  nulla  Fides. 

Too  much  credit  must  not  be  given  to  ap- 
pearances. "No  es  todo  oro,  lo  que  reluce," 
and  "  Tout  ce  qui  reluit  n'est  pas  or,"  for,  all 
is  not  gold  that  glitters.  A  beautiful  woman 
may  be  a  shrew;  or  a  fine  horse  vicious,  or  an 
ill-goer.  A  story  may  be  told  in  such  a  man- 
ner, as  to  induce  us  to  entertain  a  much  more 
favourable  opinion  of  the  principal  actor  in  it, 
than  on  a  further  investigation  he  shall  appear 
to  deserve.  Hence  the  legal  maxim,  "Audi 
alteram  partem,"  hear  the  other  side.  The  rule 
intended  to  be  inculcated  by  this  maxim,  has 
been  given  by  the  ancients  in  twenty  different 
forms,  and  is  in  the  mouth  of  every  one ;  but 
though  it  is  so  generally  known,  and  the  utility 
of  it  so  universally  assented  to,  yet  it  is  far 
from  having  that  influence  on  our  conduct, 
which  it  seems  calculated  to  produce. 
-«&? 

Coronam 


(     261     ) 

Coronam  quidem  gestans,  cceterum  Siti  per- 
ditus. 

Though  bearing  a  crown,  that  is,  abundantly 
honoured,  yet  dying  of  thirst,  or  in  want  of 
necessaries.  The  adage  is  supposed  to  have 
taken  its  origin  from  the  fate  of  one  Connas, 
who  had  been  frequently  victor  in  the  Olym- 
pic and,  other  games,  and  therefore  often 
crowned,  and  yet  was  suffered  to  live  and  die 
in  misery  and  wretchedness.  This  fate  has 
attended  more  than  one  of  the  votaries  to  the 
Muses  in  this  country ;  though  it  may  be 
doubted  whether  this  has  happened  so  much 
through  the  want  of  patrons  and  friends,  as 
from  an  incorrigible  habit  of  idleness,  and  dis- 
sipation in  the  sufferers.  This  was  certainly 
the  case  with  Savage,  and  in  a  stronger  degree 
with  Moreland,  an  artist  of  our  own  time, 
famed  for  his  talent  in  painting  rustic  scenes. 
He  died  indeed  miserable,  but  rather  of  drunk- 
enness, the  vice  of  Connas  also,  than  of  want. 
He  chose  rather,  the  later  years  of  his  life,  to 
live  concealed  from  his  creditors,  than  by  very 
moderate  exertions,  to  get  what  would  have 
been  sufficient  to  pay  his  debts,  and  to  support 
s  3  him- 


himself  with  credit.  The  adage  was  used  to 
be  applied  to  persons,  whose  friends  were  more 
liberal  in  their  praise,  than  in  what  was  neces- 
sary for  their  support  and  subsistence. 


Ubi  quis  dolet.  ibi  et  ManumJ'requens  habet. 

"We  must  scratch  where  it  itches."  The 
hand  will  be  frequently  and  spontaneously 
moved  to  the  part  that  is  grieved.  "  Alia  va 
la  lengua,  do  duele  la  muela,"  the  tongue  goes 
to  the  tooth  that  is  in  pain.  Men  are  with 
difficulty  kept  from  talking  of  their  misfor- 
tunes, or  of  whatever  strongly  affects  them. 
'•  What  the  mind  thinks,  the  tongue  speaks," 
or,  "  Out  of  the  abundance  of  the  heart,  the 
mouth  speaketh."  In  conversation  men  are 
apt  on  all  occasions  to  introduce  the  subjects 
that  happen  to  employ  their  attention;  to  talk 
of  their  professions,  their  business,  their  tra- 
vels, or  their  troubles,  without  considering 
how  uninteresting,  or  even  annoying,  they 
must  be  to  the  auditors,  and  that  such  dis- 
courses should  be  deferred  until  the  persons 
we  mean  to  entertain,  may  call  for,  or  at  the 

least 


(     263     ) 

least  be  disposed  to  hear  them.  "  Dios  te  librc 
de  1'hombre  de  un  libro,"  God  keep  you,  the 
Spaniards  say,  from  the  man  who  has  but  one 
book. 


Quod  licet  ingratum  est,  quod  non  licet 
acrius  uret. 

While  it  was  permitted,  we  looked  upon  it 
with  indifference,  it  was  not  until  it  was 
prohibited  that  we  anxiously  longed  for  it. 
<f  Communiter  negligitur,  quod  communiter 
possidetur,"  what  is  common,  and  may  be 
easily  obtained,  is  in  little  request. 

"  Man's  curse  is,  things  forbid  still  to  pursue, 
What's  freely  offered,  not  to  hold  worth  view." 

"  Furem  signata  solicitant,  aperta  effractarius 
praeterit,"  things  sealed  up  excite  the  cupidity 
of  the  thief,  but  what  lies  open  is  passed  by 
unnoticed.  It  was  the  opinion  of  one  of  the 
ancients,  that  executions  rather  whet  than 
blunt  the  edge  of  vice  ;  that  they  do  not  pro- 
duce a  desire  to  do  well,  but  only  a  care  not 
to  be  taken  in  doing  ill. 

s  4  Hinc 


H'mc  illce  Lachrymce. 

Hence  these  tears,  hence  all  the  concern 
he  has  shewn ;  I  have  not  praised  his  works, 
or  joined  in  his  projects  to  amuse  and  deceive 
the  public.  The  adage  may  be  applied  on  dis- 
covering the  true  causes  of  the  complaints  or 
actions  of  any  one,  which  he  had  studiously 
endeavoured  to  conceal,  and  to  such  a  cir- 
cumstance it  owes  its  origin.  Simo,  in  the 
Andrian,  supposed  at  first,  that  the  concern 
his  son  manifested  on  the  death  of  Chryses, 
proceeded  from  his  friendship  for  the  deceased, 
but  finding,  at  length,  that  it  arose  from  his 
affection  to  her  sister,  equally  disappointed 
and  concerned  at  the  discovery,  he  burst  out 
into  the  exclamation,  "  Hinc  illffi  lachrymal," 
this  then  was  the  cause  of  his  concern. 


Ignis,  Mare,  Mulier,  tria  Mala. 

Which  cannot  be  better  explained  than  by  * 
the  following  lines  of  Prior. 

*'  Fire,  water,  woman,  are  man's  ruin, 
Says  wise  professor  Vander  Bruin." 

"By 


(    265     ) 

"  By  flames,  a  house  I  hired,  was  lost 
Last  year,  and  I  must  pay  the  cost. 
Next  year  the  sea  o'erflowed  my  ground, 
And  my  best  Flanders  mare  was  drowned. 
A  slave  I  am  to  Clara's  eyes, 
The  gipsey  knows  her  power  and  flies. 
Fire,  water,  woman,  are  my  ruin, 
And  great  thy  wisdom,  Vander  Bruin." 

This  is  something  better  than  the  answer  of 
the  Lacedemonian,  who  being  ridiculed  for 
having  married  a  very  little  woman,  excused 
himself,  by  observing,  "that  of  evils,  we  should 
choose  the  least."  The  Spartans,  we  are  told, 
fined  their  king  Archidamus,  for  marrying  a 
very  little  woman,  concluding  that  the  breed 
would  degenerate,  and  that  she  could  only 
produce  kinglets. 


Aureopiscari  Hamo. 

"  Peschar  col  hamo  d'argento,"  fishing  with 
a  golden  or  silver  hook.  Men  are  often  so 
eager  in  pursuit  of  some  favourite  object,  that 
they  care  not  at  what  cost  it  is  obtained;  but 
which,  when  acquired,  they  find  to  be  of  little 
value.  This  is  fishing  with  a  golden  hook. 

The 


The  proverb  was  frequent  in  the  mouth  of 
Augustus  Csesar,  who  used  it  to  restrain  the 
young  men  of  fashion,  at  his  court,  when  he 
saw  them  lavishing  their  fortunes,  to  obtain 
the  reputation  of  having  more  stately  houses, 
richer  furniture,  or  finer  horses,  than  others  of 
their  rank,  from  which  they  would  reap  no 
solid  advantage.  It  took  its  rise  from  a  prac- 
tice not  uncommon  with  persons  who  have 
been  unsuccessful  in  their  sport,  who  purchase 
of  more  fortunate  fishermen  a  part  of  what 
they  have  taken,  that  they  may  not,  by  carry- 
ing home  empty  bags,  subject  themselves  to 
the  laughter  of  their  friends.  These  therefore 
literally  fish  with  golden  hooks. 


Sera  infundo  Parcimonia. 

It  is  too  late  to  begin  to  save  when  all  is 
spent. 

"  It  is  too  late  to  spare 
When  me  bottom  is  bare." 

"  Bolsa  vazia  faz  6  homo  sesuda  mas  tarde, 
an  empty  purse  makes  a  man  wise  too  late. 
To  these  apothegms  we  may  oppose,  "Meglio 

tarde 


(    267    ) 

tarde  die  mai,  "  "  II  vaut  mieux  tarcl  que 
jamais,"  "  Better  late  than  never,"  and  "  It 
is  never  too  late  to  mend."  Though  by  a  long 
course  of  imprudence  we  may  have  reduced 
ourselves  to  great  inconvenience  or  distress, 
we  should  not  despair,  scarcely  any  thing  be- 
ing impossible  for  labour  and  perseverance  to 
achieve.  "Aogni  cosa  e  remedio,  fuora  qu' 
alia  morte,"  there  is  a  remedy  for  every  thing 
but  death.  "Thomas  Sackville,  earl  of  Dorset, 
having  wasted  his  fortune,  was  so  shocked  at 
being  made  to  wait  in  an  anti-room  at  the 
house  of  a  citizen,  where  he  went  to  borrow 
money,  that  he  resolved  from  thenceforward 
to  become  an  economist,  and  by  that  means 
recovered  his  estate."  The  proverb,  however, 
means  to  recommend  that  we  should  pay  early 
attention  to  our  affairs,  and  set  bounds  to 
our  expenditure,  while  our  estates  are  entire. 
"  When  thou  hast  enough,  remember  the  time 
of  hunger;  and  when  thou  art  rich,  think  upon 
poverty  and  need:"  take  care  "that  you  do 
not  make  the  sail  too  big  for  the  vessel,  lest  it 
should  sink."  Plato,  seeing  a  young  man  of 
good  family,  who  had  wasted  his  estate,  sitting 

at 


(     268     ) 

at  the  door  of  an  inn,  feeding  on  offals,  said 
to  those  who  were  with  him,  "  If  this  man 
had  dined  temperately,  he  needed  not  to  have 
supped  so  sparingly."  We  should  consider 
that  love  and  respect  are  rarely  conceded  to 
a  lost  fortune,  and  that  adversity  seldom  meets 
•with  the  returns  of  friendship.  "Quien  a  mano 
egena  espera,  mal  yanta  y  peor  cena,"  he  that 
depends  upon  another  for  subsistence,  break- 
fasts ill,  and  sups  worse.  A  man  of  good  edu- 
cation, without  money,  has  been  compared  to 
a  ship  that  is  well-rigged,  but  is  detained  in 
port  for  want  of  a  favourable  wind.  "  Amasser 
en  saison,  depenser  par  raison,  font  la  bonne 
maison,"  a  seasonable  gathering,  and  a  reason- 
able spending  make  a  good  housekeeping.  By 
a  decree  of  the  Emperor  Adrian,  men  who  had 
wasted  their  property  by  gaming,  or  by  fol- 
lowing profligate  courses,  were  publicly  put 
to  shame.  In  later  times,  the  Tuscans  brought 
such  men  into  the  market,  on  a  bier,  with  an 
empty  purse  before  them,  and  they  were  obliged 
to  sit  there  the  whole  day,  exposed  to  the  de- 
rision of  the  people.  Our  stocks  would  be  a 
good  substitute  for  the  bier.  At  Padua  they 

had 


(    269    ) 

had  a  stone,  called  the  seat  of  turpitude,  near 
the  senate-house,  where  spendthrifts  were  com- 
pelled to  sit  with  their  hinder  parts  bare,  that 
by  thejr  disgrace  others  might  be  deterred 
from  copying  their  vices.  It  is  too  late  also 
at  the  latter  part  of  our  lives,  then  to  begin  to 
learn  how  to  live,  for  though  it  be  true,  that 
"  nulla  astas  ad  perdiscendum  sera  est,"  that 
is,  that  it  is  not  impracticable  to  learn  at  a 
late  period  ;  yet  at  such  a  term,  we  can  neither 
hope  to  make  the  proficiency  we  might  have 
done,  or  to  enjoy  the  benefit  from  it  we  should 
have  obtained  if  we  had  begun  earlier. 


Homines  frugi  omnia  rectkfaciunt. 

By  a  frugal  man  you  may  expect  every 
thing  to  be  justly  and  faithfully  performed. 
The  same  value  was  attributed  to  prudence, 
which  is  indeed  only  another  word  for  fru- 
gality; "  nullum  numen  abest  si  sit  pru- 
dentia,"  for  without  prudence  there  can  be  no 
virtue.  "  Sum  bonus  et  frugi,"  I  am  honest 
and  careful,  Horace  makes  his  servant  say,  as 
including  every  virtue.  The  word  frugi  among 

the 


(     270    ) 

the  Romans  was  of  a  very  extensive  significa- 
tion, comprehending  under  it,  justice,  forti- 
tude, constancy  and  temperance  ;  by  Cicero 
it  is  opposed  to  nequam,  and  frugalitas  to 
neqnitia,  as  if  he  thought  it  impossible  for  the 
improvident  and  careless  to  be  other  than  pro- 
fligate and  wicked,  and  not  perhaps  without 
reason,  as  he  who  is  not  frugal,  will  not  long 
avoid  being  involved  in  debt,  and  he  who  is 
deeply  plunged  in  debt,  will  be  so  often  ob- 
liged to  break  his  engagements,  that  he  will  at 
length  lose  all  sense  of  distinction  between 

o 

truth  and  falsehood;  "  for  lying,"  as  Panta- 
gruel  tells  Panurge,  "  is  only  the  second  vice, 
the  first  vice  is  being  in  debt;''  a  maxim, 
Plutarch  says,  we  have  taken  from  the  Per- 
sians. Not  alien  to  this  is  the  Italian  pro- 
verb, "  un  oncia  di  prudenza  val  piu  che  una 
libra  d'  oro,"  an  ounce  of  prudence  is  better 
than  a  pound  of  gold,  and  "  chi  semina  virtu 
fama  raccogli,''  who  sows  virtue  reaps  fame. 
Sir  George  Mackenzie,  in  his  history  of  fru- 
gality, says,  he  heard  a  Dutch  ambassador 
tell  King  Charles  the  Second,  that  he  had 
spent  only  an  hundred  guilders  in  meat  and 

drink 


(    271     ) 

drink  in  Holland,  during  a  whole  year,  nor 
had  he  ever  been  in  better  health  or  company ; 
and  when  the  King  asked  him  why  he  had 
done  so  unusual  a  thing,  he  answered,  to  let 
his  countrymen  see,  that  one  needed  not  to 
have  recourse  to  mean,  still  less  to  vicious 
practices  to  get  whereon  to  live  :  but  "  there 
needed  no  ghost,  methinks,  to  tell  his  country- 
men that." 


Simul  sorbere  et  flare  difficile  est. 

"  Sorber  y  soplar,  no  se  puecle  hazar  a  la 
par,"  it  is  difficult  to  sup  and  blow,  that  is,  to 
drink  and  talk  at  the  same  time.  Whatever 
our  employment  or  pursuit  may  be,  to  that  we 
should  direct  our  thoughts  and  not  distract 
our  minds  by  attempting  a  variety  of  different 
projects  at  the  same  time.  To  bring  any  one 
art  or  science  to  perfection,  or  to  achieve  any 
great  object  will  require  our  undivided  atten- 
tion, and  must  be  persevered  in  for  a  long 
course  of  time.  Milton  would  not  have  at- 
tained to  the  eminence  to  which  he  rose  ill 
poetry,  nor  Newton  in  philosophy,  if  they  had 

not 


(     272     ) 

not  confined  their  studies  to  those  objects. 
Rightly  therefore  the  bard, 

"  One  science  only  will  one  genius  fit, 
So  vast  is  art,  so  narrow  human  wit." 

We  are  also  told  in  the  Scriptures,  "  that  no 
man  can  serve  two  masters,"  and  that  "  we 
cannot  serve  God  and  Mammon."  "  You  can- 
not," Phocion  said  to  Antipater,  "  have  me 
both  for  your  flatterer  and  your  friend  :"  and 
no  man,  we  are  told,  can  be  at  once  prudent 
and  in  love. 

"  Amare  et  sapere  vix  Deo  conceditur." 
And  the  Spaniards  say,  that  honor  and  profit 
cannot  exist  together,  or  cannot  be  contained 
in  one  and  the  same  bag,  "  Honor  y  provecho 
no  caben  en  un  saco."  The  adage  was  used 
by  a  servant  in  one  of  the  comedies  of  Plau- 
tus,  whose  master  had  required  of  him  what 
was  impracticable,  viz.  to  be  giving  him  as- 
sistance at  home,  and  doing  his  business 
abroad  at  the  same  time. 


In  Herba  esse. 

The  corn  is  as  yet  in  the  blade,  "  you  are 

counting 


(    273    ) 

counting  your  chickens  before  they  are  hatch- 
ed;" "  hazer  la  cuenta  sin  la  huespida,"  or 
"  reckoning  without  your  host,"  and  "  spend- 
ing your  Michaelmas  rent  in  the  Midsummer 
moon  ;"  not  considering  how  many  accidents 
may  happen  to  thwart  and  disappoint  your 
expectations.  Young  and  inexperienced  per- 
sons are  very  apt,  as  soon  as  they  have  formed 
a  plausible  project,  to  begin  to  reckon  their 
profits  and  often  to  spend  them  too,  and  take 
it  unkind  of  their  friends  if  they  disturb  their 
confidence  with  doubts,  or  do  not  enter  into 
their  schemes  with  equal  ardour  and  precipi- 
tancy. Poets  are  also  apt,  my  text  says,  to 
exult  too  much,  on  hearing  their  compositions 
praised  by  those  to  whom  they  read  them  ; 
but  they  should  wait  if  they  would  know  their 
true  character,  until  the  public  have  given 
their  opinion,  or  until  time  has  stamped  them 
with  its-  seal. 


Inter  indoctos  etiam  Corydus  sonat. 

To  those  unskilled  in  music  the  note  of  the 

sparrow  may  be  agreeable,  as  among  illiterate 

T  persons 


(    274    ) 

persons  a  dunce  may  be  held  in  some  estima- 
tion. The  corydus  is  a  species  of  larks,  of  a 
very  inferior  quality,  which  were  found  in 
great  abundance  near  Athens:  but  as  the  lark 
has  some  credit  among  us  for  its  note,  the 
sparrow  is  here  substituted  as  better  according 
with  the  intention  of  the  adage.  "  Luscus 
convitia  jacit  in  caecum,"  or  "  borgne  est  roy 
entre  les  aveugles,"  he  that  hath  one  eye  is  a 
king  among  the  blind  ;  and  "  dixo  el  cuervo 
a  la  corneja,  quita  os  alia  negra,"  the  crow 
bids  the  rook  put  off  his  black  coat,  and  the 
rook  makes  the  same  proposal  to  the  crow. 


Ficum  cupit. 

He  wants  figs.  This  was  used  to  be  said  of 
any  one  paying  particular  attention  to  per- 
sons much  beneath  him  ;  meaning,  he  is  court- 
ing me  for  his  own  purpose,  as  may  be  said 
of  our  gentry  going  into  the  shops  of  little 
traders  on  the  eve  of  a  general  election,  spend- 
ing their  money  with  them  liberally  and  treat- 
ing them  with  unusual  civility  :  he  wants  my 
vote. 

The 


The  Athenians  were  used  on  the  approach 
of  the  season  when  the  figs  were  coming  to 
perfection,  to  visit  the  cots  of  the  neighbour- 
ing peasants,  and  treat  them  with  great  fami- 
liarity and  kindness,  that  they  might  procure 
from  them  some  of  the  finest  of  the  fruit ; 
which  the  rustics  at  length  perceiving,  when 
any  one  they  did  not  know,  addressed  them 
in  that  manner,  they  would  say,  what  you 
want,  I  suppose,  some  of  our  figs  ;  which 
thence  became  proverbial. 


Odium  Vatinianum. 

Vatinian  hatred,  by  which  the  Romans 
meant  to  express,  an  inextinguishable  hatred, 
such  as  they  bore  to  Vatinus,  for  his  flagi- 
tious vices  and  cruelty,  which  had  been  ex- 
posed to  them  by  Cicero. 


Ficus  Fiats,  Ligonem  Ligonem  vocat. 

He  calls  a  fig,  a  fig ;  a  spade,  a  spade.  That 

is,  he  is  a  man  of  plain  and  rustic  manners, 

T  2  and 


(     276     ) 

and  calls  every  thing  by  its  name.  "  He  is 
Tom  tell-truth."  He  tells  his  story  as  it  had 
been  related  to  him,  and  is  no  respecter  of 
persons.  If  a  man  is  just  and  upright,  he  gives 
him  due  honour;  if  crafty  and  deceitful,  what- 
ever may  be  his  quality,  he  calls  him  a  knave. 
"  But  vice  has  persuaded  custom,"  Sir  William 
Cornwallis  observes,  "  that  to  call  naught, 
naught,  is  uncivil  and  dangerous."  At  any 
rate,  let  those  who  have  any  hidden,  or  not 
generally  known  vices,  take  care  how  they 
descant  upon  the  follies  or  vices  of  others,  lest 
their  own  faults  should  be  drawn  from  their 
covert,  and  exposed  to  the  world.  "  Desinant 
maledicere,  malefacta  ni  noscant  sua."  . 


Bona  magis  carendo  quam  fruendo  sentimus. 

We  perceive  more  the  value  of  an  object 
when  it  has  escaped  from  us,  than  we  did  when 
possessing  it,  and  "  Bona  a  tergo  formosis- 
sima,"  good  things  rarely  appear  to  us  in  their 
full  beauty,  until  we  are  about  to  lose  them. 
The  poor  man,  in  the  fable,  did  not  know 
to  what  degree  he  valued  life,  until  death, 

whom 


(     277     ) 

whom  he  had  called  for,  came  to  take  it  from 
him. 

"  Pleasures  are  ever  in  our  hands  or  eyes, 
And  when  in  act  they  cease,  in  prospect  rise." 

"  Vdche  ne  sfait  que  vaut  se  queue, 
Jusques  a  ce  qu'elle  1'ait  perdue." 

The  co\v  did  not  know  the  value  of  her  tail, 
until  she  had  lost  it. 

"  What  we  have  we  prize  not  to  the  worth, 
Whiles  we  enjoy  it;  but  being  lack'd  and  lost, 
Why  then  we  rack  the  value;  then  we  find 
The  virtue,  that  possession  would  not  give  us 
Whiles  it  was  ours." 


ad  Aures  guidem  scalpendas  Ocium  est. 

He  is  so  full  of  business,  that  he  has  not 
time  to  scratch  his  ears,  by  which  hyperbolical 
expression,  the  ancients  designated  persons  so 
overwhelmed  by  a  multiplicity  of  employments, 
as  not  to  leave  them  leisure  for  the  most  com- 
mon and  necessary  concerns. 


T  3  Quot 


Quot  Servi  tot  Hostes. 

Who  has  many  servants,  has  as  many  ene- 
mies, which  is  the  way  I  should  choose  to 
read  the  adage.  If  your  servants  are  slaves, 
purchased,  or  taken  in  war,  as  they  will  he 
perpetually  seeking  means  to  free  themselves 
from  bondage,  the  more  there  are  of  them  the 
greater  the  danger,  and  these  are  probably  the 
servants  alluded  to.  In  this  sense  it  is  not  less 
true  when  applied  to  servants  who  are  hired, 
and  may  be  supposed  to  serve  voluntarily.  If 
you  keep  more  than  you  have  employment 
for,  they  will  corrupt  each  other,  and  become 
vicious  through  idleness.  "  Quien  ha  criados, 
ha  enemigos  no  escusados,"  he  who  has  ser- 
vants, has  unavoidable  enemies.  As  they  can- 
not be  dispensed  with,  they  are  therefore  ne- 
cessary evils. 

The  adage  more  particularly  admonishes, 
that  you  do  not  make  confidents  of  them,  but 
as  far  as  you  are  able,  keep  from  them  the 
knowledge  of  all  circumstances,  which  di- 
vulged might  injure  you ;  but  this,  if  there 
are  many  of  them,  will  not  be  easily  effected. 

On  this  subject  Juvenal  says, 

«  O  Co- 


"  O  Corydon,  Corydon,  secretum  divitis  ullum 
Esse  putas  ?  Servi  ut  taceant  ?" 

which  take  as  translated  by  Dryden : 

"  Dull  Corydon !  art  thou  so  stupid  grown, 
To  think  a  rich  man's  faults  can  be  unknown  ? 
Has  he  not  slaves  about  him  ?  would  not  they 
Rejoice  and  laugh,  his  secrets  to  betray? 
What  more  effectual  to  revenge  their  wrongs, 
Than  the  unbounded  freedom  of  their  tongues?" 

And  though  little  attention  might  be  paid  to 
their  suffrages,  in  commendation  of  their  mas- 
ters, any  scandal  they  may  propagate,  will  be 
readily  enough  believed.  For  as  the  same  Poet 
says, 

"  On  eagle's  wings  immortal  scandals  fly, 
While  virtuous  actions  are  but  born  and  die." 


Prcevisus  ante,  mollior  Ictus  venit. 

A  misfortune  that  is  foreseen  affects  us  less 
keenly,  than  one  that  falls  upon  us  suddenly 
and  unexpectedly :  we  may  also  by  foreseeing 
what  is  about  to  happen,  if  not  altogether 
avoid  the  stroke,  contrive  to  make  it  less  hurt- 
ful to  us.  Of  kin  to  this,  is 

T  4  Prce- 


(     280     ) 


Prcemonitus,  Pramunitus. 

"  Forewarned,  forearmed ;"  which  may  be 
said  to  any  one  threatening  vengeance.  I 
thank  you  for  your  candour  in  advertising  me 
of  your  intention,  I  shall  now  take  care  to  be 
prepared  for  you. 


Stultum  est  timer  e  quod  vitari  non  potest. 

It  is  foolish  to  distress  ourselves  for  what 
cannot  be  prevented  ;  instead  of  uselessly  la- 
menting we  should  summon  up  our  courage, 
and  endeavour  to  accommodate  ourselves  to 
the  new  situation  into  which  we  have  been 
thrown  by  our  misfortunes ;  remembering* 
"  that  what  can't  be  cured,  must  be  endured." 


Optimum  aliena  Insanidfrui. 

It  is  good  to  profit  by  the  follies  of  others. 
"  Experience,"  we  say,  "  makes  even  fools 
wise,"  but  wise  men  gain  experience  from  the 

mis' 


(     281     ) 

misfortunes  of  others,  fools  only  from  their 
own ; 

"  Ex  vitio  alterius,  sapiens  emendat  suum." 

"  It  is  a  pleasure,"  Lord  Verulam  says,  from 
Lucretius,  "  to  stand  upon  the  shore  and 
to  see  ships  tost  upon  the  sea;  a  pleasure 
to  stand  in  the  window  of  a  castle,  and  to 
see  a  battle  and  the  adventure  thereof  below ; 
but  no  pleasure  is  comparable  to  the  standing 
upon  the  vantage  ground  of  truth,  and  to  see 
the  errors  and  wanderings,  and  mists  and  tem- 
pests in  the  vale  below.  So  always,"  he  adds, 
"  that  this  prospect  be  with  pity,  and  not  with 
swelling  or  pride." 


Acti  Labores  jucundi. 

The  remembrance  of  dangers  that  are  past 
is  pleasant,  particularly  if  we  have  escaped  by 
our  own  activity,  skill,  or  courage. 


Homo  est  Bulla. 

Human  life  is  a  bubble.  So  frail  and  unsta- 
ble is  life,  so  assailable  and  liable  to  disease  and 
accidents,  and  so  easily  extinguishable,  that 

it 


(     282     ) 

it  is  not  unaptly  compared  to  a  bubble,  which 
rising  upon  water  or  any  other  fluid,  bursts 
and  disappears  almost  as  soon  as  it  is  formed, 
and  is  succeeded  by  others  equally  unsubstan- 
tial and  evanescent.  This  fragility  of  human 
life  is  very  properly  adduced  as  an  argument 
of  the  immortality  of  the  soul ;  the  deity 
would  not  have  produced  into  the  world  a 
being  endowed  with  such  powers,  so  capable 
of  acquiring  knowledge,  merely  to  flutter  a 
few  hours  on  this  stage  and  then  to  be  lost  for 
.ever.  If  that  were  the  case,  we  might  then 
agree  with  those  philosophers  who  held  it 
to  be 

Optimum  non  nasci. 

Better  not  to  be  born,  or  to  have  died  as 
soon  as  we  had  seen  the  light,  and  before 
we  should  have  been  subjected  "  to  the  thou- 
sand natural  ills  that  flesh  is  heir  to."  "  II  n'y 
&  personne  heureux  au  monde,"  the  French 
say,  "  que  celui  qui  meurt  en  maillet,"  none 
can  be  esteemed  happy  but  such  as  die  in 
their  swaddling  clothes;  and  the  Italians  to 

the 


(     283     ) 

the  same  purport,  "  nel  mondo  non  e  felice  se 
non  quel  che  muore  in  fascie  :"  for 

"       "  Medio  de  fonte  leporum 

Surgit  amairaliquid." 

Even  in  the  midst  of  our  festivity  some  me- 
lancholy thoughts  will  intrude  themselves  to 
dash  our  mirth.  And  Solomon  says,  "  where- 
fore I  praised  the  dead,  which  are  already 
dead,  more  than  the  living,  which  are  yet 
alive;  yea,  better  is  he  than  both  they,  which 
hath  not  yet  been,  who  hath  not  seen  the  evil 
work  that  is  done  under  the  sun."  This  sen- 
timent is  amplified  in  the  following  lines  of 
Prior's  Solomon  : 

"  Thrice  happy  is  the  man  who  now  at  last, 
Has  through  this  doleful  vale  of  misery  past  J 
Who  to  his  destined  stage,  has  carried  on 
The  tedious  load,  and  laid  his  burthen  down. 
He's  happier,  yet,  who  privileged  by  fate, 
To  shorter  labour,  and  a  lighter  weight, 
Received  but  yesterday  the  gift  of  breath, 
Ordered  to-morrow  to  return  to  death." 

a 

On  this  theme  the  Grecian  poets  and  philo- 
sophers are  very  eloquent;  with  them,  "  dolere 
ac  vivere,"  to  suffer  and  to  live,  were  syno- 

nimous, 


(     284     ) 

nimous.  The  following  from  Translations  from 
the  Greek  Anthology  will  shew  this  opinion 
of  the  ancients  better  than  any  thing  I  could 
add: 

"  Thracians  who  howl  around  an  infant's  birth, 
And  give  the  funeral  hour  to  songs  and  mirth, 
Well  in  your  grief  and  gladness  are  express'd, 
That  life  is  labour,  and  that  death  is  rest." 

and  these, 

"  Why  fear  ye  death,  the  parent  of  repose, 
Who  numbs  the  sense  of  penury  and  pain  ? 
He  comes  but  only  once ;  nor  ever  throws, 
Triumphant  once,  his  painful  shaft  again ; 
But  countless  ills  upon  our  life  intrude, 
Recurring  oft  in  sad  vicissitude." 

I  shall  insert  one  other  specimen  from  an  un- 
known writer,  taken  from  the  same  collection. 

"  Waking  we  burst  at  each  return  of  morn, 
From  death's  dull  fetters,  and  again  are  born  ; 
No  longer  ours  the  moments  that  are  past, 
To  a  new  remnant  of  our  lives  we  haste. 
Call  not  the  years  thine  own  that  made  thee  grey, 
That  left  their  wrinkles,  and  are  fled  away ; 
The  past  no  more  shall  yield  thee  ill  or  good, 
Gone  to  the  silent  times  beyond  the  flood." 

That  life  has  its  evils,  and  that  they  more  than 
balance  its  comforts,  is  pretty  generally  ad- 
mitted ; 


(     285     ) 

mitted ;  yet  we  find  that  even  a  long  continu- 
aace  of  pain  and  distress,  have  not  the  power, 
in  many  of  us,  of  weaning  us  from  a  fondness 
for  it.  Seneca  makes  one  of  his  characters  say, 

"  Debilem  facito  manu, 
Debilem  pede,  cox4, 
Lubricos  quate  dentes, 
Vita  dura  superest,  bene  est." 

Take  from  me  the  use  of  my  hands  and  of  my 
feet,  dash  out  my  teeth,  and  inflict  upon  me  a 
thousand  other  ills,  preserve  but  my  life,  and 
I  will  still  be  contented. 

"  Oh  what  a  dreadful  thought  it  is,  to  die! 
To  leave  the  freshness  of  this  upper  sky, 
For  the  cold  horrors  of  the  funeral  rite, 
The  land  of  ghosts  and  everlasting  night! 
Oh,  slay  me  not !  the  weariest  life  that  pain, 
The  fever  of  disgrace,  the  lengthened  chain 
Of  slavery,  can  impose  on  mortal  breath, 
'  Is  real  bliss,'  to  what  we  fear  of  death. 

Greek  Anthology. 

But  this  was  the  complaint  of  a  beautiful  young 
damsel,  whose  father  was  about  to  sacrifice  her, 
to  appease  the  anger  of  Diana,  whom  he  had 
offended  by  killing  one  of  her  stags.  The 
goddess  took  compassion  on  the  lady,  and 

sub- 


(    286    ) 

substituted  a  deer  in  her  place.  The  following 
is  more  to  the  purpose.  Antisthenes,  the  stoic, 
being  very  sick,  and  in  great  pain,  cried  out, 
"  Can  no  one  deliver  me  from  these  evils  ? " 
Diogenes,  who  was  with  him,  presenting  him 
a  knife,  said,  "This  will  relieve  you."  "  I  do 
not  mean  from  my  life,"  replied  Antisthenes, 
"  but  from  my  disease."  The  point  to  which 
we  should  aim,  and  endeavour  to  arrive  at,  is, 
not  to  make  our  continuance  in  life  an  object 
of  too  anxious  solicitude,  but  as  Martial  teaches 
"Summum  nee  metuas  diem,  nee  optas,"  nei- 
ther to  wish,  nor  fear,  to  die.  "  Viva  la  gal- 
lina,  y  viva  con  su  pepita,"  let  the  hen  live, 
though  with  the  pip  ;  and  "  a  living  dog,"  we 
say,  "is  better  than  a  dead  lion." 


Harena  sine  Cake. 

Sand  without  lime.  If  too  much  sand  or 
rubbish  be  used  in  making  mortar  or  cement, 
it  will  not  cohere,  but  crumble  into  dust.  The 
adage  may  be  applied  to  any  speech  or  com- 
position, in  which  order  and  method  have  been 
neglected,  where  the  parts  have  no  congruity 

or 


or  connection.  It  was  by  this  phrase  that  the 
Emperor  Caligula  characterised  the  works  of 
Seneca,  and  not  entirely  without  reason,  Eras- 
mus observes.  For  though  the  writings  of  that 
great  observer  of  human  life  and  manners, 
abound  with  just  and  pertinent  observations, 
they  are  frequently  given  in  so  desultory  a 
manner,  that  it  is  not  easy  to  follow  and  con- 
nect them  together  ;  the  same  may  be  objected 
to  the  elegant,  but  unconnected  Elegies  of 
Tibullus,  and  still  more  justly,  perhaps,  to 
the  Essays  of  Montaigne. 


Furemque  Fur  cognoscit. 
The  thief  knows  or  acknowledges  his  brother 
thief.  Persons  of  similar  manners,  but  the  bad 
particularly,  are  fond  of  associating  together; 
indeed  when  their  characters  are  known,  they 
cannot  easily  get  other  companions.  Hence 
we  say, 

"  Tell  me  with  whom  thou  goest, 
And  I'll  tell  thee  what  thou  doest." 

for,  "  Cada  uno  busca  a  su  semejante,','  or 
"  Chacun  aime  son  semblable,"  "  birds  of  a 
feather  will  still  flock  together/' 

Ante- 


Antequam  incipias,  consulto. 

Consider,  or  deliberate  maturely,  before  you 
undertake  any  great  work  or  enterprise  ;  after 
you  have  embarked  in  it,  it  may  be  too  late. 
"The  beginning  of  all  virtue,"  Demosthenes 
observes,  "  is  deliberation ;  and  the  end  and 
perfection  of  it,  constancy."  When  you  de- 
termine to  cross  the  ocean,  remember  you. 
may  have  to  epcounter  storms  and  tempests, 
and  before  you  enter  on  any  new  project,  that 
it  may  fail.  It  is  necessary  to  be  prepared  for 
every  event,  and  not  like  the  inconsiderate  and 
foolish  man,  at  every  cross  incident  or  obstacle 
you  meet  with,  cry  "  who  would  have  thought 
it !"  "Things  will  have,"  Lord  Verulam  says, 
"  their  first,  or  second  agitation ;  if  they  be  not 
tossed  upon  the  arguments  of  counsel,  they  will 
be  tossed  upon  the  waves  of  fortune,  and  be 
full  of  inconstancy,  doing  and  undoing,  like  the 
reeling  of  a  drunken  man.  It  is  good  to  com- 
mit the  beginnings  of  all  great  actions  to  Argus 
with  his  hundred  eyes,  and  the  ends  to  Briareus 
with  his  hundred  hands:  for  the  helmet  of 
Pluto,  which  maketh  the  politic  man  to  go 

invisible, 


(     139    ) 

invisible,  is  secrecy  in  counsel,  and  celerity  in 
the  execution."     Polonius  advises  his  son  to 


"  Beware 


Of  entrance  to  a  quarrel,  but  being  in, 
Bear  't,  that  th'  oppo&er  may  beware  of  thee." 


END  OF  VOL.  I. 


ERRATA,  VOL.  I, 

Page  21.  1.  16.  for  Crabones,  read  Crabroncs. 

73.  1.  for  and  so  long  a,  read  and  so  a  long. 

99.  2.  for  Invenxione,  read  Invenzione. 

123.  10.  for  capillo,  vead  lapillo, 

1 1.  for  candido,  read  candidus. 

137.  1.  for  steftb,  read  stesso. 

145.  14,  for  has,  read  have. 

148.  2.  dele  of. 

200.  25.  /or  bate,  read  bait, 

201.  4.  for  bated,  read  baited. 
225.         24.  for  happn,  read  happen- 


LONDON: 

Printed  by  C.  Ro worth,  Bell-yard,  Temple-bar. 


PROVERBS, 

CHIEFLY  TAKEN  FROM  THE 

ADAGIA  OF  ERASMUS, 

WITH  EXPLANATIONS; 

AND  FURTHER  ILLUSTRATED  BY  CORRESPONDING 
EXAMPLES  FROM  THE 

SPANISH,  ITALIAN,  FRENCH  &  ENGLISH 
LANGUAGES. 

•  BY  ROBERT  BLAND,  M.D.  F.S.A. 


VOL.  II. 


LONDON: 

PRINTED  FOR  T.  EGERTON,  MILITARY  LIBRARY, 
WHITEHALL. 

1814. 


London:  Printed  liv  f.  Rowoith, 
Be  11-yard,  Temple-bar. 


PROVERBS, 


VOLUME  THE  SECOND, 


Mendacem  memorem,  esse  oportet. 

IL  faut  qu'un  menteur  ait  bonne  memoire," 
a  liar  ought  to  have  a  good  memory.  When 
a  transaction  is  related  exactly  as  it  occurred, 
there  is  no  probability  that  the  relater  should 
at  any  time  vary  in  his  account.  The  circum- 
stance must  for  ever  dwell  in  his  mind,  in  the 
very  manner  he  described  it.  But  if  a  fictitious 
story  is  told,  he  must  have  a  good  memory  to 
be  able  at  all  times  to  tell  it  in  the  same  man- 
ner. The  liar  therefore  has  little  chance  that 
his  fiction  shall  remain  long  undiscovered,  for 
should  no  other  circumstance  lead  to  the  de- 
tection of  it,  he  will,  by  not  adhering  always 
to  the  same  story,  betray  the  imposition  he  has 
practised  ;  and  it  is  well  that  it  is  so,  as  there 
is  no  vice  that  doth  so  cover  a  man  with  shame, 
as  to  be  detected  in  telling  a  lie.  "  Clear  and 

VOL.  ii.  r,  round 


(     6    ) 

round  dealing,"  Lord  Verulam  says,  "  is  the 
honour  of  man's  nature,  while  a  mixture  of 
falsehood,  is  like  allay  in  coin  of  gold  or  silver, 
which  may  make  the  metal  work  better,  hut  it 
embaseth  it."  Montaigne  says,  very  happily, 
"  To  accuse  a  man  of  lying,  is  as  much  as  to 
say,  he  is  a  brave  towards  God,  and  a  coward 
towards  man." 


Qui  bene  conjiciet,  hunc  Vatem  perhibeto 
optimum. 

Let  him  who  conjectures  best,  who  from 
circumstances  draws  the  most  rational  con- 
clusions, be  esteemed  your  best  counsellor  or 
adviser,  or  more  literally,  let  him  be  your 
soothsayer  or  prophet. 

"  He  that  conjectures  least  amiss, 
Of  all  the  best  of  prophets  is." 

Do  not,  like  the  Africans,  and  other  illiterate 
and  uncultivated  people,  consult  astrologers, 
or  diviners,  with  the  view  of  learning  your 
future  destiny,  which  cannot  with  any  cer- 
tainty be  foretold.  It  is  true,  as  is  said  of 
persons  having  the  second  sight  in  Scotland, 

there 


(    7    ) 

there  is  sometimes-  a  very  near,  or  perhaps,  an 
exact  coincidence  between  the  prediction  and 
the  event,  "Quisest  enim,  qui  totum  diem 
jaculans,  non  aliquando  conlineat?"  for,  who 
shoots  often,  will  at  some  time  hit  the  mark. 
But  on  inquiry,  it  would  be  found,  that  they 
fail  fifty  times  for  once  that  they  are  right. 
But  jugglers,  or  fortune-tellers,  as  they  are  call- 
ed, are  in  no  small  degree  of  estimation  in  this 
country,  and  among  persons  who  should  be 
ashamed  of  giving  encouragement  to  such 
wretched  impostures.  Erasmus  complains,  that 
they  were  not  less  in  vogue  in  his  time,  and 
that  they  were  resorted  to  by  personages  of 
the  highest  rank.  "  Si  fuera  adevino,  no  mu- 
riera  mesquino,"  if  I  were  a  conjuror,  I  should 
not  die  a  beggar,  the  Spaniards  say,  which 
shews  they  do  not  want  encouragement  in 
that  country  also.  Of  the  Spaniards,  it  has 
been  said,  that  they  are  less  wise,  as  the  French 
are  found  to  be  more  wise,  more  politic,  at  the 
least,  than  from  their  respective  habits  and 
manners,  might  be  expected. 


B  2  Pannus 


(     8     ) 

Pannus  lacer. 

A  tattered  garment,  which,  if  a  man  has  the 
misfortune  to  be  obliged  to  appear  in,  it  being 
what  is  first  seen  and  noticed,  he  is  usually 
rejected,  without  trying  whether,  under  that 
sordid  and  wretched  outside,  there  may  not 
lie  talents,  which  might  make  him  a  valuable 
associate. 

"  Want  is  the  scorn  of  every  wealthy  fool, 
And  wit  in  rags  is  turn'd  to  ridicule." 

But  this  might  be  borne,  and  it  might  perhaps 
be  in  some  measure  compensated,  if  the  con- 
tempt in  which  persons  so  accoutred  are  held, 
should  incite  in  such  as  have  abilities,  so  much 
industry  and  frugality,  as  might  guarantee 
them  from  falling  into  a  state  of  indigence, 
which  is  not  so  impracticable,  as  it  is  often 
supposed  to  be.  But  when  men  become  in- 
digent through  misfortune,  their  distress  is 
more  than  doubled,  when  they  find  that  those 
who  in  their  prosperity  courted,  now  turn  their 
backs  upon  them,  and  this,  it  is  to  be  feared, 
is  no  uncommon  case. 


"  poverty, 


When  no  ill  else  will  do  't,  makes  all  friends  fly." 

An- 


(    9    ) 

Anciently,  when  any  thing  was  rejected,  and 
put  away  with  contempt,  it  was  said  to  be 
thrown  away  like  a  worn  out  and  tattered 
garment.  "  Did  you  observe,  how  he  turned 
up  his  nose  at  it?"  is  our  more  common  phrase, 
when  any  thing  is  refused  with  disdain. 


Chius  Dominum  emit 

» 

The  Chians  purchased  for  themselves  mas- 
ters. When  their  country  was  conquered  by 
Mithridates,  they  were  delivered,  bound  with 
chains,  to  their  slaves,/  whom  they  had  pur- 
chased, to  be  by  them  transported  to  Colchis. 
The  adage  was  used  when  any  one  by  mis- 
management had  brought  upon  himself  any 
severe  calamity. 


Multce  Manus  Onus  levius  reddunt. 

"Many  hands  make  light  work."  This  is 
too  obvious  to  need  being  explained.  Of  the 
same  kind  are,  "  Two  heads  are  better  than, 
one,  or  why  do  folks  marry?"  and  "in  a  mul- 
titude of  counsellors,  there  is  safety."  But  the 
B  3  oppo- 


opposite  to  this  is  no  less  true,  and  we  say, 
"  too  many  cooks  spoil  the  broth,"  and  "  keep 
no  more  cats  than  catch  mice;"'  we  know  also 
that  where  too  many  men  are  employed  in  the 
same  business,  instead  of  helping,  they  often- 
times hinder  each  other. 


Spem  Pretio  ernere. 

Paying  a  high  price  for  some  future  and  in- 
cidental advantage.  "  Parting  with  the  sub- 
stance for  a  shadow."  The  adage  advises  not 
to  part  with  what  we  actually  possess,  upon  the 
distant  prospect  of  some  doubtful  or  uncer- 
tain profit ;  "  e  meglio  aver  hoggi  un  uovo, 
che  dimana  una  gallina,"  better  an  egg  to-day 
than  a  hen  to-morrow,  or  "  a  bird  in  the  hand 
is  worth  two  in  the  bush."  It  would  be  worse 
than  madness  in  any  one  in  possession  of  a 
competence,  or  exercising  successfully  any 
business  or  profession  to  hazard  all  in  pursuit 
of  some  new  scheme,  which  however  promis- 
ing in  appearance,  might  fail  and_involve  him 
in  ruin  :  and  yet  of  this  folly  there  are  few 
but  are  acquainted  with  some  victims.  This, 

the 


(  11  ) 

the  Spaniards  say,  is  "  yr  por  lana,  y  bolver 
tresquilado,"  going  for  wool,  and  returning 
home  shorn.  How  many  young  men  again, 
spend  whole  years  of  their  invaluable  time,  in 
cultivating  the  friendship  of  some  great  man 
in  the  hope  of  obtaining  preferment,  and  are 
only  at  length  weaned  from  the  pursuit,  in 
the  course  of  which  they  have  submitted  to 
all  those  insults  and  mortifications  incident  to 
a  state  of  dependence,  by  rinding  other,  per- 
haps less  obsequious  clients,  preferred  to  the 
office  which  had  been  pointed  out  to  them  as 
the  reward  of  their  servitude  :  awaked,  at 
length,  from  their  dream  of  prosperity,  they 
find  the  loss  of  the  expected  office  the  smallest 
part  of  their  misery.  They  have  not  only  neg- 
lected to  improve  the  little  fortune  they  pos- 
sessed, but  have  suffered  it  to  slip  completely 
away,  or  have  so  reduced  it  as  not  to  have  a 
sufficiency  left  for  their  subsistence ;  in  the 
meantime  they  have  contracted  habits  of  idle- 
ness, which  render  it  impossible  for  them  to 
search  out  means  of  recovering  what  they  have 
lost :  this  is  buying  hope  at  a  dreadfully  high 
price  indeed  !  The  adage  also  alludes  to  a 
B  4  custom, 


custom,  common,  we  are  told,  among  the  an- 
cients, and  which  has  descended  to  the  pre- 
sent times,  of  purchasing  the  produce  of  an 
orchard  while  the  trees  were  only  in  blossom, 
or  of  a  field  of  corn  as  soon  -as  the  seed  was 
committed  to  the  ground,  at  stipulated  prices. 
This  species  of  gaming  was  carried  so  far, 
that  it  was  not  unusual  to  buy  a  draught  of 
fishes,  or  so  many  as  should  be  taken  at  one 
cast  of  a  net;  or  all  the  game  that  should  be 
taken  in  one  day's  hunting :  and  laws,  we  are 
told,  were  framed  to  regulate  this  kind  of 
traffic. 

"  Lord  Bacon,  being  in  York-house  garden, 
looking  on  fishers  as  they  were  throwing  their 
net,  asked  them  what  they  would  take  for  their 
draught;  they  answered  so  much,  his  lordship 
would  offer  them  only  so  much ;  they  drew 
up  their  net,  and  in  it  were  only  two  or  three 
little  fishes  ;  his  lordship  then  told  them,  it 
had  been  better  for  them  to  have  taken  his 
offer ;  they  replied,  they  hoped  to  have  had  a 
better  draught;  but,  said  his  lordship,  "  hope 
is  a  good  breakfast,  but  a  bad  supper."  Au- 
brey's Manuscripts. 

JEgrot? 


(     13     > 

JEgroto  dum  Anima  est  Spes  est. 

"  While  there  is  life,  there  is  hope,"  and 
"  there  is  life  in  a  muscle."  We  should  not 
give  up  our  exertions  too  early  ;  what  is  dif- 
ficult, is  not  therefore  to  be  deemed  impossi- 
ble, as  persons  apparently  at  the  point  of  death 
are  sometimes  found  to  recover;  and  a  turn  not 
unfrequently  takes  place  in  our  affairs,  and  we 
are  rescued  from  difficulties  that  seemed  at 
one  time  hopeless  and  irremediable. 


Tempus  omnia  revelai. 

Time  brings  all  things  to  light.  Truth  has 
therefore  been  called  the  daughter  of  Time,  or 
as  the  Spaniards  say,  of  God,  "  la  verdad  es 
hija  de  Dios;"  the  wicked  man  hence  knows 
no  peace,  but  lives  in  perpetual  fear  that  time, 
the  great  revealer  of  secrets,  should  tear  off 
the  veil  that  hides  his  crimes  and  shew  him  in 
his  true  colours.  But  time  also  overturns  and 
destroys  every  thing,  and  takes  away  even  the 
memory  of  them.  Hence  we  have 

Tempus 


(     14     ) 

Tempus  edax  Rerum. 

Which  cannot  be  better  exemplified  than 
by  the  following  lines  : 

"  Time  lays  his  hand 

On  pyramids  of  brass,  and  ruins  quite 
What  all  the  fond  artificers  did  think 
Immortal  workmanship.     He  sends  his  worms 
To  books,  to  old  records,  and  they  devour 
Th'  inscriptions ;  he  loves  ingratitude, 
For  he  destroys  the  memory  of  man." 


Quo  semel  est  iinbuta  recens,  servabit  Odorem 
Testa  diu. 

Vessels  will  for  a  long  time  preserve  the  scent 
of  the  liquor  first  put  into  them,  or  with  which 
they  were  first  impregnated.  This  observa- 
tion is  very  happily  introduced  by  Horace,  to 
shew  the  necessity  of  instilling  early  good 
principles  into  the  minds  of  young  people ; 
"  maxima  debetur  pueris  reverentia  :"  and 

"  Nil  dictu  foedum  visuve  hcec  limina  tangat 
Intra  quae  puer  est." 

we  should  reverence  youth  ;  that  is,  we  should 

take 


take  care  that  nothing  be  said  or  done  in 
their  presence  offensive  to  good  morals,  that 
we  may  not  suffer  the  cruel  reflection  of  hav- 
ing led  them  into  vice  by  our  example. 

"  Sincerum  est  nisi  vas,  quodcunque  infundis  acescit." 

For  as,  unless  the  vessel  is  kept  clean  and 
untainted,  whatever  is  put  into  it  will  be 
spoiled  :  if  the  mind  be  corrupted  when  young, 
it  will  afterwards  reject  the  most  salutary  pre- 
cepts. 

Philip  of  Macedon  thought  a  good  educa- 
tion of  so  much  importance,  that  next  to  the 
pleasure  he  experienced  in  having  a  son  to 
whom  he  might  leave  his  empire,  he  esteemed 
that  of  his  being  born  at  a  time  when  he  was 
able  to  procure  for  him  so  excellent  a  precep- 
tor as  Aristotle;  under  whose  tuition  he  placed 
him  as  soon  as  he  was  of  an  age  to  receive 
his  instruction.  "  It  would  be  well,"  Roger 
Ascham  says,  "  that  we  should  adopt  the  man- 
ners of  the  Persians,  whose  children  to  the 
age  of  twenty-one  years  were  brought  up  in 
learning  and  exercises  of  labour,  and  that  in 
such  places,  where  they  should  neither  see 

that 


(  IS  ) 

that  was  uncomely,  nor  hear  that  was  unho- 
nest." 


Oculus  dexter  mlhi  sulit. 

"  My  right  eye  itches,"  I  shall  see  whom  I 
have  long  wished  for;  and, 

"  Num  vobis  tinniebant  aures,  Parmeno?" 

Did  not  your  ears  tingle  ?  for  your  mistress 
was  talking  of  you.  We  also  say,  "  my  face 
flushes,"  some  one  is  talking  of  me  ;  and  "  my 
elbow  itches,"  I  shall  be  kissed  by  a  fool. 
Plautus  has  many  similar  phrases  in  his  come- 
dies ;  whence  we  learn,  that  these  supersti- 
tious fancies  have  prevailed  among  the  com- 
mon people  in  all  ages. 


Sequitur  Ver  Hyemem. 

The  spring  follows  the  winter,  sunshine 
succeeds  to  rain  :  "  apres  ce  tems-ci  il  en 
viendra  un  autre,"  after  this  season  will  come 
another  and  a  different  one.  This,  and  other  si- 
milar phrases  have  been  used  both  by  ancients 

and 


(     17     ) 

and  moderns,  to  encourage  men  to  bear  their 
troubles  with  constancy,  by  the  consolatory 
reflection  that  they  cannot  last  forever.  For 
though  it  be  true,  as  the  Spaniard  notices, 
"  en  cada  sendero,  ay  su  atolledera,"  that  in 
every  road  there  are  sloughs  in  some  part  of 
it,  when  these  are  passed  the  rest  of  the  way, 
may  be  smooth  and  level.  "  It  is  a  long  lane," 
we  say,  "  that  has  no  end,"  and  "  when  things 
are  at  the  worst  they  will  mend;"  for  "  etiani 
mala  fortuna  suas  habet  levitates,"  even  ill- 
fortune  is  changeable  and  will  not  last  forever; 
but  prosperity  is  probably  still  more  faithless 
than  adversity :  when  we  have  attained  the 
summit  of  our  wishes,  we  may  be  doomed  to 
suffer  an  early  reverse,  and  our  fall  will  be 
the  more  severe,  the  greater  the  eminence 
from  which  we  are  precipitated.  "  Di  gran 
subida  gran  caicla,"  from  a  great  height  a 
great  fall,  and  "  after  sweet  meat  comes  sour 
sauce." 

"  The  prosperous  man  to-day  puts  forth 

The  tender  leaves  of  hope,  to-morrow  blossoms, 
And  bears  his  blushing  honours  thick  upon  him  : 
The  third  day  comes  a  frost,  a  killing  frost ; 
And  when  he  thinks,  good  easy  man,  full  surely 

His 


(     18     ) 

His  greatness  is  a  ripening,  nips  his  root. 
And  then  he  falls  as  I  do." 

Woohey's  Speech  in  King  Henry  VIII. 


Tanguam  Ungues  Digitosque  suos. 

The  subject  is  as  familiar  and  as  well  known 
to  me,  as  are  my  fingers ;  to  be  perfectly 
conversant  with  a  business,  or  to  have  it,  as 
we  say,  "  at  our  fingers'  ends." 


Rem  Acu  tetigisti. 

"You  have  hit  the  matter  to  a4iair,"  or 
"  the  nail  on  the  head,"  that  is,  you  are  per- 
fectly right  in  your  conjecture. 


Dies  adimit  JEgritudinem. 

Time  cures  the  greatest  afflictions.  There  is 
no  trouble,  however  pungent,  which  time  has 
not  the  power  of  softening  or  removing.  It  is 
also  esteemed  to  have  no  small  influence  in 

curing  diseases  affecting  the  body. 

"  Medi- 


(     19     ) 

"  Medicus  dedit  qui  temporis  morbo  raoram, 

Is  plus  remedii  quam  cutis  sector  dedit." 

/ 

The  physician  who  allows  the  disease  to  sub- 
sicle  gradually,  is  more  successful  than  he  who 
has  immediate  recourse  to  rough  and  violent 
remedies,  which  is  not  unlike  the  following, 
"  El  tiempo  cura  el  enfermo,  que  no  el  un- 
guento,"  it  is  time,  and  not  medicine  that 
cures  the  disease.  The  Spaniards  do  not  ap- 
pear to  have  had  much  reverence  either  for 
medicines,  or  for  the  dispensers  of  them.  "  Si 
tienes  medico  amigo,  quitale  la  gorra,  y  em- 
bialo  a  casa  de  tu  enemigo,"  if  you  have  a 
physician  for  your  friend,  make  your  bow  to 
him,  and  send  him  to  your  enemy,  as  the  surest 
way  to  get  rid  of  him.  Time  also  brings  things 
to  perfection.  "  Col  tempo  et  la  paglia  si  ma- 
turano  mespoli,"  time  and  straw  make  med- 
lars ripe. 


Quid  nisi  Victis  Dolor. 

What  but  misery  to  the  conquered;   and 
"  vae  victis  !"  woe  to  the  conquered  !  was  the 
cruel  taunt  of  Brennus  to  the  Romans,  com- 
plaining 


(     20     ) 

plaining  that  he  exacted  more  than  they  had 
stipulated  to  pay,  as  a  ransom  for  their  city; 
reproaching  them,  perhaps,  that  they  had  not 
made  so  strenuous  a  defence  as  they  ought  to 
have  done,  before  they  capitulated.  It  should 
be  sounded  in  the  ears  of  the  careless,  the  in- 
dolent, arid  the  profligate,  in  short,  of  all  who, 
having  nothing  but  their  genius  or  their  in- 
dustry to  depend  upon  for  their  support,  pass 
their  time  in  sloth  and  inactivity;  or  who  dis- 
sipate the  property  left  them  by  their  parents, 
in  the  foolish,  or  perhaps  criminal  indulgence 
of  their  passions.  What  pleasure,  or  what 
comforts,  are  to  be  purchased  by  poverty, 
and  what  are  they  to  expect,  when  they  have 
reduced  themselves  to  a  state  of  indigence, 
but  the  neglect  of  those  who  would  have  been 
their  friends,  or  the  cold  consolation  of  pity  ? 
How  little  relief  distress  may  expect  from  pity, 
the  following  very  just  observations  of  Gold- 
smith shew :  "Pity  and  friendship  are  passions 
incompatible  with  each  other;  and  it  is  impos- 
sible that  both  can  reside  in  any  breast,  for 
the  smallest  space  of  time,  without  impairing 
each  other.  Friendship  is  made  up  of  esteem 
'w  and 


(     21     ) 

and  pleasure,  but  pity  is  composed  of  sorrow 
and  contempt.  In  fact, "he  adds,  "pity,  though 
it  may  often  relieve,  is  but  at  best  a  short  lived 
passion,  and  seldom  affords  distress  more  than 
a  transitory  assistance,"  which  is  consonant  to 
the  following  observation  of  Dryden, 

"pity  only  with  new  objects  stays, 

But  with  the  tedious  sight  of  woe  decays." 


Vino  vendibili  suspensd  Hedera  nihil  Opus. 

"  Good  wine  needs  no  bush."  Good  actions 
are  their  own  interpreters,  they  need  no  rhe- 
toric to  adorn  them.  The  phrase  derives  its 
origin  from  a  custom  among  vintners,  of 
hanging  out  the  representation  of  an  ivy  bush, 
as  an  indication  that  they  sell  wine;  a  custom 
common  in  Germany,  in  the  time  of  Erasmus, 
and  probably  much  earlier.  It  is  still  continued 
among  us ;  many  of  the  principal  inns  in  this 
kingdom,  both  in  town  and  country,  being 
known  by  the  sign  of  the  bush.  While  signs 
were  in  fashion,  Bacchus  astride  on  his  tun, 
and  ample  bunches  of  grapes,  with  their  hand- 
some foliage,  were  also  very  general  designa- 

VOL.  ir,  c  ttons 


tions  of  the  good  liquor  that  was  to  be  had 
within.  The  proverb  is  applicable  to  persons 
too  earnest  in  their  commendation  of  any  ar- 
ticles they  are  desirous  of  selling.  The  Spa- 
niards therefore  say,  *'  El  vino  que  es  bueno, 
no  ha  menestcr  pregonero,"  the  wine  that  is 
good  needs  no  trumpeter. 

The  ivy  is  said  to  be  an  antidote  to  the  in- 
toxicating power  of  wine,  hence  Bacchus  is 
always  painted  with  a  wreath  of  ivy  on  his 
head,  and  it  may  be  that  it  was  on  account  of 
this  supposed  property,  that  in  old  times  a 
bush  of  ivy  was  chosen,  in  preference  to  any 
other,  by  the  vintners.  The  proverb  has  been 
pretty  generally  adopted.  "  Al  buon  vino," 
the  Italians  say,  "  non  bisogna  frasca,"  and 
the  French,  "  Le  bon  vin  n'a  point  besoin  de 
buchcron."  Is  this  the  origin  of  the  vulgar 

o  o 

term  "Bosky,"  applied  to  persons  who  are 
tipsy,  or  drunk,  viz.  he  has  been  under  the 
bush?  The  Scotch,  who  are  accustomed  to  fix 
a  bunch  of  hay  against  houses  where  ale  is 
sold,  say,  "Good  ale  needs  no  whisp." 


Anus 


(     23     ) 

Anus  Simla,  serd  quidem. 

The  old  ape  is  taken  at  length.  This  was 
said,  when  any  one,  who  for  a  long  time,  by 
craft  and  cunning,  had  succeeded  in  plunder- 
ing his  neighbours,  was  at  last  taken,  and 
condemned  to  suffer  the  punishment  due  to 
his  crimes.  Our  English  proverb  has  it,  "The; 
old  fox  is  caught  at  last." 


Spartam  nactus  es  hanc  orna. 

Endeavour  to  acquit  yourself  well  in  what- 
ever station  or  condition  of  life  your  lot  may 
happen  to  be  cast 

"  Honour  and  shame  from  no  conditions  rise, 
Act  well  your  part,  there  all  the  honour  lies." 

The  adage  is  of  general  application.  Princes, 
nobles,  bishops,  lawyers,  soldiers,  and  the 
meanest  individuals,  have  each  of  them  their 
distinct  province;  let  them  fill  them  worthily. 

"  Each  might  his  several  province  well  command, 
Would  all  but  stoop  to  what  they  understand." 

"  England  expects  that  every  man  will  do 
his  duty,"  was  the  animated  speech  of  Lord 

c  2  Nelson 


(     24    ) 

Nelson  at  the  battle  of  Trafalgar,  where  that 
hero  unfortunately  fell ;  or  not,  perhaps,  un- 
fortunately for  himself,  as  it  was  in  the  midst 
of  victory,  and  crowned  with  glory.  Had  he 
died  immediately  after  his  unsuccessful  at- 
tempt on  the  coast  of  France,  or  on  his  expe- 
dition to  Denmark,  he  would  have  left  his 
fame  somewhat  diminished,  which  by  his  last 
brilliant  action  was  again  mounted  to  the  stars ; 
for  the  victory  at  the  Nile  was  not  less  bril- 
liant than  that  off  Trafalgar.  Either  of  them 
\vould  have  been  sufficient  to  immortalise  his 
name. 


Ac  k  guoi'is  Ligno  1\  fer  cur  ius  fiat. 

A  statue  of  Mercury  may  not  be  made  from 
every  kind  of  wood.  All  dispositions  and 
capacities  are  not  adapted  to  the  higher  walks 
of  literature.  It  is  incumbent  on  parents  to 
educate  their  children,  but  they  should  give 
them  such  instruction,  as  is  suited  to  their 
talents.  Artificers  are  careful  to  make  choice 
of  materials  fit  for  the  work  they  have  in  hand, 
whether  metal,  stone,  or  wood  ;  using  the 

coarser 


coarser  sort  for  rough  and  common  articles,  the, 
finer  for  those  that  require  to  be  more  exqui- 
sitely finished.  "  You  cannot  make,"  we  say, 
"a  silken  purse  of  a  sow's  ear,"  or  "  a  horn  of 
a  pig's  tail,"  or  "  a  good  coat,"  the  Spaniards 
say,  "  of  coarse  or  bad  wool."  "  De  ruyn  paiio 
nunca  buen  sayo." 


Ne  Gladium  tollas  Mulier. 
Women  should  not  attempt  to  wield  a  sword, 
for  which  they  are  incompetent.  Employ  in 
every  business  means  adapted  and  adequate 
to  the  purpose;  also  take  care  not  to  irritate 
any  one  whom  you  are  not  able  to  stand 
against,  or  oppose  successfully.  Brutus  ob- 
served, that  Cicero  should  not  have  railed 
against,  and  provoked  Marc  Anthony,  who 
was  much  more  powerful  than  himself.  In 
the  end,  this  imprudence  cost  Cicero  his  life. 
What,  however,  shall  we  say  of  those  heroines, 
Judith  in  sacred,  and  Joan  of  Arc  in  modern 
history,  or  of  the  Amazons,  who  wielded  this 
forbidden  weapon  with  such  advantage  against 
their  enemies,  in  defiance  of  tlus  adage? 

c  3  £.n- 


Exiguum  Malum,  ingens  Eonum. 

"  III  luck  is  good  for  something."  From  a 
small  evil,  to  extract  a  considerable  advantage, 
is  the  property  of  a  sound  and  prudent  mind.  It 
is  next  to  profiting  by  the  errors  and  mischances 
of  others,  to  take  warning  by  some  check  we 
may  meet  with  in  our  progress,  and  thence  to 
alter  our  course.  "  El  hombre  mancebo  perdi- 
endo  gana  seso,"  a  young  man  by  losing,  gains 
knowledge.  If  persons,  who  are  living  more 
expensively  than  their  income  permits,  would 
be  wanted  by  the  first  difficulty  or  disgrace 
they  suffer,  and  would  institute  modes  of  liv- 
ing more  suitable  to  their  circumstances,  they 
would  soonrecoverwhat  by  their  improvidence 
they  had  wasted.  But  pride,  a  fear  of  shewing 
to  their  companions  they  are  not  so  wealthy  as 
they  had  boasted,  or  had  appeared  to  be,  pre- 
vents their  following  this  salutary  counsel, 
and  they  go  on  until  their  fall  becomes  in- 
evitable. "  Si  quid  feceris  honestum  cum  la- 
bore,  labor  abit,  honestum  manet  Si  quid 
feceris  turpe  cum  voluptate,  voluptas  abit, 
turpitude  manet,"  which  may  be  thus  ren- 
dered : 


(    27    ) 

dered  :  if  by  labour  and  difficulty  you  have 
procured  to  yourself  an  advantage,  the  benefit 
will  remain,  when  the  labour  with  which  it 
was  acquired  will  be  forgotten.  But  if  in  pur- 
suit of  pleasure  you  have  degraded  yourself, 
the  disgrace  will  remain,  while  no  traces  of 
the  pleasure  will  be  retained  in  your  memory. 


Ipse  semet  canit. 

"  Is  your  trumpeter  dead,  that  you  arc 
obliged  to  praise  yourself?"  This  may  be  con- 
sidered as  a  caution  against  vain  blasting. 
Act  so  as  to  be  deserving  of  commendation  ; 
and  though  you  should  not  meet  with  all  the 
applause  you  may  deserve,  you  will  have  the 
testimony  of  your  own  mind,  which  will  be 
abundantly  satisfactory.  Hear,  O  ye  Vene- 
tians, and  I  will  tell  ye  which  is  the  best  thin 2; 

'  •/  O 

in  the  world  :  "  To  contemn  it."  Sebastian 
Foscarius,  sometime  Duke  of  Venice,  ordered 
this  to  be  inscribed  on  his  tomb. 


Telpsiim  non  alens,  Canes  alls. 
Not  having  sufficient  for  your  own  support, 
c  4  do 


(    28     ) 

do  you  pretend  to  keep  dogs  ?  This  was  used 
to  be  applied  to  persons  whose  income,  insuf- 
ficient to  supply  them  with  necessaries,  was 
laid  out  in  superfluities  ;  in  keeping  servants 
and  horses,  or  in  an  ostentatious  use  of  gaudy 
clothes,  furniture,  or  other  articles  of  luxury, 
unbecoming  th'eir  circumstances.  "  Los  que 
cabras  no  tienen,  y  cabritos  venden,  de  donde 
lo  vienen  ?"  those  who,  having  no  goats,  yet 
sell  kids,  whence  do  they  get  them  ?  is  said  by 
the  Spaniards,  of  persons  who,  having  no  es- 
tates, qr  known  income,  yet  contrive  to  live  at 
a  great  expense. 


Cantilenam  eandem  cams. 

To  be  always  singing  the  same  tune,  or  tell- 
ing the  same  stories,  which,  though  at  the  first 
they  might  be  interesting  and  pleasant,  at 
length  become,  by  repetition,  tiresome  and 
disgusting.  "  Dieu  nous  garde  d'un  horn  me 
qui  n'a  qu'une  affaire;"  God  keep  us,  the 
French  say,  from  a  man  who  is  only  acquaint- 
ed with  one  subject,  on  which  he  is  capable  of 
conversing;  he  will  introduce  it  on  all  occa- 
sions, 


sions,  though  it  have  no  affinity  to  the  subject 
which  the  company  are  discussing.  "He  will 
lug  it  in  by  the  neck  and  shoulders." 


Ignavis  semper  Ferice  sunt. 

To  the  indolent  every  day  is  a  holiday,  or 
clay  of  rest.  Erasmus  has  taken  occasion,  in 
the  explication  of  this  sentence,  to  shew  the 
mischiefs  incurred  by  the  increasing  number 
of  festivals  or  holidays,  enjoined  by  the  church. 
They  were  intended,  he  observes,  as  days  of 
necessary  relaxation  for  the  labouring  poor, 
but  were  too  frequently  passed  by  them  in 
the  grossest  debauchery.  The  abolishing  the 
greater  part  of  these  holidays,  may  be  esteem- 
ed, as  not  the  smallest  of  the  many  advantages 
produced  to  this  country  by  the  Reformation. 


Ne  Verb  a  pro  Farina. 

"  Fair  words  butter  no  parsnips."  Though 
we  may  for  a  time  be  satisfied  with  kind 
speeches,  and  fair  promises,  yet  as  we  cannot 

take 


(     30     ) 

take  them  to  the  market,  or  they  will  not  pass 
there,  the  satisfaction  derived  from  them  will 
be  but  short-lived,  and  when  we  find  them 
totally  unproductive,  and  that  they  were 
merely  unmeaning  expletives,  our  resentment 
will  be  in  proportion  to  the  dependence  we 
had  placed  on  them,  and  to  the  time  we  have 
lost  in  the  vain  expectation  of  some  promised 
benefit. 


Timidi  nunquam  statuerunt  Trophceum. 
Timid  persons  and  such  as  are  not  pos- 
sessed of  personal  courage,  must  not  expect  to 
be  honoured  with  a  triumph,  which  is  only  ac- 
corded to  those  who  have  by  their  valour  ob- 
tained some  signal  victory.  "  Qui  a  peur  de 
feuilles  ne  doit  aller  au  bois,"  "  he  that  is 
afraid  of  leaves,  must  not  go  into  a  wood/' 
Persons  of  timid  dispositions  should  not  en- 
gage in  hazardous  undertakings,  or  attempt 
what  can  only  be  achieved  by  courage  and 
prowess ;  "  al  hombre  osado,  la  fortuna  da  la 
mano,"  "  fortune  favours  the  bold,"  "  faint 
heart  never  won  fair  lady,"  and  "  none  but 
the  brave  deserve  the  fair  !" 

Aliorum 


(     31     ) 
Aliorum  Medicus,  ipse  Ulcerlbus  scales. 

"  Who  boast  of  curing  poor  and  rich, 
Yet  are  themselves  all  over  itch.'* 

Physicians  pretending  to  cure  the  diseases  of 
others,  and  are  themselves  loaded  with  com- 
plaints, are  the  immediate  objects  of  the  cen- 
sure contained  in  this  adage  ;  but  it  may  also 
be  applied  to  persons  railing  against  vices  to 
which  they  are  themselves  addicted.  Persons 
whose  office  it  is  instruct  the  people  in  the 
duties  of  morality  and  religion,  should  consi- 
der how  much  their  admonitions  will  lose  of 
their  weight  and  efficacy  if  their  conduct  is 
not  in  a  great  degree,  at  the  least,  consonant 
to  their  doctrine;  if  they  cannot  entirely  re- 
frain from  vice,  they  should  be  extremely 
careful  to  conceal  their  deviations  from  the 
precepts  they  mean  to  inculcate,  lest  their  ex- 
ample should  be  more  powerful  than  their  lec- 
tures. 


Ne  Jfcsopum  quidem  trivit. 
He  has  not  been  taught  even  the  fables  of 


,  was  used  to  be  said  of  persons  totally 
illiterate ;  whose  education  has  been  so  neg- 
lected, that  they  had  not  been  initiated  in  the 
rudiments  of  literature ;  "  he  has  not  read  his 
horn-book  or  his  primer,"  or  "does  not  know 
his  alphabet,"  we  say  on  similar  occasions. 
The  horn-book,  it  is  known,  is  a  piece  of 
board  six  or  seven  inches  long  and  four  or 
five  broad,  on  which  is  pasted  a  strip  of  paper 
containing  the  alphabet  in  capital  and  small 
letters,  covered  with  a  plate  of  transparent 
horn,  to  guard  it  from  the  fingers  of  the  young 
subjects,  to  whose  use  it  is  dedicated  :  this 
description  may  seem  superfluous  at  present, 
but  horn-books  are  now  so  little  used,  that,  it 
is  probable,  should  the  name  of  the  contrivance 
continue,  the  form  and  fashion  of  it  will  in  a 
short  time  be  lost.  To  the  same  purport  is 

Neque  nature,  neque  Literas. 

He  has  neither  been  taught  to  read  nor  to 
swim,  two  things  which  the  Grecians  and  Ro- 
mans were  careful  their  children  should  be  in- 
structed in  early  ;  and  which  it  was  held  to 
be  disgraceful  not  to  have  learned, 

Non 


(     S3     ) 

Non  est  mihi  cornea  Fibra. 

I  am  not  made  of  horn,  of  brass,  of  iron,  or 
such  like  impenetrable  stuff,  as  to  be  so  totally 
void  of  sense  or  proper  feeling,  that  I  should 
hear  unmoved  a  tale  of  so  much  distress ;  or 
so  difficult  of  persuasion,  that  I  should  not 
listen  to  so  reasonable  a  request. 


Non  est  Remedium  adversus  Sycophants 
Morsum. 

There  is  no  remedy  against  the  tongue  of 
the  sycophant,  who,  by  pretended  concern  for 
your  interest,  worm  themselves  into  your  con- 
fidence and  get  acquainted  with  your  most 
intimate  concerns.  When  men  who  are  in- 
different to  you  affect  a  more  than  ordinary 
regard  for  your  interest,  you  should  be  cau- 
tious how  you  converse  with  them ; 
"  Halaga  la  cola  el  can 

Non  por  ti,  sino  por  el  pan," 

the  dog  wags  his  tail  not  for  you  but  for 
your  bread.  It  might  be  well  if  the  sycophant 
were  content  with  pillaging,  but  more  usu- 
ally they  flatter  only  to  betray  you  ;  such  men 

are 


are  said,  "  halagar  con  la  cola,  y  morder  con 
la  boca,"  to  bite  while  they  fawn  upon  you 
and,  if  they  are  as  crafty  as  they  are  malevo- 
lent, you  will  not  discover  the  villany  of  their 
dispositions  until  they  have  done  you  some 
irremediable  mischief;  until  they  have  alie- 
nated the  minds  of  your  friends,  or  raised  such 
dissensions  in  your  family  as  nothing  but 
death  will  extinguish.  When  lago  saw  that 
he  had  succeeded  in  exciting  in  Othello  a  sus- 
picion of  the  incontinence  of  Desdemona,  he 
says,  exulting  in  the  success  of  his  villany, 

• "  Not  poppy,  nor  mandragore, 


Nor  all  the  drowsy  syrups  of  the  world, 
Shall  ever  medicine  thee  to  that  sweet  sleep 
Which  thou  ow'dst  yesterday." 

The  ancients  supposed  that  there  were  ma- 
gic rings  which  had  the  power  of  defending 
those  who  wore  them  from  certain  diseases, 
inflicted,  as  they  imagined,  by  inchantment 
or  witchcraft,  but  even  these  were  insufficient 
to  protect  them  from  the  tongue  of  the  slan- 
derer. 


Dentem 


Dent  em  Dente  rodere. 

It  is  one  tooth  biting  another,  was  used  to 
be  said  to  any  one  attempting  to  hurt  what 
was  out  of  his  reach,  and  could  not  be  af- 
fected by  him  :  or  affronting  one  who  could 
return  the  insult  with  interest;  or  having  a 
contest  with  persons  capable  of  doing  him 
more  mischief  than  he  could  do  them.  It  has 
the  same  sense  as,  "  verberare  lapidem,"  beat- 
ing a  stone;  "  do  not  shew  your  teeth,"  we 
say,  "when  you  cannot  bite."  The  adage 
probably  took  its  rise  from  the  fable  of  the 
serpent  gnawing  a  file,  which  it  met  with  in  a 
smith's  shop,  by  which  it  made  its  own  gums 
bleed  but  without  hurting  the  file. 


Frustra  Herculi. 

That  is,  should  any  one  call  Hercules  a 
coward,  who  would  listen  to  him  ?  .The-  adage 
was  applied  to  anyone  speaking  ill  of  persons  of 
known  and  approved  integrity  and  character. 
•When  Cato,  whose  worth  had  been  often  tried, 

was 


(    36    ) 

was  accused  of  avarice ;  this,  Plutarch  said, 
was  as  if  any  one  should  reproach  Hercules 
with  want  of  courage. 


Ne  in  Neroum  erumpat. 

The  string  may  break;  this  was  said  to  per- 
sons who,  emboldened  by  success,  were  per- 
petually engaging  in  new  exploits  :  such  per- 
sons were  advised  by  this  apothegm  to  desist, 
they  had  done  enough  to  shew  their  skill  or 
courage ;  a  reverse  might  happen,  or  by  one 
wrong  step  they  might  lose  all  the  honour  or 
emolument  they  had  gained.  "  The  pitcher 
that  goes  often  to  the  well  returns  broken  at 
last." 

The  adage  takes  its  rise  from  bowmen  who, 
by  overstraining  the  string,  at  length  occa- 
sion it  to  break,  not  without  danger  to  them- 
selves. 


Pluris  est  oculatus  Testis  unus,  quam  auriti 
decent. 

Better  one  eye-witness  than  ten  who  only 

know 


(     37    ) 

know  a  thing  from  hearsay  ;  or,  what  we  see 
with  our  own  eyes,  is  rather  to  be  believed 
than  what  we  learn  only  from  report,  for  "  ver  y 
creer,"  "  seeing  is  believing,"  and  "  ojos  que 
no  ven,  coracon  que  no  llora,"  "  what  the  eye 
doth  not  see,  the  heart  doth  not  rue." 


In  caducum  Parietem  indinare. 

Leaning  on  a  broken  staff,  which  cannot 
support  you,  or  "  on  a  bruised  reed  which 
will  pierce  your  hand  and  wound  you  ;"  lite- 
rally upon  a  weak  and  tottering  wall;  meta- 
phorically, trusting  to  a  false  friend  who  will 
betray  you,  or  to  one  who  is  incapable  of  per- 
forming what  he  promises,  or  of  furnishing  the 
assistance  which  he  undertook  to  afford  you. 


Qui  jacet  in  Terra,  non  hahet  undc  cadat. 

He  who  is  at  the  bottom  can  fall  no  lower. 
When  plunged  into  the  gulph  of  poverty  and 
misery  all  fear  of  further  distress  is  over,  no 
change  can  take  place  but  it  must  be  for  the 
better;  and  so  unsettled  are  all  sublunary 

VOL.  LI.  D  thins 


things  that  a  change  may  always  be  expected, 
or  time  and  use  will  make  the  greatest  trouble 
tolerable.  Hope  and  patience  are  two  sove- 
reign remedies,  affording  the  softest  cushion 
to  lean  on  in  adversity.  "  Grata  superveniet 
quae  non  sperabitur  hora,"  a  day  of  relief 
beyond  expectation  may  come,  and  turn  a 
lowering  morning  to  a  fair  afternoon  ;  or  at  the 
worst,  death  will  at  length  put  an  end  to  our 
misery,  and  when  a  traveller  arrives  at  the  end 
of  his  journey,  he  soon  forgets  the  hardships 
and  difficulties  he  met  with  on  the  road.  It 
was  an  observation  of  Seneca,  that  "  bona 
re  rum  secundarum  sunt  optabilia,  adversarum 
mirabilia,"  the  good  things  which  belong  to 
prosperity,  are  to  be  wished ;  but  the  good 
things  that  belong  to  adversity  are  to  be  ad- 
mired. Queen  Catherine,  who  was  repudiated 
by  Henry  the  Eighth,  used  to  say,  that  "  she 
would  not  willingly  endure  the  extremity  of 
either  fortune ;  but  if  it  were  so  that  of  ne- 
cessity she  must  undergo  the  one,  she  would 
be  in  adversity,  because  comfort  was  never 
wanting  in  that  state,  but  still  counsel  and 
self-government  were  defective  in  the  other." 

"If 


(    39    ) 

"  If  you  have  acquired,"  Plutarch  says,  "  a 
command  over  your  passions,  and  are  become 
wise  and  virtuous,  you  will  be  pleased  with 
wealth,  for  enabling  you  to  be  useful  to  many; 
with  poverty,  for  not  having  much  to  care 
for;  with  fame,  for  procuring  you  honour; 
and  with  obscurity,  for  keeping  you  from  be- 
ing envied." 


Verecundia  inutilis  Viro  egenti. 

Bashfulness  is  of  no  use  to  a  man  in  want. 
The  adage  teaches  that  persons  liberally  edu- 
cated but  in  mean  circumstances,  should  not 
refuse  to  undertake  offices,  though  beneath 
them,  which  might  be  executed  without  of- 
fending against  any  moral  or  religious  duty. 
This  many  do,  not  from  their  objection  to 
the  labour,  but  from  being  ashamed  to  appear 
to  their  friends,  or  to  the  world  in  a  degraded 
situation ;  they  can  contemn  pleasure,  and 
bear  pain  or  grief  with  firmness,  but  reproach 
and  obloquy  breaks  and  overwhelms  them. 
It  is  the  disgrace  more  than  the  confinement 
that  makes  a  prison  hateful.  When  Johnson 
D  2  found 


(     40     ) 

found  a  pair  of  shoes  placed  at  his  door  by 
one  of  his  fellow  students,  actuated  by  false 
shame  or  by  pride,  he  threw  them,  with  great 
indignation,  out  of  the  window ;  though  his 
own  were  so  much  worn  as  not  to  keep  his  feet 
from  the  stones.  But  bashfulness  or  false 
modesty  is  more  than  useless  also,  when  it 
deters  men  from  laying  open  their  circum- 
stances to  their  friends,  who  both  might  and 
would,  by  their  advice  or  otherwise,  relieve 
them,  until,  by  delay,  they  are  become  so  in- 
volved that  nothing  can  prevent  their  fall :  or 
when  it  leads  them  to  conceal  their  bodily  com- 
plaints, which  not  unfrequently  happens,  from 
the  physician  or  surgeon,  until  they  no  longer 
admit  of  being  cured. 


Sustine  ct  abstine. 

Bear  and  forbear,  a  phrase  frequently  used 
by  Kpictetus,  as  embracing  almost  the  whole 
that  philosophy  or  human  reason  can  teach  us- 
Of  this  Epictetus  was  a  memorable  example, 
no  man  bearing  the  evils  of  life  with  more 
constancy  or  less  coveting  its  enjoyments. 

His 


(     41     ) 

His  master  Epaphroclitus,  for  he  was  a  slave 
in  the  early  part  of  his  life,  diverting  himself 
with  striking  his  leg  with  a  large  stick,  he 
told  him,  that  if  he  continued  to  give  such 
heavy  strokes  he  would  hreak  the  hone; 
which  happening  as  he  had  foretold,  all  that 
he  said  on  the  occasion  was,  u  did  not  I  tell 
you,  you  would  break  my  leg."  When  after- 
wards he  had  obtained  his  liberty  and  was 
much  followed  as  a  teacher  of  philosophy,  he 
still  lived  in  the  plainest  and  simplest  man- 
ner;  his  house  or  cottage  had  no  door,  and 
the  little  furniture  it  contained  was  of  the 
meanest  kind.  When  an  iron  lamp  by  which 
he  used  to  study,  was  stolen,  he  said,  "  I  shall 
deceive  the  thief  if  he  should  come  again,  as 
he  will  only  find  an  earthen  one."  This 
earthen  lamp,  Lucian  tells  us,  was  sold  for 
three  thousand  drachmas  or  groats,  £75 
of  our  money.  He  is  said  to  have  lived  to 
his  ninety-sixth  year.  The  Mexicans,  with- 
out being  beholden  to  the  tenets  of  philoso- 
phy, have  learnt  from  experience  the  neces- 
sity of  undergoing  trouble  ;  they  say  to  their 
children  on  being  born,  "  thou  art  come  into 
D  3  the 


(     42     ) 

the  world,  child,  to  endure ;  suffer,  therefore, 
and  be  silent. 


Naturam  expellas  Furca  tamen  usque 
recurret. 

Which  may  be  aptly  enough  rendered  by 
our  English  proverb,  "  what  is  bred  in  the 
bone,  will  never  get  out  of  the  flesh."  "  Lu- 
pus pilum  mutat,  non  mentem,"  it  is  easier 
for  the  wolf  to  change  his  coat  than  his  dispo- 
sition :  habits  are  with  difficulty  changed,  and 
with  greater  difficulty  if  of  such  long  conti- 
nuance as  to  become  a  second  nature.  As 
the  bough  of  a  tree  drawn  from  its  natural 
course,  recoils  and  returns  to  its  old  position  as 
soon  as  the  force  by  which  it  had  been  restrained 
is  removed  ;  so  do  we  return  to  old  habits  as 
soon  as  the  motives,  whether  interest  or  fear, 
which  had  induced  us  to  quit  them,  are  done 
away  :  the  cat  that  had  been  transformed  into 
a  fine  lady,  on  seeing  a  mouse,  forgetting  the 
decorum  required  by  her  new  form,  sprung 
from  the  table  where  she  was  sitting  to  seize 
on  her  prey.  "  Vizio  di  natura  dura  fino  alia 

sepol- 


(     43     ) 

sepoltura,"  the  vice  that  is  born  with  us  or  is 
become  natural  to  us,  accompanies  us  to  the 
grave.  A  rich  miser  being  at  the  point  of  death, 
his  confessor  placed  before  him  a  large  ^silver 
crucifix,  and  was  about  to  begin  an  exhorta- 
tion, when  the  usurer,  fixing  his  eyes  on  the 
crucifix,  said,  "  I  cannot.,  sir,  lend  you  much 
upon  this." 


See  the  camel  is  dancing,  may  be  said, 
when  we  see  a  very  austere  person  laughing, 
or  any  one  doing  what  is  contrary  to  his  usual 
habit  or  disposition. 


Optimum  Condimentum  Fames. 

"  Appetite  non  vuol  salza,"  "  hunger  is  the 
best  sauce."  This  apothegm  was  frequently 
in  the  mouth  of  Socrates  deriding  his  volup- 
tuous countrymen,  whose  tables  were  fur- 
nished with  every  species  of  luxury,  and  who 
used  a  variety  of  provocatives  to  stir  up  an 
appetite,  which  might  be  so  much  better  ex- 
cited, he  told  them,  at  so  easy  a  rate. 

D  4  Oestro 


(44    ) 

Oestro  percitus. 

This  was  said  of  persons  who  were  seized 
with  a  sudden  commotion  or  disturbance  ot  the 
mind,  as  poets  by  the  inspiration  of  the  Muses, 
from  some  resemblance  in  their  conduct, 
as  it  was  supposed,  to  cattle  that  had  been 
bitten  by  the  oestrum  or  gad-fly.  It  is  known 
that  cattle  have  such  extreme  horror  of  this 
insect,  that  on  only  hearing  the  noise  it  makes 
when  flying,  they  run  about  the  fields  as  if 
they  were  mad.  The  adage  was  also  used 
when  any  one  was  seen  to  apply  himself  in- 
tensely to  any  kind  of  business,  or  study. 
"  But  what  fly,"  Friar  John  says,  "  has  struck 
Panurge,  that  he  is  of  late  become  so  hard  a 
student  ?  "  "  What  maggot,"  we  say,  "  has  he 
got  in  his  head." 


Tanquam  Argivum  Clypeum  abstulerit,  it  a 
gloriatur. 

He  is  as  proud  of  the  transaction,  as  if  he 
had  despoiled  a  Grecian  warrior  of  his  shield. 
The  Greeks  and  Romans  defended  their  shields 

with 


(     45     ) 

with  the  greatest  pertinacity,  it  being  held  in 
the  highest  degree  dishonourable  to  suffer 
them  to  be  taken  from  them.  The  adage  was 
used  to  be  applied  to  persons  boasting  of  some 
insignificant  exploit,  and  magnifying  it,  as  if 
they  had  saved  a  friend,  or  their  country  from 
destruction. 


Frustra  habet,  qui  non  utitur. 

It  is  in  vain  that  he  possesses  that  of  which 
he  makes  no  use.  Of  what  use  are  horses  or 
carriages  to  persons  who  never  go  abroad,  of 
wit  or  knowledge  to  those  who  do  not  employ 
them  in  the  management  of  their  affairs,  or  of 
money  to  the  avaricious,  who  are  averse  to,  or 
afraid  of  spending  it,  even  for  necessary  sus- 
tenance. 


E  tardigradis  Asinis  Equus  non  prodiit. 

The  horse  is  not  the  progeny  of  the  slow 
paced  ass,  the  sheep  of  the  lion.  We  do  not 
easily  believe  a  dull  and  stupid  man  to  be  the 
son  of  an  acute,  sensible  and  ingenious  parent; 

a  coward, 


(    46    ) 

a  coward,  of  a  brave  and  spirited,  or  a  de- 
bauched and  worthless  man,  to  be  the  progeny 
of  a  good  and  worthy  sire;  and  yet  these  ano- 
malies not  ^infrequently  occur. 


Fames  et  Mora  Eilem  in  Nasum  conchint. 

Hunger,  if  not  speedily  satisfied,  or  any  un- 
seasonable delay  in  obtaining  what  we  ear- 
nestly desire,  excites  the  bile  in  the  nostrils. 
To  raise  or  heat  the  bile,  is  used  metaphorically 
for  inflaming  the  passions;  and  as  some  men, 
and  many  animals,  are  observed  to  inflate  or 
blow  out  their  nostrils  when  angry,  it  is  said 
to  excite  the  bile  in  that  organ.  The  bull, 
when  enraged,  is  described  as  breathing  fire 
from  his  nostrils,  and  of  the  horse  it  is  said, 
"the  glory  of  his  nostrils  is  terrible."  The 
impatience  with  which  we  support  delay  in 
gratifying  our  expectation  is  beautifully  paint- 
ed by  Solomon  in  the  following :  "  Hope  de- 
ferred, maketh  the  heart  sick,  but  when  it  is 
accomplished,  it  is  a  tree  of  life." 

Tuum 


(     47     ) 

Tuum  tlbi  narro  Somnium, 

May  be  said  to  any  one  pretending  an  inti- 
mate acquaintance  with  the  private  concerns 
of  another;  and  I  will  tell  you  the  subject  of 
your  last  night's  dream. 


Qui  Nucleum  esse  vult,  Nucem  frangat  oportet. 

"  Qui  veut  manger  de  noyau,  qu'il  casse  la 
noix,"  he  that  would  eat  the  kernel,  must 
break  the  shell;  and,  "He  that  will  not  work, 
must  not  expect  to  eat."  "  No  hay  dulzura, 
sin  sudor,"  no  sweet,  without  sweat.  "  No  hay 
ganancia,  sin  fatiga,"  no  gains,  without  pains; 
and  "  El  que  trabaja  y  madra,  hila  oro,"  he 
who  labours  and  strives,  spins  gold.  This 
rule  is  applicable  to  persons  in  every  station, 
the  labour  only  varies  in  kind,  but  all  must 
perform  a  part.  Providence  has  ordained  that 
every  thing  necessary  to  our  subsistence,  as 
well  as  those  which  custom  or  habit  have  made 
so  to  our  comfort,  as  apparel,  furniture,  houses, 
should  only  be  obtained  by  labour  and  exer- 
tion. To  this  law  the  wealthy,  and  those  born 

to 


(    43     ) 

to  high  rank  and  distinction,  are  equally  sub- 
jected with  the  poor.  As  the  earth  will  not 
produce  such  a  portion  of  food  as  is  necessary 
for  the  support  of  its  numerous  inhabitants, 
unless  it  be  cultivated,  the  labour  of  perform- 
ing which,  is  usually  the  lot  of  the  poor;  so 
neither  can  men  be  rendered  fit  to  manage 
large  possessions,  or  fill  high  stations,  unless 
their  minds  be  well  stored  with  knowledge, 
which  is  not  to  be  acquired  without  equal  care 
and  diligence. 

"  The  chiefest  action  for  a  man  of  spirit, 

Is  never  to  be  out  of  action ;  \ve  should  think 
The  soul  was  never  put  into  the  body, 
AVhich  has  so  many  rare  and  curious  pieces 
Of  mathematical  morion,  to  stand  still. 
Virtue  is  ever  sowing  of  her  seeds, 
In  the  trenches  for  the  soldier ;  in  wakeful  study 
For  the  scholar;  in  the  furrows  of  the  sea 
For  men  of  that  profession ;  of  all  which 
Arises,  and  springs  up  honour." 


Juxta  Fluviitm  Puteumfodit. 

It  is  digging  a  well  in  the  neighbourhood 
©f  a  river,  may  be  said  to  persons  doing  any 


thing 


(     49    ) 

thing  perfectly  preposterous,  and  useless,  as 
giving  money,  books,  or  any  other  articles,  to 
persons  who  have  of  them  already,  more  than 
they  have  opportunity  or  inclination  to  use. 


Beneficium  accipere  est  Libertatem  vendere. 

He  that  accepts  a  favour,  forfeits  his  liberty. 
By  receiving  obligations,  particularly  if  from 
persons  of  bad  morals,  you  are  precluded  the 
liberty  of  censuring  vices  so  freely  as  you 
might  be  disposed,  or  as  the  subject  you  are 
treating  might  require,  especially  those  vices 
of  which  you  know. them  to  be  guilty;  and  in 
public  dissensions,  you  are  restrained  from 
maintaining  your  own  opinion,  unless  it  ac- 
cords with  that  of  your  patron.  Erasmus, 
who  manifestly  held  the  same  opinions  on 
many  points  of  religion,  as  were  taught  by 
Luther  and  his  followers,  was  yet  restrained 
from  openly  espousing  them,  as  he  received 
nearly  the  whole  of  his  income,  from  persons 
of  the  Romish  persuasion.  "  Fille  qui  prend," 
the  French  sa}',  "son  corps  vend."  The  maid 
who  takes  presents,  has  deprived  herself  of  the 

power 


(     50    ) 

power  of  saying  "no,"  or  must  permit  liberties 
to  be  taken  with  her,  which  she  would  other- 
wise resist.  "  Springes  to  catch  woodcocks," 
says  the  sententious  Polonius,  cautioning  his 
daughter  against  giving  credit  to  Hamlet's 
promises  and  presents. 

Furari  Litorts  Arenas. 

It  is  stealing  sand  from  the  sea  shore,  may  be 
said  to  persons  taking  home  with  them,  and 
prizing  things  of  no  value,  and  which  are 
neglected  and  daily  trodden  under  our  feet. 


Pulverem  Oculis  ejfundere. 

"  Jetter  de  la  poudre  aux  yeux  de  quelqu' 
un,"  throwing  dust  into  the  eyes  of  any  one, 
that  he  may  not  see  what  is  going  on  before 
him.  The  adage  is  applicable  to  any  one  at- 
tempting to  make  a  business,  in  itself  obvious, 
obscure  and  difficult.  A  useful  stratagem  in 
war,  where  it  can  be  effected,  is  to  put  an 
army  into  such  a  position,  that  in  marching 
up  to  the  enemy,  the  dust  may  be  driven  to 

their 


their  faces,  and  from  this,  the  adage  is  sup- 
posed to  have  taken  its  origin.  Giving  a  bribe 
with  the  view  of  obtaining  an  unjust  decision 
in  any  business,  is  also  called  throwing  dust 
into  the  eyes  of  the  party. 


Oderint  modo  metuant. 

Let  them  hate  me,  so  they  do  but  fear  me. 
But  he  of  whom  many  are  afraid,  ought  to  be 
afraid  of  many,  as  was  exemplified  in  the  case 
of  the  Emperor  Tiberius,  who  had  this  saying 
frequent  in  his  mouth.  He  lived  to  be  univer- 
sally feared  and  execrated,  and  knowing  what 
a  host  of  enemies  he  had  created  by  his  cruel- 
ties and  lust,  he  found  it  necessary  to  go  into 
a  sort  of  banishment,  in  the  island  of  Caprea, 
where  he  drew  out  a  miserable  existence, 
alarmed  at  every  noise,  and  fancying  he  saw 
a  dagger  in  the  hand  of  every  one  who  ap- 
proached him.  The  adage  was  also  used  to  be 
applied  to  persons,  whose  sole  pleasure  or  satis- 
faction centered  in  their  wealth.  Call  me  what 
you  will,  such  men  would  say,  I  please  myself 
with  the  knowledge  that  I  am  rich. 

"  Populus 


-"  Populus  me  sibilat,  at  mihi  plaudo 


Ipse  domi,  simulac  nummos  contemplor  in  area." 


Caput  Artis  esf,  decere  quod  facias. 

It  is  the  perfection  of  art  or  of  management 
that  every  one  should  conform  himself  to  his 
circumstances  and  situation  in  life,  that  the 
rich  and  <n-eat  should  not  descend  to  the 

O 

manners  of  the  poor,  nor  the  poor  emulate 
those  of  the  rich  ;  that  the  aged  should  not 
mix  in  the  sports  and  amusements  of  the 
young,  nor  the  young  imitate  the  gravity  of 
those  advanced  in  years. 


Odit  Cane  pejus  et  Angue. 

Hated  worse  than  a  mad  dog,  or  a  venemous 
serpent.  The  man  who  is  entirely  engrossed 
by  a  passion  for  accumulating  riches,  or  ho- 
nours, is  a  dupe  to  parasites,  or  to  a  mistress, 
who  will  ruin  him,  and  yet  he  will  not  suffer  a 
word  to  be  said  against  the  object  of  his  pur- 
suit, but  would  hate  worse  than  a  mad  dog:, 

'  O» 

or  a  poisonous  serpent,  whoever  should  attempt 
to  wean  him  from  her. 

Onmia 


(    53     ) 

Omnia  bonos  Viros  decent. 

All  things  are  becoming  in  good  men.  If  a 
man  has  acquired  a  character  for  uprightness 
and  justice,  a  favourable  construction  is  put 
upon  every  thing  he  says  or  does,  On  the 
contrary,  the  best  actions  of  bad  men  are 
suspected  ;  as  they  are  never  imagined  to  pro- 
ceed from  the  heart,  some  deep  and  villanous 
design  is  supposed  to  be  couched  under  them. 
"  A  liar  is  not  to  be  believed,  even  when  he 
speaks  the  truth*" 


In  Acre  piscari,  In  Mare  venari. 

It  is  fishing  in  the  air,  or  hunting  in  the 
sea,  may  be  said  to  persons  attempting  things 
perfectly  incompatible;  as  if  those  should  ex- 
pect to  enjoy  a  perfectly  retired  and  quiet  life, 
who  are  engaged  in  any  public  offices  or  busi- 
ness; or  happiness,  while  eagerly  employed  in 
the  pursuit  of  sensual  pleasure;  or  content- 
ment, while  anxiously  intent  on  increasing 
their  wealth  which  will  be  much  more  likely 
to  add  to  their  cares  than  to  their  comfort. 


VOL,  II. 


C    54     ) 

Negkctis  urenda  Filiv  innasdiur  Agris. 

As  fern  and  other  hurtful  weeds  spring  up 
in  ground  that  is  not  tilled,  so  do  ill  humours 
abound  in  the  bodies  of  the  idle,  and  evil 
thoughts  take  possession  of  their  minds.  Hence 
we  truly  say,  "  L'ozio  £  il  padre  di  tutti  i  vizi," 
idleness  is  the  root  of  all  evil,  "L'oisivete  nous 
mene  a  la  mendicite,"  and  leads  to  beggary. 
Idle  persons  are  necessarily  restless  and  un- 
happy. "  They  are  never  pleased,  never  well 
in  body  or  in  mind,  but  weary  still,  sickly  still, 
vexed  still,  loathing  still ;  weeping,  sighing, 
grieving,  suspecting,  offended  with  the  world, 
-and  with  every  object;  and  this  is  the  reason," 
Burton  says,  "that  so  many  wealthy  and  great 
personages,  become  melancholy." 


Reperit  Deus  Nocentem. 

God  has  visited  him  for  his  sins.  "  It  has 
come  home  to  him  at  last."  The  security  he 
so  long  enjoyed,  proved  a  snare  to  him,  and 
led  him  to  the  commission  of  still  greater 
crimes,  hoping  for  the  same  impunity;  but 

the 


(    55    ) 

the  merited  punishment  has  at  length  over- 
taken him.  It  intimates,  that  no  offence, 
though  committed  ever  so  privately,  can  es- 
cape the  knowledge  of  the  Deity,  or  ultimately 
his  just  vengeance. 

Dem  u  Ice  re  Caput. 

Patting  and  stroking  the  head,  as  we  do  of 
dogs,  and  other  animals,  to  put  them  in  good 
humour  with  us.  Flattering  with  soft  speeches. 
"  Praetermitto,"  St.  Jerome  says  to  his  cor- 
respondent, "salutationis  officia,  quibus  meum 
demulces  caput,"  not  to  mention  the  kind 
speeches  and  friendly  reception  I  met  with, 
doubtless  with  the  view  of  bribing  my  judg- 
ment, and  inducing  me  to  favour  your  pro- 
posal. 


Catulce,  Domlnas  imitantes. 

See  the  young  whelps  looking  big,  and  at- 
tempting to  imitate  their  elders,  was  used  to 
be  said  of  servants   affecting  the  state  and 
grandeur  of  their  masters.     This  is  more  par- 
E  2  ticularly 


< 


ticularly  seen  in  the  conduct  of  the  clerks  in* 
public  offices,  who  often  expect  to  be  addressed 
with  more  ceremony,  and  to  have  more  atten- 
tion paid  to  them  than  is  required  by  their 
superiors.  "  The  insolence  of  office  "  is  re- 
corded by  Shakespeare,  as  constituting  no  small 
part  of  the  miseries  of  this  life. 


Lingua  bellare. 

To  war  with  the  tongue,  to  spend  the  whole 
of  one's  rage  in  coarse  and  rude  language,  in 
threats  which  we  havie  neither  the  power,  nor 
inclination,  perhaps,  to  carry  into  execution, 
is  the  resort  of  weak  and  cowardly  persons. 
Much  of  this  wordy  war  is  practised  at  the 
bar,  particularly  by  those  defending  a  bad 
cause.  "  Qui  aspidis  venenum  in  lingua  cir- 
cumferunt,"  the  poison  of  asps  is  under  their 
lips.  Wounds  made  with  the  tongue  are  often 
more  hurtful  than  those  made  with  the  sword. 
"  La  lengua  del  inal  amigo,  mas  corta  que  el 
cuchillo,"  the  tongue  of  a  false  friend  is  sharper 
than  a  knife,  cuts  deeper.  "  La  lengua  no  ha 
osso,  e  osso  fa  rompere,"  the  tongue  breaks 

bones, 


bones,  though  itself  has  none.  "  Mors  et  vita 
in  manibus  linguae,"  it  is  often  the  arbiter  of 
life  and  death.  An  intemperate  tongue  is  not 
only  injurious  to  others,  but  to  its  possessor, 
it  is  therefore  said,  "  Vincula  da  lingure  vel  tibi 
vincula  dabit,"  restrain  your  tongue,  or  it  will 
bring  you  into  restraint.  Hence  there  is  no 
precept  more  frequently  or  more  strongly  in- 
culcated, than  to  set  a  guard  over  that  mis- 
chievous member.  "  He  that  keepeth  his 
mouth,  keepeth  his  life,  but  he  that  openeth 
wide  his  lips,  shall  have  destruction,"  and 
"  the  tongue  of  the  wise  is  health."  "  En 
boca  cerrada  no  entra  moscha,"  flies  do  not 
enter  into  the  mouth  that  is  shut,  or,  no  mis- 
chief can  ensue  from  being  silent;  and  "an 
ounce  of  honey  will  catch  more  flies  than  a 
gallon  of  vinegar."  William  Paulet,  Marquis 
of  Winchester,  who  filled  high  offices  in  th« 
state,  during  the  reigns  of  Henry  the  Eighth, 
Edward  the  Sixth,  and  the  Queens  Mary  and 
Elizabeth,  being  asked  by  what  means  he  had 
preserved  himself  through  so  many  changes, 
said,  "  by  being  a  willow,  and  not  an  oak." 

f.3  Re- 


(     58     ) 

Refutantis  Laudem  immodicam. 

Checking  immoderate  commendation,  or 
praise.  "  Nullum  ego  sum  nuinen,  quid  me 
immortalibus  eequas?"  I  am  a  mere  human 
being,  with  all  the  follies  and  failings  incident 
to  them,  why  do  ye  then  raise  me  to  the  rank 
of  the  gods,  may  be  said  by  any  one,  finding 
himself  treated  with  too  much  homage  and 
adulation. 


Orel  habet  Galeam. 

He  has  the  helmet  of  Pluto,  was  used  to  be 
said  of  persons,  who  by  base  and  insidious 
arts,  incited  others  to  acts  of  villany,  without 
themselves  appearing  to  be  concerned  in  them. 
Those  who  wore  the  helmet  of  Pluto  were  said 
to  be  invisible,  but  to  see  every  thing  about 
them  ;  whence  the  adage.  The  ring  of  Gyges 
was  fabled  to  have  a  similar  power  of  making 
those  who  wore  it  invisible.  Probably  nothing 
more  is  meant  by  these  stories,  than  that  rich 
men  have  great  privileges,  few  persons  being 
bold  enough  to  scrutinize  into  their  actions, 

or 


(    59    ) 

or  to  censure  their  errors.  "  Las  necedades 
del  rico,  por  sentencias  passan  en  el  mundo," 
even  the  foolish  sayings  of  the  rich  are  es- 
teemed as  oracles. 


Apil  opus  est. 

There  is  need  of  parsley  here,  was  used  to  be 
said  when  any  one  was  affected  with  a  dis- 
ease, for  which  there  was  no  known  remedy, 
and  which  would  soon  extinguish  his  life;  al- 
luding to  the  custom  of  scattering  parsley  over 
their  graves,  which  was  the  ancient  custom 
among  the  Grecians.  They  were  also  used  to 
crown  those  who  were  conquerors  in  the  Isth- 
mian games,  with  this  herb. 


Prtestat  habere  acerbos  inimicos,  guam  eos 
Amlcos  qui  dulces  videantur. 

Better  an  open  enemy,  than  a  false  and  de- 
ceitful friend,  or  than  a  friend  who  is  too  soft 
and  easy,  and  too  readily  assents  to  whatever 
you  propose,  was  frequently  in  the  mouth  of 
Cato.  An  enemy,  by  being  a  spy  upon  our 
actions,  and  by  severely  censuring  our  slightest 

E  4  errors, 


(    60    ) 

errors,  may  make  us  cautious,  and  even  lead 
us  to  reform  any  follies  or  vices  we  may  have 
accustomed  ourselves  to,  or  indulged  ourselves 
in.  Philip  of  Macedon  said  the  Athenian  ora- 
tors, who  were  incessant  in  their  endeavours 
to  excite  the  Grecians  against  him,  had  by 
the  severity  of  their  censures,  conferred  on 
him  a  lasting  obligation,  for  they  had  taught 
him  to  look  into  and  regulate  his  conduct  in 
such  a  manner,  as  would  conduce  materially 
to  the  success  of  his  enterprizes. 

Sub  Cultro  liqult. 

He  is  under  the  knife,  in  great  danger  or 
extremity.  Our  phrase,,  "he  is  under  the 
hatchet,"  is  of  similar  import.  The  adage 
was  applied  when  any  one  who  had  fallen  into 
an  ambush,  into  the  sea,  or  into  any  other 
peril,  was  left  to  wade  through,  or  extricate 
himself  by  his  own  strength  or  ingenuity. 
The  metaphor  is  taken  from  a  victim  standing 
at  the  altar,  ready  to  be  sacrificed. 

"  fugit  improbus  et  me  sub  cultro  liquit," 

Instead 


(    61    ) 

Instead  of  assisting,  he  fled,  and  left  me  to 
struggle  through  my  difficulties  unaided.  Oc- 
casions offer  too  frequently  of  applying  this 
apothegm. 


Date  mihi  Pelvim. 

Bring  me  a  bason,  was  used  to  be  said,  when 
any  one  had  so  completely  worn  out  the  pa- 
tience of  his  auditors,  by  the  tediousness, 
absurdity,  or  wickedness  of  his  discourse,  that 
it  could  no  longer  be  borne,  and  was  meant 
to  express  the  utmost  contempt  for  the  relater. 
"  It  made  my  gorge  rise,"  or  "  I  could  have 
spit  in  the  fellow's  face." 


Quod  alibi  diminutum,  exequatur  alibi. 

Though  deficient  in  one  quality,  yet  abun- 
dantly endowed  with  others,  equally  valuable 
and  productive.  He  is  indeed  blind,  but  has 
an  exquisite  ear  to  music.  He  is  neither 
strong,  nor  swift  of  foot,  but  is  a  good  pen- 
man and  accountant.  Of  kin  to  it  are, 

"  Non  omnes  possumus  omnia,"  and 
"  Non  omnis  fert  omnia  tellus," 

No 


(    6*    ) 

No  man  should  be  expected  to  be  intimately 
acquainted  with  every  art  or  science,  nor  any 
land  to  produce  every  kind  of  fruit  or  grain* 

When  Philip  of  Macedon  was  contending 
with  the  master  of  his  choir,  on  some  musical 
subject,  the  musician,  instead  of  answering 
him,  said,  "  God  forbid  that  your  majesty 
.should  be  as  well  instructed  in  these  matters, 
as  I  am." 


Usque  ad  Aras  Amicus. 

A  friend  even  to  the  altar,  that  is,  who  will 
do  every  thing  that  is  not  offensive  to  good 
morals,  or  that  will  not  oblige  him  to  a  breach 
of  his  duty  to  God,  to  his  family,  or  neigh- 
bours. Such  was  the  answer  of  Pericles  to  a 
friend,  who  had  required  of  him  in  a  certain 
cause  to  give  a  false  testimony.  He  was  not 
unmindful  of  his  obligation  to  his  friend,  but 
he  dared  not  violate  his  duty  to  the  gods.  It 
•was  the  custom  anciently  for  persons  taking 
an  oath,  to  lay  one  of  their  hands  on  the  altar, 
whence  the  adage. 

The  following,  from  Beloe's  translation  of 

Aulus 


(    63    ) 

Aulus  Gellius,  places  the  character  of  Chilo, 
the  Lacedemonian,  in  so  pleasing  a  light,  that 
I  am  induced  to  lay  it  before  the  reader.  It 
has  also  some  reference  to  the  adage  before 
us.  When  death  was  approaching,  he  thus 
spake  to  his  surrounding  friends:  "That  there 
is  very  little  of  all  that  I  have  said  and  done 
in  the  course  of  a  long  life,  which  has  given 
me  cause  of  repentance,  ye  may,  perhaps,  Avell 
know.  At  this  period,  I  certainly  do  not  de- 
lude myself  when  I  say,  that  I  have  never 
clone  any  thing,  the  remembrance  of  which 
gives  me  uneasiness,  one  incident  alone  ex- 
cepted.  I  was  once  a  judge  with  two  others, 
on  the  life  of  a  friend.  The  law  was  such  as 
to  require  his  condemnation.  Either,  therefore, 
a  friend  was  to  be  lost  by  a  capital  punishment, 
or  the  law  was  to  be  evaded.  In  this  case,  I 
silently  gave  my  own  vote  for  his  condemna- 
tion, but  I  persuaded  my  fellow  judges  to 
acquit  him.  Thus  I  neither  violated  the  duty 
of  the  friend,  nor  of  the  judge.  But  the  fact 
gives  me  this  uneasiness;  I  fear  that  it  was 
both  perfidious  and  criminal,  to  persuade  others 

to 


to  do  that,  which  in  my  own  judgment  was 
not  right." 

Athos  celat  Lett  era  Lemnice  Bovis. 

Athos  covers  with  its  shade  the  Lemnian 
ox.  The  adage  was  used  to  be  applied  to  any 
one  injuring  the  character,  or  obscuring  the 
fame  of  another.  In  the  island  of  Lemnos, 
there  was  formerly  the  statue  of  an  Ox,  of  an 
immense  size.  This,  however,  did  not  prevent 
its  being  obscured  by  the  shadow  of  Mount 
Athos,  which,  though  at  a  great  distance,  ex- 
tended itself  over  a  large  portion  of  the  island. 


JExigit  et  a  Statuis  Farinas. 

I  warrant  he  will  make  something  of  it,  he 
would  get  meal  even  from  a  statue,  nor  is  there 
any  thing  so  mean  and  worthless,  but  he  will 
reap  some  profit  from  it.  But  the  adage  was 
more  usually  applied  to  princes,  and  governors, 
exacting  large  tributes  from  poor,  and  almost 
desolate  places,  or  obliging  the  inhabitants  of 

their 


(    65    ) 

their  principal  cities  to  pay  such  immense  sums> 
as  to  reduce  the  most  wealthy  and  prosperous 
of  them,  to  beggary.  Of  both  these,  we  have 
now  abundant  instances  in  the  conduct  of 
Buonaparte  and  his  myrmidons.  It  was  also 
applied,  Erasmus  says,  to  covetous  priests, 
"  apud  quos  ne  sepulchrum  quidem  gratis  con- 
ceclitur,"  who  extracted  profit  even  from  fune- 
rals ;  but  these  dues  are  now  usually  paid 
readily  enough,  either  out  of  respect  to  the 
deceased,  or  from  the  consoling  consideration 
that  it  will  be  the  last  cost  the  survivor  will 
be  put  to  on  their  account. 


Quid  ad  Mercurium. 

What  has  this  to  do  with  Mercury,  was 
said  when  any  one  through  ignorance,  or  with 
the  view  of  distracting  the  attention  of  the 
auditor,  introduced  any  matter  foreign  to  the 
subject  intended  to  be  discussed.  What  has 
this  to  do  with  the  business  before  us.  Mer- 
cury seems  to  have  been  made  use  of,  as  he 
was  esteemed  to  be  the  god,  or  patron  of 
eloquence. 

A  puro 


(    66    ) 

A  puro  pura  defluit  Aqua. 

From  a  pure  fountain,  pure  water  may  be 
expected  to  issue,  and  from  a  just  and  up- 
right man,  none  but  kind  and  beneficent 
actions. 


Reperire  Rimam. 

He  will  find  some  chink,  some  aperture  by 
which  he  will  escape,  was  said  of  crafty,  subtle, 
and  cunning  men,  who,  confine  them  ever  so 
carefully,  would  still  find  some  method  of  get- 
ting loose  ;  a  Monkhausen.  But  the  adage 
is  also  applicable  to  persons  who  are  ingenious 
in  finding  a  flaw  in  any  engagement  or  agree- 
ment, when  it  is  no  longer  their  interest  to 
abide  by  the  terms  of  it ;  to  the  lower  mem- 
bers of  the  law,  who  read  a  deed  not  so  much 
to  find  out  what  was  the  intention  of  the  par- 
ties, as  to  see  whether  it  may  not  be  made  td 
bear  some  other  construction. 

"  To  fiud  out  meanings  never  meant." 
Or  who,  in  penning  a  deed,  contrive  to  insert 
some  word  of  doubtful,  or  equivocal  sense, 

that 


(    67    ) 

that  may  vitiate  some  of  the  covenants,  always 
looking  to  the  advantage  of  the  craft. 


Ungentem  pungit,  pungentem  Rusticm 
angit. 

"  Oignez  vilain  il  vous  poindra, 
Poignez  vilain  il  vous  oindra." 

If  you  treat  a  clown  with  mildness  and  ci- 
vility he  will  fancy  you  are  afraid  of  him,  and 
will  return  your  kindness  with  rudeness  or 
insult ;  but  if  preserving  your  dignity,  you 
treat  him  as  your  inferior  or  with  some  degree 
of  authority,  he  will  crouch  to  and  fawn  upou 
you  : 

"  A  base  unthankful  clownish  brood, 
Return  ill  offices  for  good, 
But  if  you  should  them  harshly  treat, 
Then  spaniel-like  they  '11  lick  your  feet." 

"  El  ruyn,  mientras  mas  le  ruegan,  mas  se 
estiende,"  a  low  and  base  man,  the  more  you 
entreat  him,  the  more  insolent  he  becomes. 

Cognatio  movet  Inmdiam. 

Relationship  excites  envy.  We  rarely  envy 
the  good  fortune  of  those  with  whom  we  are 

little 


(    68    ) 

little  acquainted  ;  it  is  those  who  are  nearer 
to  us,  in  the  same  school,  college,  or  regi* 
ment;  or  with  whom  we  are  intimately  related, 
or  associated  in  the  same  business,  or  who  are 
in  the  same  rank  in  life  with  ourselves,  whose 
superior  success  disturbs  us.  For  the  success 
of  persons  very  much  superior  to  us  rarely 
gives  rise  to  this  detestable  and  tormenting 
passion,  which  undermines  the  health,  and 
when  in  excess  occasions  melancholy,  and 
even  madness.  "  As  a  moth  gnaws  a  gar- 
ment," Saint  Chrysostom  says,  "  so  doth  envy 
consume  a  man." 


-"  If  she  but  tastes 


The  slenderest  pittance  of  commended  virtue. 
She  surfeits  of  it.'' 

In  the  same  spirit  Swift  says, 

"  To  all  my  foes,  O  Fortune  send 
Thy  gifts,  but  never  to  a  friend  ; 
I  scarcely  can  endure  the  first, 
But  this  with  envy  makes  me  burst." 


Stultus  semper-  inclpit  vivere. 
The  fool  is  always  about  to  begin  to  live, 


never 


never  determined  or  settled  as  to  his  course  of 
life  ;  like  a  weathercock,  changing  his  plans 
as  often  as  the  wind  shifts,  or  taking  the  ad- 
vice of  every  new  acquaintance.  It  may  be 
useful  to  such  men  to  hear  what  Martial  says 
on  this  procrastinating  disposition  as  rendered 
by  Cowley  : 

"  To-morrow  you  will  live,  you  always  cry  ; 
In  what  far  country  does  this  morrow  lie, 
That  'tis  so  mighty  long  e'er  it  arrive  ? 
Beyond  the  Indies  does  this  morrow  live  ? 
Tis  so  far  fetched  this  morrow  that  I  fear 
'Twill  be  both  very  old  and  very  dear. 
To-morrow  I  will  live,  the  fool  doth  say ; 
To-day  itself 's  too  late,  the  wise  liv'd  yesterday." 


In  C&lum  jacularis. 

Threatening  those  whom  you  cannot  hurt, 
but  whose  anger  may  be  highly  prejudicial  to 
yourself,  is  like  hurling  your  dart  against  the 
heavens,  which  it  cannot  reach,  but  it  may 
wound  you  in  its  return.  "  Chi  piscia  contra 
il  vento,  si  bagna  la  camiscia,"  and  "  Quien 
al  cielo  escupe,  en  la  cara  le  cae,"  who  casts 

VOL.  ii.  F  his 


(    70    ) 

his  spittle  against  the  heavens,  will  receive  it 
back  on  his  face. 


Ante  hac  putabam  te  habere  Cormia. 

I  thought  you  had  been  furnished  with 
horns ;  that  is,  by  your  blustering,  I  thought 
you  had  the  power,  at  the  least,  of  defending 
yourself;  this  was  used  to  be  said  to  persons 
•who  were  found  on  experience  to  be  miserably 
defective  in  courage,  or  in  any  other  quality 
in  which  they  were  supposed  to  excel. 


Ante  Barbam  doces  Series. 

Being  young  and  inexperienced  do  you  set 
yourself  up  for  a  teacher  ?  this  among  the  an- 
cients would  have  been  looked  upon  as  a  pre- 
posterous attempt,  and  perhaps  our  manners 
are  not  much  mended  by  our  departing  from 
their  practice  on  this  subject.  "  Odi  pueru- 
los  prsecoci  sapientia,"  I  hate  these  forward 
wits,  or  to  see  young  men  thrusting  them- 
selves into  concerns  that  require  rather 
strength  of  heads  than  of  hands.  The  most 

early 


(    71    ) 

early  wits  were  supposed  to  be  least  lasting, 
and  never  to  attain  to  perfection  ;  "  soon  ripe 
soon  rotten,"  is  a  very  old  maxim.  "  Buey 
viejo,  sulco  derecho,"  an  old  ox  makes  a 
straight  furrow ;  and  "  diablo  sabe  mucho, 
por  que  es  viejo,"  the  devil  knows  much,  the 
Spaniards  say,  because  he  is  old* 


Auro  Loquente  nlhil  Collet  qucevis  Ratio. 

Against  money  or  a  bribe,  reason  or  elo- 
quence are  of  little  avail,  an  apothegm  no 
where  more  known  or  acknowledged  than  in 
this  country,  where,  according  to  a  saying 
imputed  to  Sir  Robert  Walpole,  every  man 
has  its  price.  "  L'  argento  6  un  buon  passe- 
porto,"  money  is  a  good  passport,  and  "  Quien 
dinero  tiene,  haze  lo  que  quiere,"  he  who  has 
money  has  friends,  fame,  and  whatever  he 
pleases :  we  are  not  therefore  single  in  the 
homage  we  pay  to  it,  and  "  money,"  we  say, 
"  is  welcome  every  where."  Ovid  also  long 
since,  addressing  himself  to  it,  said 

"  Quid  non  mortalia  pectora  cogis, 

Auri  sacra  fames." 

F  2  What 


C     72     ) 

What  atrocities  will  not  the  cursed  thirst  after 
gold  impel  men  to  commit ! 


Durum  et  durum  nonfaciunt  Murum. 

Two  hard  bodies  will  not  coalesce  to  make 
a  rampart  or  wall ;  there  must  be  a  soft  sub- 
stance placed  between,  to  cement  them.  Two 
proud,  haughty,  intemperate  men  will  never 
agree  together,  without  the  intervention  of 
a  mild,  quiet,  rational,  and  peaceable  dispo- 
sition, to  soften  asperities  and  bring  them  into 
contact. 


Sublatd  Lucernd,  nihil  interest  inter 

Mulieres. 

"Joan  is  as  good  as  my  lady  in  the  dark," 
and  "  De  noche  todos  los  gatos  son  pardos," 
in  the  dark  all  cats  are  grey.  The  following, 
which  is  familiar  to  all  my  readers,  says  all 
that  is  necessary  on  this  subject : 

"  Whilst  in  the  dark  on  thy  soft  hand  I  hung, 
And  heard  the  tempting  syren  in  thy  tongue  j 
What  flames,  what  darts,  what  anguish  I  endured  : 
But  when  the  candle  entered.  I  was  cured." 

J\  fuller 


Muller  turn  bene  olet,  ubi  nihil  okt. 

A  woman  then  smells  most  sweet,  when  she 
has  no  scent ;  which  may  be  best  illustrated 
by  the  following  lines  from  Ben  Jonson  : 

"  Still  to  be  neat,  still  to  be  drest, 
As  you  were  going  to  a  feast ; 
Still  to  be  powdered,  still  perfum'd, 
Lady,  it  is  to  be  presumed, 
Though  art's  hid  causes  are  not  found, 
All  is  not  sweet,  all  is  not  sound,"  fyc.  fyc. 

The  French  proverb  lays  a  further  embargo 
on  the  ladies;  "  la  femme  de  bien  n'a  ni 
yeux,  ni  oreilles,"  discreet  women  have  nei- 
ther eyes  nor  ears ;  and  the  Spaniards  would 
takeaway  their  feet  also,  "la  muger  en  casa,  y 
la  pierna  quebrada,"  the  wife  at  home,  and  her 
leg  broken;  so  averse  are  they  to  their  gadding 
abroad  :  and  in  another  of  their  sayings,  they 
only  allow  a  female  to  go  out  three  times,  "En 
la  vida,  la  muger  tres  salidas  ha  de  hazer,"  viz. 
to  be  christened,  to  be  married,  and  to  be  bu- 
ried ;  also  on  giving  a  girl,  who  loved  going 
abroad,  to  be  married,  "  algodon  cogio,  qual 
la  halleres,  tal  te  la  doy,"  she  has  been  gather- 
F  3  ing 


ing  cotton,  (been  gadding,)  you  must  take  her 
as  you  find  her.     What  privileges  the  women 
get  by  being  married,  may  be  learned  by  the 
following,  "  Madre,  que  cosa  es  casar  ?    Hija, 
hilar,  parir,  y  llorar,"  mother,  the  daughter 
says,  what  is  it  to  be  married  ?  it  is,  my  child, 
to    spin,    to    bear    children,    and    to    weep. 
"  When  the  mother  of  the  king  of  Spain  was 
on    her    road    towards  Madrid,    she    passed 
through  a  little  town  famous  for  its  manufac- 
tory of  gloves  and  stockings  ;  the  magistrates 
of  the  place  thought  they  could  not  better 
express  their  joy  for  the  reception  of  their  new 
queen,  than  by  presenting  her  with  a  sample 
of  those  commodities  for  which  their  town 
was  remarkable.     The  major-domo  who  con- 
ducted the  princess,  received  the  gloves  very 
graciously  ;  but  when  the  stockings  were  pre- 
sented, he  flung  them  away  with  great  indig- 
nation, and  severely  reprimanded   the  magis- 
trates for  this  egregious  piece  of  indecency ; 
Know,  says  he,  that  a  Queen  of  Spain  has  no 
legs.     The  poor  young  queen,  who,  at  that 
time,  understood  the  language  but  imperfect- 
ly, and  had  often  been  frightened  by  stories 

of 


(     75     ) 

of  Spanisli  jealousy,  imagined  that  they  were 
to  cut  off  her  legs,  upon  which  she  fell  a  cry- 
ing and  begged  them  to  send  her  back  to 
Germany,  for  that  she  never  could  endure  the 
operation ;  and  it  was  with  some  difficulty 
they  could  appease  her.  Philip  IV  is  said 
never  in  his  life  to  have  laughed  heartily,  but 
at  the  recital  of  this  story. 


Occasiofacit  Furem. 

"  L'  occasione  fa  il  ladrone,"  and  "  Tocca- 
sion  fait  le  larron,"  "  opportunity  makes  the 
thief,"  we  should  therefore  leave  it  as  little  as 
possible  in  the  power  of  those  who  are  about 
us,  to  rob  us,  that  is,  we  should  keep  a  watch- 
ful eye  over  them  ;  "  a  quick  landlord  makes 
a  careful  tenant,"  and  an  exact  and  severe 
master,  industrious  and  honest  servants.  "  En 
casa  abierta  el  justo  pecca,"  an  open  door,  or 
an  open  chest,  may  tempt  even  a  good  man  to 
do  a  dishonorable  action  ;  "  if  we  place  butter 
hy  the  fire  it  will  melt,"  was  the  observation 
of  a  Hindoo,  who  was  asked  his  opinion  of  an 
English  country-dance,  of  which  he  had  been 
F  4  a  spec^ 


(    76    ) 

a  spectator ;  not  conceiving,  as  it  should 
seem,  that  ladies  who  suffered  themselves  to  be 
handled  so  freely,  would  resist  further  liber- 
ties if  they  should  be  offered. 


Procul  a  Jove,  procul  a  Fulmine. 

Far  from  Jove,  far  from  the  thunderbolt. 
The  countries  at  the  greatest  distance  from  the 
court  or  capital  of  a  kingdom,  being  out  of 
view,  often  escape  much  of  the  oppression, 
which  those  nearer  at  hand  are  obliged  to  sub- 
mit to. 


Priusquam  Theognis  nasceretur. 

Before  Theognis  was  born,  was  used  to  be 
said  of  any  transaction  that  occurred  so  early 
that  its  origin  could  not  easily  be  traced. 
Cicero,  in  discussing  the  question  how  far  or 
to  what  degree  a  man  would  be  justified  in 
violating  the  laws  of  his  country,  in  defend- 
ing the  life  or  reputation  of  his  friend,  says, 
"  we  must  not  take  up  arms  against  our  country 

to 


(    77    ) 

to  serve  our  friend,"  "  and  who  did  not  know 
this,"  Lucilius  observed,  "  before  Theognis 
was  born,"  which  thence  came  to  be  used  as 
a  proverb.  Theognis  was  an  early  poet  of 
Megara,  whose  moral  sentences  have  been 
quoted  by  some  of  the  most  considerable  of 
the  Greek  writers. 


Lingua  Amicus. 

A  friend  in  words ;  any  one  who  by  his 
conversation  seems  desirous  of  being  esteemed 
a  friend,  but  whose  kindness  extends  no  fur- 
ther ;  who  is  free  in  promising,  but  very  back- 
ward in  performing  any  friendly  office,  is  the 
kind  of  person  intended  to  be  censured  by  this 
adage.  "  Pollicitis  dives,  quilibet  esse  potest," 
any  man  may  be  liberal  in  promises,  they  cost 
nothing.  "  II  se  ruine  a  promettre,  et  s'acquitte 
&  ne  rien  tenir,"  he  ruins  himself  by  promising, 
but  saves  himself  by  not  performing,  for  "pro- 
mettre et  tenir  sont  deux,"  there  is  a  great 
difference  between  saying  and  doing,  which  is 
also  a  Spanish  axiom,  "  Del  dicho  al  hecho, 
ay  gran  trecho.''  "  II  nous  a  promis  monts 

et 


(    78    ) 

ct  merveilles,"  he  promises  mountains;  "more 
in  a  month,"  we  say,  "  than  he  will  perform  in 
a  year." 


Lingua  non  redarguta. 

A  tongue  not  to  be  silenced.  "  Qui  ratio- 
nibusconvicti,  non  cedunt  tamen,"  who  though 
convicted,  overcome  by  argument,  still  refuse 
to  yield.  "  Nunquam  persuadebis,  quamvis 
persuaseris,"  although  you  have  convicted  me, 
you  shall  not  convince  me.  Determined,  ob- 
stinate incredulity. 


Serpens  ni  edat  Serpentem,  Draco  nonftt. 

A  serpent,  unless  he  feeds  on  serpents,  does 
not  become  a  dragon.  It  need  hardly  be 
mentioned,  that  the  dragon  was  fabled  by  the 
ancients,  as  a  ferocious  and  destructive  beast, 
and  as  the  head  of  that  class  of  animals.  The 
adage  intimates  that  kings  only  become  great 
potentates  by  destroying  neighbouring  princes, 
invading  and  conquering  their  territories,  as 
the  vast  strength  of  lions,  tigers,  and  other 

beasts 


(    79    ) 

beasts  of  prey,  is  supported  by  the  destruction 
of  animals  of  less  bulk  and  power,  and  as  men 
rarely  acquire  enormous  fortunes,  but  by  in- 
juring and  oppressing  other. 


Qui  vitat  Molam,  vitat  Farinam. 
"  No  mill,  no  meal,"  or,  if  the  noise  of  the 
mill  offends  you,  you  can  have  no  meal.  "  Who 
will  not  work,  must  not  expect  to  eat,"  "  Who 
would  have  eggs,  must  bear  the  cackling  of 
the  hen."  If  the  ground  be  not  tilled,  it  will 
produce  no  grain,  or  the  corn  will  be  choked 
with  weeds.  "  Lutum  nisi  tundatur,  non  fit 
urceus,"  unless  the  clay  be  well  pounded  and 
wrought,  it  cannot  be  formed  into  vessels. 
Nothing  valuable  is  to  be  produced  without 
industry,  "et  quid  tandem  non  efficiunt  ma- 
nus,"  and  to  labour  and  ingenuity,  scarcely 
any  thing  is  impossible. 

• "Thou  would'st  be  great,"  Lady  Macbeth  says 

to  her  husband, 
"  Art  not  without  ambition  ;  but  without 

The  illness  should  attend  it:  what  thou  would'st  highly, 
That  would'st  thou  holily  ;  would'st  not  play  false, 
And  yet  would'st  wrongly  win." 

This 


(     80     ) 

This,  though  addressed,  and  suited  particu- 
larly to  Macbeth,  is  applicable  in  its  principle 
to  mankind  in  general.  We  all  of  us  wish  for, 
and  would  abound  in  the  conveniences  of  life, 
but  all  have  not  that  energy  of  mind,  which  is 
necessary  to  set  them  at  work  to  obtain  them. 
Hence  we  find  in  all  barbarous,  and  semi  ci- 
vilised countries,  the  inhabitants  are  prone  to 
thieving,  as  a  more  compendious  way  of  getting 
what  they  desire,  than  by  their  labour.  Cap- 
tain Cook,  lost  his  life  by  attempting  to  make 
the  people  of  the  Sandwich  islands  esteem,  and 
punish  robbery,  as  a  crime ;  and  we  see  with 
what  difficulty  the  propensity  is  restrained  in 
this,  and  other  countries  of  Europe,  where  we 
are  taught  from  our  infancy,  and  it  is  made 
a  part  of  our  religion,  to  refrain  from  stealing, 
and  where  it  is  prohibited  under  the  severest 
penalties,  in  some  cases,  even  to  forfeiture  of 
life  ;  yet  many  daily  hazard  that  punishment, 
rather  than  exert  themselves  to  procure  what 
they  want  by  industry  :  so  true  it  is,  that 
"  Idleness  is  the  root  of  all  evil,"  as  it  is  also, 
that  "  Lazy  folks  take  the  most  pains,"  the 
robber  procuring  his  booty  with  much  greater 

cliffi- 


(     81     ) 

difficulty  and  hazard,  than  it  costs  the  indus- 
trious man  to  obtain  what  is  of  equal,  or  supe- 
rior value.  In  India,  we  are  told,  there  are 
whole  tribes,  or  communities  of  robbers,  the 
individuals  of  which  do  not  shrink  from  the 
imputation.  The  Mahrattas  are  a  nation  of 
robbers,  and  on  what  other  principle  are  car- 
ried on  nearly  all  the  wars  of  Europe  ? 


Optimum  Obsonium  para  Senectuti. 
Make  ample  provision  for  old  age.  "  Chi 
in  prima  non  pensa,  in  ultimo  sospira,"  who 
does  not  think  before,  sighs  after,  therefore, 
"  Make  hay  while  the  sun  shines."  "  Lay  up 
against  a  rainy  day,"  and  "  Take  care  to  fea- 
ther your  nest  while  young,"  for  "Non  semper 
crit  asstas,"  it  will  not  be  always  summer ; 
and  it  is  as  disgraceful  for  young  persons  to 
neglect  the  means  of  improving  their  fortunes, 
as  it  is  for  the  aged  to  be  over  solicitous  about 
increasing  theirs.  Diogenes  being  asked  what 
he  considered  as  the  most  wretched  state  of 
man,  answered  "  an  indigent  old  age."  This 
seems  to  have  been  said  with  too  little  con- 
sideration. Poverty  is  generally  and  not  un- 
deservedly 


(     82     ) 

deservedly  esteemed  an  evil,  and  the  averting 
it  affords  the  most  powerful  incentive  to  ac- 
tion, but  the  pressure  of  it  must  be  much  less 
felt  in  age,  than  in  the  vigour  of  life.  Among 
the  ancients,  indeed,  age  was  itself  esteemed 
an  evil,  as  it  incapacitates  from  making  those 
excursions, and  following  those  pleasures  which 
contribute  so  much  to  the  felicity  of  the  early 
part  of  our  lives.  But  if  with  the  capacity  for 
enjoying,  we  lose  the  propensity  or  desire  for 
having  them,  it  should  rather  be  considered  as 
a  blessing.  By  losing  them  we  attain  a  state 
of  calm  and  quiet,  rarely  experienced  by  the 
young,  neither  would  it  indeed  be  suitable  to 
them,  the  passions  and  desires  being  the  gales 
which  put  them  in  motion,  and  lead  them 
to  signalize  themselves.  Without  them  they 
would  become  torpid,  and  would  do  nothing 
useful  to  themselves,  nor  to  the  public.  Action 
therefore  is  the  element  of  the  young,  as  quiet 
and  retirement  is  of  the  aged.  If  life  has  been 
passed  innocently,  and  the  aged  have  not  to 
reproach  themselves  with  having  deserted  their 
duty,  or  with  the  commission  of  any  crime  for 
which  they  ought  to  blush,  the  reflection  on 

their 


their  past  conduct,  and  on  such  acts  of  bene- 
ficence and  kindness  they  may  have  performed, 
or  of  any  thing  done  by  which  the  community 
may  eventually  be  benefited,  will  abundantly 
compensate  for  what  time  has  taken  from  them. 
The  aged  will  also  have  learned  among  other 
things,  if  it  should  happen  to  be  their  lot,  to 
bear  poverty  with  composure.     If  little  should 
now  remain  to  them,  their  wants  will  also  be 
equally  few.     The  plainest  and  simplest  diet, 
clothes,  and  apartments,  may  very  well  serve 
them,  and  are,  perhaps,  the  best  suited  to  their 
state.     The  old  man,  therefore,  if  his  poverty 
is  not  the  effect  of  vice,  or  folly,  will  soon 
accommodate  himself  to  his  situation.    But  if 
he  has  been  himself  the  author  of  his  degrada- 
tion, he  will  regret  and  pine,  not  so  much  at  the 
loss  of  that  affluence  which  he  no  longer  wants, 
as  at  the  vices  or  follies  which  occasioned  the 
loss  of  them.     Old  and  infirm  people  should 
continue  to  exert  themselves  in  all  matters 
regarding  their  persons,  as  much,  and  as  long 
as  they  can,  and  they  generally  may  do  this, 
nearly  to  the  period  of  the  extinction  of  their 
lives,  if  they  early  and  resolutely  resist  that 

languor, 


(     84     ) 

languor,  which  feebleness  is  apt  to  induce. 
While  they  shew  this  species  of  independance, 
they  will  retain  the  respect  of  those  who  are 
about  them.  A  total  imbecility  and  incapacity 
to  perform  the  common  offices  of  life,  is  the 
most  miserable  state  to  which  human  nature 
can  be  reduced. 


llli  Mors  gratis  incubat,  qui  notus  nimis 
omnibus,  ignotus  moritur  sibi. 

Death  falls  heavy  upon  him  who,  known  to 
others,  is  only  unknown  to  himself.  Though 
self-love  is  an  inherent  principle  in  human 
nature,  yet  how  few  are  there  that  are  solicit- 
ous to  become  acquainted  with  themselves,  or 
who  can  bear  to  be  alone  !  Not  but  that  the 
student  will,  with  great  satisfaction,  pass  many 
hours  every  day  in  his  study,  the  merchant  in 
his  closet ;  but  M'hen  their  respective  labours 
are  finished,  each  of  them  have  recourse  to 
company  to  amuse  and  divert  their  thoughts. 
Though  ^without  living  associates  before,  they 
were  still  in  company,  but  their  books  being 
*lmt,  they  then  find  themselves  alone;  and  if 

they 


(     85     } 

they  were  not  to  change  the  scene,  they  might 
be  induced  to  look  into  themselves,  to  inquire 
Jmto  the  state  of  their  mind, 

"  That  task  which  as  we  follow  or  despise, 
The  oldest  is  a  fool,  the  youngest  wise; 
Which  done,  the  poorest  can  no  wants  endure, 
And  which  not  done,  the  richest  must  be  poor." 

In  this  task,  there  are  few  who  are  inclined  to 
engage.  This  does  not  seem  to  arise  from  the 
difficulty  of  the  undertaking,  but  from  an 
unwillingness  to  enter  on  the  study,  lest  it 
should  lead  to  self-condemnation,  and  they 
should  find  it  necessary  to  give  up  some  fa- 
vourite pursuit,  or  practice,  which  interest,  or 
pleasure,  had  made  too  agreeable  to  be  parted 
with.  But  those  who  are  so  averse  to  this  in- 
quiry should  consider,  "that  as  the  tree  falls, 
so  it  lies.*'  Cowley  has  well  described  the 
exit  of  such  an  one  in  the  following  lines. 

"  To  him  alas,  to  him  I  fear, 

The  face  of  death  will  terrible  appear, 
Who  in  his  life,  flattering  his  senseless  pride, 
By  being  known  to  all  the  world  beside, 
Does  Hot  himself  when  he  is  dying  know, 

Nor  what  he  is,  nor  whither  he's  to  go." 

t 

VOL.  n.  e  Though 

o 


(    86    ) 

Though  this  article  is  already  far  extended, 
the  reader  will  not  be  displeased  at  seeing  a 
passage  from  the  golden  verses  of  Pythagoras, 
on  the  utility  of  self-examination,  which  is 
enforced  with  peculiar  energy.  The  verses, 
which  well  deserve  the  name  of  "  golden,"  are 
supposed  to  contain  the  principal  points  of 
morality,  taught  by  the  great  philosopher 
whose  name  they  bear,  and  to  have  been 
delivered  down  to  posterity  by  one  of  his 
disciples. 

"  Let  not  the  stealing  god  of  sleep  surprise, 
Nor  creep  in  slumbers  on  the  weary  eyes, 
Ere  ev'ry  action  of  the  former  day, 
Strictly  thou  dost  and  righteously  survey. 
With  reverence  at  thy  own  tribunal  stand,, 
And  answer  justly  to  thy  own  demand. 
Where  have  1  been?  in  what  have  I  transgress'd? 
What  good  or  ill  has  this  day's  life  express'd  ? 
Where  have  I  failed  in  what  J  ought  to  do  ? 
Tn  what  to  God,  to  man,  or  to  myself  I  owe? 
Inquire  severe  whate'er  from  first  to  last, 
From  morning's  dawn  till  evening's  gloom  is  past,. 
If  evil  were  thy  deeds,  repenting  mourn, 
And  let  thy  soul  with  strong  remorse- be  torn. 
If  good,  the  good  with  peace  of  mind  repay, 
And  to  thy  secret  self  with  pleasure  say, 
Rejoice,  my  heart,  for  all  went  well  to-day. 

These. 


(     87     ) 

These  thoughts,  and  chiefly  these,  thy  mind  should  move'; 
Employ  thy  study,  and  engage  thy  love. 
These  are  the  rules  that  will  to  virtue  lead, 
And  teach  thy  feet  her  heavenly  paths  to  tread." 


Malum  Consilium  Consult  ori  pessimum. 

Evil  counsel  is  most  pernicious  to  the  giver 
of  it.  The  adage  is  applicable  to  persons  \vho 
find  the  mischief  they  intended  for  others, 
fall  upon  themselves.  "  He  hath  graven  and 
digged  a  pit,  and  hath  fallen  into  the  midst 
of  it  himself."  Advice  is  of  a  sacred  nature, 
and  should  he  given  faithfully,  and  those  who 
prostitute  it  to  evil  purposes,  are  deserving  of 
the  severest  punishment.  The  following  story 
is  related  as  having  given  rise  to  this  apo- 
thegm. The  statue  of  Horatius  Codes,  who 
had  defended  the  passage  of  a  bridge  singly 
against  the  whole  Etrurian  army,  being  struck 
with  lightning,  the  augurs  were  consulted  as 
to  the  expiation  proper  to  be  made  to  the 
offended  deities,  for  to  that  cause  the  Romans 
attributed  these  and  similar  accidents;  and 
they  advised,  among  other  things,  that  the 

e  2  statue 


(     88    ) 

statue  should  be  placed  in  a  lower  situation  ; 
meaning,  perhaps,  where  it  would  be  less  liable 
to  a  similar  injury.  But  the  advice  being  sup- 
posed to  be  given  through  treachery,  they 
were  accused,  convicted,  and  put  to  death. 
This  was  so  agreeable  to  the  superstitious 
people,  that  for  a  long  time  after  they  sang 
the  verse  which  forms  this  adage,  in  triumph, 
about  the  streets.  The  augurs  are  said  to 
have  acknowledged  their  guilt,  as  many  poor 
old  women,  accused  of  witchcraft,  have  done 
in  this  country.  The  story  is  more  circum- 
stantially related  by  Aulus  Gellius.  See  Beloe's 
translation  of  that  entertaining  work.  Though 
augury  was  held  in  high  estimation  by  the 
Greeks  and  Romans,  scarcely  any  great  action 
being  undertaken  among  them  without  having 
recourse  to  it;  and  the  common  people  in  both 
countries,  as  well  as  many  eminent  for  their 
rank,  and  for  their  literary  attainments,  placed 
an  entire  confidence  in  it,  yet  there  were  not 
wanting,  at  all  times,  persons  who  held  it  in 
contempt.  Cato,  the  censor,  Cicero  tells  us, 
expressed  his  astonishment,  that  the  auspices 
could  keep  their  countenance  when  two  of 

them 


(    89    ) 

them  met.  "  Mirari  se  aiebat,  quod  non  rideret 
haruspex  haruspicem  cum  videret."  And 
Homer  makes  Hector  say  to  Polydamus,  ad- 
vising him  not  to  attack  the  Grecian  camp, 
on  account  of  some  sinister  omen. 

"  Ye  vagrants  of  the  sky !  your  wings  extend, 
Or  where  the  suns  arise,  or  where  descend  ; 
To  right,  to  left,  unheeded  take  your  way" 


"  Without  a  sign,  his  sword  the  brave  man  draws, 
And  asks  no  omen  but  his  country's  cause. 

When  Cassius  was  advised  by  the  augurs  not 
to  fight  with  the  Parthians  until  the  moon 
had  passed  the  scorpion,  he  said,  "  he  was  not 
afraid  of  the  scorpion,  but  of  the  arrows  of 
the  enemy."  But  some  of  the  augurs  were, 
doubtless,  dupes  to  their  qwn  art,  and  as  cre- 
dulous, and  as  foolish,  as  any  modern  old 
witch. 

Corycceus  auscultate  it. 

A  Corycsean  has  been  listening.     This  was 

said  when  any  one  found  that  a  transaction  to 

which  he  thought  no  one  was  privy,  had  been 

discovered.     The  Corycaeans,  a  band  of  rob- 

G  3  bers 


bers  inhabiting  a  mountain  of  that  name,  con* 
trived,  in  order  that  they  might  know  where 
to  levy  contributions  with  certainty,  to  mix 
among  the  merchants  and  traders,  and  by  lis- 
tening to  their  discourse,  learned  what  sort  of 
goods  each  of  them  carried  with  them,  where 
the}'  were  going,  and  at  what  time  they  meant 
to  set  out  on  their  journey  ;  when  taking  with 
them  as  many  associates  as  they  thought  ne- 
qessary,  they  met,  and  robbed  them. 


Ammo  cegrotanti  Medicus  est  Oratio. 

Kind  words  are  a  medicine  to  an  afflicted 
spirit.  "  A  soft  answer  turneth  away  wrath." 
"  Cortesia  de  boca  mucho  valer,  y  poco  costa," 
civility  costs  little,  but  has  considerable  influ- 
ence in  appeasing  restless  and  unquiet  minds. 
"An  ounce  of  honey,"  we  say,  "will  catch 
more  flics  than  a  gallon  of  vinegar." 

"  Sunt  verba  et  voces  quibus  hunc  lenire  dolorem 
Possis,  et  magnam  morbi  depellere  partera." 

"  Know  there  are  words,  which  fresh  and  fresh  applied, 
Will  cure  the  arrantest  puppy  of  his  pride." 

Pride,  and  other  evil  affections  of  the  mind, 

were 


(    91    ) 

were  by  the  Stoics  considered  as  diseases,  for 
which  there  were  no  better  remedies,  than  good 
and  sensible  discourses. 


Contra  Torrente.m  niti. 

"  Striving  against  the  stream,"  which  those 
may  be  said  to  do  who  attempt  to  convince 
obstinately  perverse  persons  of  the  impropriety 
of  any  thing  they  have  once  resolved  to  defend, 
or  of  undertaking  any  project  they  have  de- 
termined to  accomplish. 


Radit  usque  ad  Cittern. 

He  shaves  close,  "  ad  vivum  resecat,"  "  he 
cuts  to  the  quick."  The  phrase  is  applied  to 
persons  too  exact  in  taking  what  is  their  due. 
"The  avaricious  man,"  as  described  by  Theo- 
phrastus,  "  though  his  tenants  pay  him  their 
rent  duly  every  month,  will  teaze  them  for  an 
odd  farthing  that  remained  at  their  last 
reckoning^  and  is  perpetually  inculcating  to 
his  wife  never  to  lend  any  thing  ;  for  an  end 
ef  a  candle,  or  an  handful  of  suit  or  of  oat- 
»  4  meal 


meal  will  amount  to  money  at  the  year's  end. 
He  makes  the  barber  shave  him  to  the  quick, 
that  it  may  be  the  longer  before  he  wants  him 
again."  Shylock  would  abate  nothing  of  the 
penalty  of  his  bond,  though  it  should  cost  the 
debtor  his  life,  but  says  to  those  soliciting  his 
forbearance, 

"  My  deeds  upon  my  head  :  I  crave  the  law, 
The  penalty  and  forfeiture  of  ray  bond." 

A  late  chief  magistrate  of  London,  on  being 
told  by  one  of  his  workmen,  an  old  and  faith" 
ful  servant,  what  pleasure  he  had  received  in 
seeing  his  master  in  his  state  coach,  though 
pleased  with  the  homage  the  poor  man  had 
paid  him,  yet  nature  so  far  prevailed,  that  he 
mulcted  him  a  quarter  of  a  day  for  time  lost 
in  going  to  see  the  procession. 


Saxum  volutum  non  obducitur  Musco. 

"  Pietra  che  rotula  non  piglia  muffa,"  and 
"  piedra  movediza  no  la  cubre  moho,"  that  is, 
"  a  rolling  stone  is  ever  bare  of  moss,"  is  used 
to  be  said  to  persons  who  are  frequently 

changing 


(     93     ) 

changing  their  situation  or  employment;  such 
persons  being  more  likely  to  dissipate  and 
waste,  than  to  improve  and  increase  their 
property.  To  the  same  purport  is,  "  Planta 
qu£e  sjepe  transfertur  non  coalescit,"  the  tree 
that  is  often  moved  does  not  thrive. 


Anus  Hircum  olet. 

"  How  like  a  goat  she  smells,"  said  of  libi- 
dinous old  women.  The  phrase,  therefore, 
taken  originally  from  the  Greeks,  is  neither 
modern  nor  peculiar  to  this  country;  though 
no  where  used,  it  may  be  presumed,  but  among 
the  common  people. 


JJctbet  et  Musca  Splenam,  and 
Inest  et  Formica  sua  Bills. 

"  Even  a  fly  has  its  sting,"  and  "  a  worm  if 
trodden  upon  will  turn,"  and  make  an»  effort 
to  avenge  the  injury  :  we  should  therefore  not 
despise  an  enemy  however  weak  and  insignifi- 
cant, or  wantonly  offend  any  one ;  there  be- 
ing 


ing  few  persons  but  who  may,  at  some  time, 
have  it  in  their  power  to  do  us  an  injury,  or 
who  may  not  in  some  way  be  useful  to  us. 
Socrates  determined  him  to  be  the  wisest  man, 
who  gave  the  least  offence. 


Camelus  desiderans  Cornua  etiam  Aures 
perdidit. 

The  camel,  discontented  at  not  having 
horns,  lost  its  ears  likewise.  The  adage 
teaches  that  we  should  be  thankful  for  those 
faculties  and  powers  with  which  it  has  pleased 
Providence  to  endow  us,  and  not  to  ask  for 
properties  inconsistent  with  our  state,  and 
which  would  be  rather  injurious  to  us  than 
beneficial,  as  horns  would  be  to  the  camel, 
whose  strength  does  not  lie  in  his  neck.  The 
fable  seems  to  have  taken  its  rise  from  the 
camel's  having  shorter  ears  than  most  animals 
of  its  size,  and  to  its  not  being  or  reputed  not 
to  be  quick  of  hearing.  Hence  the  ancients 
feigned,  that  Jupiter,  offended  at  their  asking 
for  horns,  had  deprived  them  of  their  ears 
also. 

rc 


Casnare  me  doce. 

Teach  me  how  to  eat,  give. me.  information 
on  subjects  with  which  you  are  acquainted, 
and  I  shall  readily  listen  to  you,  hut  do  not 
pretend  to  instruct  me  in  matters  of  which 
you  have  no  knowlege,  was  said  by  Bacchus 
to  Hercules,  who  was  laying  down  rules  for 
the  construction  of  tragedies  and  other  poems: 
Hercules  being  as  famed  for  the  voracious- 
ness of  his  appetite,  as  for  his  great  bodily 
strength. 


Ad  pcenitendum  properat  cito  qui  judicat. 

Who  determines  precipitately  hastens  to 
repentance ;  which  cannot  be  better  illus- 
trated than  by  the  following,  from  N.  Howe's 
translation  of  the  golden  verses  of  Pythago- 
ras : 

"  Let  wary  thought  each  enterprise  forerun, 
And  ponder  on  thy  task  before  begun, 
Lest  folly  should  the  wretched  work  deface 
And  mock  thy  fruitless  labours  with  disgrace. 
Fools  huddle  on  and  always  are  in  haste, 
Act  without  thought,  and  thoughtless  words  they  waste. 

But 


(    96    ) 

But  thou,  in  all  thou  dost,  with  early  cares 
Strive  to  prevent,  at  first,  a  fate  like  theirs ; 
That  sorrow  in  the  end  may  never  wait, 
Nor  sharp  repentance  make  thee  wise  too  late/* 


In  Re  mala,  Animo  si  bono  utare,  adjwoat. 

It  is  good  to  keep  up  our  spirits  under  mis- 
fortunes and  to  use  our  endeavours  to  miti- 
gate or  remove  them,  or  if  that  cannot  be 
done  to  bear  them  with  patience,  which  will 
of  itself,  in  time,  make  them  more  tolerable 
and  easy;  as  is  expressed  in  the  following, 
"  Fortitur  ferendo  vincitur  malum  quod  evi- 
tare  non  potest,"  and  by  the  English  adage, 
V  what  can't  be  cured,  must  be  endured,"  or 
"  of  a  bad  bargain  we  should  make  the  best," 

"  Of  all  those  sorrows  that  attend  mankind, 
With  patience  bear  the  lot  to  thee  assign'd ; 
Nor  think  it  chance,  nor  murmur  at  the  load ; 
For  know,  what  man  calls  fortune,  is  from  God." 


Inimicus  et  invidus  Vicinorum  Oculus. 

An  enemy  and  an  envious  person  is  an 

eye 


(    97    } 

eye  over  his  neighbour,  watching  narrowly 
into  his  conduct ;  but  if  known  to  be  so,  he 
may  be  highly  useful  to  him  by  putting  him 
on  his  guard  :  knowing  he  is  watched  by  one 
who  is  disposed  to  put  the  worst  construction 
upon  his  actions,  he  will  be  so  cautious,  as  to 
give  him  as  little  opportunity  as  possible  of 
doing  him  an  injury :  he,  therefore,  may  be 
said  also  to  afford  an  additional  eye  to  his 
neighbour ;  which  is  the  more  direct  meaning 
of  the  adage. 


Lucrum  malurn  (Equate  Dlspendio. 

Gain  gotten  by  unfair  means  is  no  better 
than  a  loss;  "what  is  ill  gotten  rarely 
thrives."  Those  who  are  in  too  much  haste 
to  acquire  riches,  generally  commit  some  error 
in  the  process  which  defeats  their  purpose; 
or,  if  they  obtain  what  they  sought  for,  they 
have  rarely  the  discretion  to  use  it  properly. 
"  Hasty  climbers  have  sudden  falls."  The 
wealth  that  is  ill-gotten  becomes  a  canker,  and 
corrodes  and  destroys  what  it  is  put  in  contact 
with.  "  Una  pecora  rognosa,  ne  guasta  cen- 

to," 


(    98    ) 

to,"  "  one  bad  sheep  spoils  the  flock. "  The 
too  eager  pursuit  of  any  thing,  Feltham  says, 
"hinders  the  enjoyment;  for  it  makes  men 
take  indirect  ways,  which  though  they  pros- 
per sometimes,  are  hlessed  never.  Wealth 
snatched  up  by  unjust  and  injurious  ways, 
like  a  rotten  sheep,  will  infect  thy  healthful 
flock." 


Scindere  Glctcicm. 

"  Romper  il  giaccio,"  "  to  break  the  ice  ;"' 
any  one  beginning  a  discourse  or  business 
which  had  been  long  expected,  or  commenc- 
ing a  conversation  when  a  company  has  for 
some  time  sat  silent,  is  said  to  have  broken  the 
ice. 


In  Flammam  ne.  Manum  injicito. 
Do  not  thrust  your  hand  into  the  fire.  Whv 

V  •/ 

should  you  embroil  yourself  in  a  contention 
in  which  you  have  no  concern  ?  why  put 
yourself  into  hot  water;  know  you  not,  that 

"  Those  who  in  quarrels  interpose 
Must  often  wipe  a  bloody  nose?" 

"  DC 


(    99    ) 

*'  De  los  faydos  guarte,  no  seras  testigo  ni 
parte,"  keep  clear  from  broils,  either  as  witness 
or  party. 


Testudineus  Gradus. 

A  snail's  pace,  he  moves  slower  than  a  snail, 
or  is  fit  to  drive  snails,  are  phrases  applied  to 
persons  who  are  extremely  sluggish.  "  Vi- 
cistis  cochleam  tarditate." 


Sine  Pennis  volire  haud  facile  est. 

11  Non  si  puo  volar  senza  ale,"  "  he  would 
fain  fly,  hut  he  wants  wings,"  is  said  of  per- 
sons attempting  to  do  what  is  much  beyond 
their  power  or  capacity  ;  who  speak  authori- 
tatively, without  having  a  right  to  command 
or  po\ver  to  enforce  obedience.  It  may  also 
be  said  of  any  one  in  excuse  for  not  having 
done  what  was  expected  of  him,  but  which 
he  had  not  the  necessary  means  for  accom- 
plishing. "II  ne  faut  pas  voler  avant  que 
d 'avoir  des  ailes." 

Muria 


Murls  in  Morem. 

Living  like  the  mouse,  upon  the  property 
of  others.  Plautus  makes  his  parasite  say, 
"Quasi  mures,  semper  edimus  alienum  cibum," 
like  the  mouse,  we  always  feed  upon  what 
others  have  provided.  ' 


Obtrudere  Palpum. 

To  deceive  with  soft  speeches.  "  You  must 
not  think,"  the  sycophant  says  in  Plautus, 
"  to  cajole  me  with  honied  words,  who  am 
used  to  deceive  others  with  them."  The  word 
palpum  means  a  gentle  stroke  or  patting  with 
the  hand,  which  we  use  to  horses  and  other 
animals  to  put  them  into  good  humour. 


Tanquam  Suber. 

He  is  like  a  cork,  nothing  will  depress  or 
sink  him,  was  used  to  be  said  of  persons  \vho 
had  passed  through  great  trials,  or  escaped 
from  imminent  danger  without  mischief.  Of 

such 


(     101     ) 

such  men  we  say,  u  like  a  cat  he  has  nine 
lives,"  or  "  throw  him  as  you  will  he  will  be 
sure  to  alight  upon  his  feet,"  "  give  a  man 
luck  and  throw  him  into  the  sea." 


In  Saltu  uno  duos  Apros  capere. 

"  Matar  dos  paxeros  con  una  piedra," 
"  killing  two  birds  with  one  stone;"  I  have  for- 
tunately met  with  more  persons,  whom  I  wish- 
ed to  see,  or  done  more  business  in  this  excur- 
sion, than  I  expected. 


Duos  insequens  Lepores  neutrum  capit. 

By  greedily  attempting  to  take  two  hares 
together,  they  both  of  them  escaped ;  like  the 
dog  who,  catching  at  a  second  piece  of  meat 
which  he  saw  by  reflection  in  the  water,  lost 
that  which  he  had  in  his  mouth.  "  Quien 
mucho  abarca  poco  aprieta,"  "  grasp  all,  lose 
all." 


VOL.  it.  H 


(      102     ) 

Tua  Res  agitur  Paries  quum  proximus  ardet. 

When  your  neighbour's  house  is  on  fire,  it 
is  time  to  look  to  your  own.  When  you  hear 
your  neighbour  traduced,  and  his  character 
blackened,  you  will  defend  him  even  from  a 
regard  to  yourself,  as  you  may  expect  the 
same  liberty  to  be  taken  with  yours,  when  you 
shall  be  absent.  Turn  the  mischances  of  others 
to  your  own  benefit ;  that  is,  learn  from  the 
failure  and  misfortunes  of  others,  to  attend  to 
your  own  concerns,  that  you  may  not  suffer 
the  same  disgrace. 


Articular  um  Deliramen ta. 

The  dreams,  or  ravings  of  old  women.  "Old 
wives  tales."  By  such  titles,  idle  and  ridicu- 
lous stories  were  used  anciently,  and  still  con- 
tinue to  be  called. 


Citius  quam  Asparagi  coquuntur. 

Quicker  than  boiling  asparagus,  was  fre- 
quently in  the  mouth  of  the  Emperor  Augustus, 

when 


(     103    ) 

when  he  wished  any  business  to  be  executed 
speedily,  the  asparagus  requiring  to  be  boiled 
only  a  few  minutes  ;  or  "  Aphya  ad  ignem,"  a 
kind  of  salted  fish,  which  in  dressing  it,  re- 
quired only  to  be  shewn  the  fire. 


BoniPastoris  est  fonder  e  Pecus,  non  deglubere. 

The  good  shepherd  shears,  but  does  not  flay 
his  sheep.  The  good  master  only  exacts  such 
a  portion  of  labour  from  his  servants,  as  they 
may  perform  without  injuring  themselves. 
Tiberius  Caesar  used  this  proverb,  of  which 
he  is  reputed  to  be  the  author,  to  restrain  the 
rapacity  of  his  courtiers,  advising  him  to  levy 
further  imposts  upon  one  of  the  provinces, 
which  had  been  previously  largely  taxed. 
Alexander  the  Great,  on  a  similar  occasion,  is 
said  to  have  given  the  following  :  "  Olitorem 
odi  qui  radicitus  herbas  excidat,"  he  is  a  bad 
gardener,  who,  instead  of  cropping,  tears  the 
plants-  up  by  the  roots.  The  woman  who 
killed  the  hen,  that  brought  her  a  golden  egg 
every  day,  in  the  hope  of  becoming  more 

H  3  speedily 


(      104     ) 

speedily  rich,  falls  under  the  censure  of  this 
adage. 


Lucri  bonus  est  Odor  ex  Re  qualibet. 

The  odour  of  gain  is  sweet,  from  whatever 
source  it  may  he  produced.  To  the  miser, 
whatever  is  profitable,  and  to  the  voluptu- 
ous, whatever  contributes  to  their  pleasure,  is 
deemed  to  be  good,  however  impure  the  source 
of  it  may  happen  to  be.  Vespasian,  who,  but 
for  his  inordinate  love  of  money,  was  one  of 
the  best  of  the  Roman  emperors,  made  use  of 
this  apothegm,  in  answer  to  his  son,  who  had 
reproved  him  for  laying  a  tax  on  certain  vessels 
set  in  the  streets,  for  the  reception  of  urine,  for 
the  use  of  the  dyers.*  Taking  a  piece  of  money 

*  That  the  vessels  were  placed  for  the  benefit  of  the 
dyers,  seems  proved  by  the  following,  taken  from  a  note  to 
p.  1?5,  of  the  second  volume  of  Rabelais. 

Parisiis  quando  purpura  praparatur,  tune  artifices  in- 
vitant  Germanicos  militcs,  et  studiosos,  qui  libenter  bibunt, 
et  eis  pnebent  largiter  optimum  vinum,  ea  conditione,  ut 
postea  urinam  reddant  in  illam  lanam.  Sic  enim  audivi  & 
studioso  Parisiensi.  Joan.  Manlii  Libellus  Medicus. 

from 


(     105     ) 

from  his  pocket,  which  he  had  received  from 
that  impost,  and  applying  it  to  the  nostrils  of 
his  son,  he  demanded,  "  Ecquid  ea  pecunia 
puteret,"  whether  he  perceived  any  ill  savour 
in  it  ?  The  same,  however,  might  be  asked  of 
money  obtained  by  robbery,  murder,  or  any 
other  unjustifiable  means,  and  unfortunately 
we  too  easily  excuse  ourselves. 

"  O  cives,  cives,  quaerenda  pecunia  primum, 
Virtus  post  nummos." 

O  citizens,  let  money  be  your  first  care. 
"  Unde  habeas  curat  nemo;  sed  oportet  ha- 
bere,"  no  one  will  inquire  how  you  get  your 
wealth,  but  if  you  would  be  respected,  you 
must  have  it. 


Bceta  turn  Hyeme,  turn  ^Estate  bona. 

The  baeta  is  said  to  have  been  a  kind  of 
garment,  made  of  skins,  long,  and  sufficiently 
large  to  invest  the  whole  body,  equally  cal- 
culated therefore  to  guard  against  the  cold  in 
winter,  and  the  scorching  rays  of  the  sun  in 
summer.  The  adage  was  applied  by  the  an- 
H  3  cients 


(     106    ) 

cients  to  any  objects  that  might  be  made  to 
answer  a  variety  of  useful  purposes  :  to  lite- 
rature, which  is  both  useful  and  ornamental 
to  every  age  and  station  in  life,  and  to  philo- 
sophy, which  may  enable  us  to  bear  prosperity 
•without  insolence,  and  adversity  without  de- 
basement. 


Salem  lingere. 

Making  a  poor  and  slender  meal ;  some 
simple  pulse  made  savoury  with  salt,  being 
the  usual  diet  of  the  poor,  and  such  as  many 
of  the  ancient  philosophers  were  contented 
with.  Diogenes  being  invited  to  dine  with  a 
wealthy  nobleman,  refused  his  offer,  being 
more  pleased  to  lick  salt  at  Athens,  he  said ; 
that  is,  to  make  a  frugal  repast  there,  than  to 
feed  on  the  richest  dainties.  "  Leaving  the 
nobles,  clad  in  purple,  and  their  splendid 
tables,"  Seneca  says,  "  I  partake  of  the  frugal 
board  of  Demetrius.  When  I  hear  this  excel- 
lent man  discoursing  from  his  couch  of  straw, 
I  perceive  in  him,  not  a  preceptor  only,  but  a 
witness  of  the  truth ;  and  I  cannot  doubt  that 

Pro- 


(     107     ) 

Providence  has  endowed  him  with  such  virtues 
and  talents,  that  he  might  be  an  example,  and 
a  monitor  of  the  present  age. "  Demetrius 
was  banished  from  Rome,  on  account  of  the 
freedom  he  used  in  reproving  the  vices  of  the 
great. 

Velut  Umbra  sequi. 

Following  any  one  as  his  shadow,  as  para- 
sites do  silly  young  men  of  fortune,  being 
constantly  seen  with  them,  until  they  have 
disburdened  them  of  their  substance,  and 
then  the  shadow  vanishes  of  course :  or,  as 
envy  does  men  of  talents. 

"  Envy  will  merit  as  its  shade  pursue, 

And  like  that  serves  to  prove  the  substance  true." 


Quid  Cceco  cum  Speculo. 

What  has  a  blind  man  to  do  with  a  looking- 
glass,  an  illiterate  man  with  books,  or  one 
who  knows  not  how  rightly  to  use  them,  with 
riches  ? 

H  4  Mor- 


(     108     ) 


Mordere  Labrum. 

Biting  the  lips,  was  formerly,  and  is  now, 
noted  as  a  sign  of  vexation  or  anger.  "Co- 
meclens  labra  prse  iracundia,"  biting  his  lips 
through  rage. 


Priusquam  Gallus  iterum  cecmerit. 

Before  the  second  crowing  of  the  cock. 
Before  the  invention  of  dials,  hour-glasses, 
and  clocks,  the  crowing  of  the  cock  was  much 
attended  to,  as  announcing  the  dawn,  at  which 
time  servants  were  expected  to  rise  and  begin 
their  labours. 


Magis  gaudet  quam  qui  Senectam  exult. 

Was  said  of  any  one  shewing  his  joy  by 
uncommon  expressions  of  hilarity.  Literally, 
he  rejoices  more  than  an  old  man,  restored  to 
youth  ;  or,  than  a  cripple,  who  has  recovered 
his  health  and  the  use  of  his  limbs.  It  seems 
ta  have  taken  its  origin,  from  observing,  that 

serpents, 


(     109     ) 

serpents,  after  changing  their  skins,  from  be* 
ing  dull  and  torpid,  become  extremely  active 
and  lively. 


Imi  Subsellii  Viri.    • 

A  term  of  reproach,  or  contempt.  Men  of 
the  lowest  form  or  seat,  where  parasites,  buf- 
foons, and  persons  of  inferior  condition  were 
placed  at  the  tables  of  the  great,  where  they 
Avere  sometimes  admitted,  but  so  placed,  and 
treated,  as  to  make  them  sensible,  in  how  little 
estimation  they  were  held.  Juvenal  is  very 
severe,  both  on  those  inflicting,  and  those 
submitting,  to  such  indignities.  The  phrase 
was  also  used  to  denote  persons  filling  inferior 
situations  in  public  offices,  or  of  little  estima- 
tion in  literature. 


Canes  timidi  vehement ius  latrant. 

"  Barking  dogs  rarely  bite,"  and  "  Brag  is  a 
good  dog,  but  hold-fast  is  a  better."  Cowards 
are  fond  of  noise  and  blustering,  under  which 
they  hope  to  hide  their  baseness  ;  but  men  of 

couragre, 


(   no   ) 

courage,  having  nothing  that  they  wish  to 
conceal,  are  sedate  and  quiet,  as  the  deepest 
waters  flow  with  the  least  noise.  Churchill 
has  well  depicted  cowardice  in  the  following 
lines.  ^ 

• "  Caution  before 

With  heedful  steps  the  lanthorn  bore, 
Pointing  at  graves,  while  in  the  rear, 
Trembling  and  talking  loud  went  Fear." 


Ultra  Vires  nihil  aggrediendum. 

We  should  be  cautious  of  attempting  what 
we  have  not  ability  to  accomplish.  "  A  little 
wariness,  prevents  great  weariness."  The  adage 
was  used  by  Paris  to  Hector,  advising  him. 
against  a  personal  conflict  with  Achilles,  and 
it  had  been  well  if  he  had  attended  to  the 
admonition,  as  he  lost  his  life  in  the  contest. 
It  is  not,  however,  on  all  occasions  to  be  fol- 
lowed, as  without  trial  it  is  not  always  easy  to 
know  how  far  our  ability  or  power  extends ; 
and  where  a  great  object  is  proposed,  it  is  not 
to  be  neglected  from  an  apprehension,  inspired, 
perhaps,  by  timidity  of  its  failing.  "  In  mag- 

nis, 


(  "1  ) 

nis,  et  voluisse  sat  est,"  it  is  honourable  even 
to  have  attempted  a  great  and  noble  act ;  that 
is,  if  the  attempt  has  been  persevered  in  with 
becomingspirit,and  the  failure,  if  it  should  not 
succeed,  has  not  been  owing  to  negligence. 
We  may  oppose  to  this  adage,  "Nothing  ven- 
ture, nothing  have." 


Sua  Munera  mittit  cum  Hamo. 

His  gifts  are  armed  with  hooks,  with  which 
he  means  to  catch  something  of  equal,  or  su- 
perior value,  as  those  do  who  make  presents 
to  persons  much  their  superiors  in  rank  and 
fortune.  "  C'est  mettre  un  petit  poisson,  pour 
en  avoir  un  gros,"  it  is  baiting  your  hook  with 
a  small  fish,  to  catch  a  large  one.  The  adage 
may  also  be  applied  to  persons  who  make  a 
parade  of  being  very  communicative,  but  are 
only  so  to  induce  those  they  converse  with, 
to  open  their  minds  on  subjects  they  wish  to 
be  acquainted  with,  but  which  should  not  be 
divulged  to  them. 

"  Timeo  Danaos  et  dona  ferentes," 

Laocoon  said  to  his  countrymen,  finding  them 

too 


(     112     ) 

too  readily  listening  to  a  pretended  deserter 
from  the  camp  of  their  enemy ;  I  am  afraid 
of  the  Grecians  and  will  have  none  of  their 
gifts.  Presents  from  persons  whom  we  have 
no  reason  to  believe  to  be  our  friends,  should 
be  received  with  great  caution. 


Timidus  Plutus. 

As  fearful  as  Plutus,  the  reputed  god  of 
riches.  The  poor  having  nothing  to  lose,  have 
no  dread  of  thieves,  and  accustomed  to  feed 
on  coarse  diet,  they  find  little  difficulty  in 
getting  what  is  necessary  for  their  support. 
**'  In  utramque  dormiant  aurem, "  they  can 
sleep  on  either  ear,  in  any  posture,  or  on  the 
hardest  couch.  The  rich,  on  the  contrary,  are 
full  of  care,  trouble,  and  anxiety.  "  Non  so- 
lum  cruciantur  libidine  augendi  ea  quae  habent, 
sed  etiam  timore  amittendi  ea,"  they  are  not 
only  tormented  with  an  incessant  desire  of  in- 
creasing their  wealth,  but  with  the  fear  of 
losing  that  which  they  possess.  They  believe 
that  all  with  whom  they  have  any  commerce, 

are 


(     113     ) 

are  contriving  to  rob,  or  cheat  them.  They 
are  afraid  of  their  friends,  lest  they  should 
want  to  borrow  of  them ;  they  think  their 
servants  are  false,  and  that  their  wives  and 
children  are  combining  to  deceive,  and  cozen 
them.  Their  fears  increasing  with  their  years, 
at  length,  though  abounding  with  riches,  they 
are  distressed  with  apprehensions  of  impending 
poverty,  imagining  they  shall  become  beggars^ 
or  die  in  a  workhouse.  To  avert  this  evil,  they 
deny  themselves  necessary  sustenance.  "  la 
Tiunc  scopulum  cadaverosi  senes  ut  plurimum 
impingunt,"  on  this  rock  cadaverous  old  men, 
men  on  the  verge  of  the  grave,  are  for  the 
most  part  wrecked,  and  indeed  it  is  not  until 
they  arrive  at  that  period,  when  their  wants 
might  be  supplied  by  the  smallest  income,  that 
their  fears  make  them  imagine  that  their  im- 
mense possessions  will  be  exhausted,  before 
their  glass  shall  be  completely  run  out,  and 
they  perish  miserably  by  the  very  means  that, 
properly  used,  would  have  preserved  them  in 
health  and  spirits. 


Mails  Mala  succedunt. 

A  succession  of  misfortunes,  one  following 
another,  as  happens  to  some  ill-starred  per- 
sons, who  have  no  sooner  learned  to  bear  one 
trouble,  but  another  falls  upon  them.  Hence 
it  has  been  said, 

"  Fortuna  obesse  nulli  contenta  est  semel." 

"  Misfortune  seldom  comes  single."  The  Spa- 
niards therefore  say,  "  Ben  vengas  si  vengas 
solo,"  you  are  welcome  if  you  come  alone. 


Eodem  Coltyrio  mederi  omnibus. 

Using  the  same  argument  or  discourse  to 
persons  of  different  ages,  dispositions,  and 
faculties,  is  as  if  a  physician  should  apply  the 
same  remedy  in  the  cure  of  various  and  dis- 
similar diseases. 


Vita  Mortalium  brevis. 

Life  is  short,  and  the  duration  of  it  also  is 
uncertain,  and  not,  therefore,  at  any  period  of 

it, 


it,  to  be  wasted  in  indolence,  or  in  the  in- 
dulgence of  our  sensual  appetites,  but  to  be 
employed  in  improving  our  faculties,  and  in, 
performing  the  duties  of  our  station;  in  short, 
we  should  take  care  to  pass  the  portion  allotted 
to  us  in  such  a  manner,  that  at  the  end  of  it, 
we  may  have  as  little  as  possible  to  reproach 
ourselves  with. 

"  To  die  is  the  first  contract  that  was  made 
'Twixt  mankind  and  the  world,  it  is  a  debt 
For  which  we  were  created,  and  indeed, 
To  die  is  man's  nature,  not  his  punishment." 

Another  poet  says, 

"  This  life's  at  longest  but  one  day  ; 
He  who  in  youth  posts  hence  away, 
Leaves  us  i'  the  morn.    He  who  has  run 
His  race  till  manhood,  parts  at  noon  ; 
And  who,  at  seventy  odd,  forsakes  this  light, 
He  may  be  said,  to  take  his  leave  at  night." 

Spenser  addresses  the  following  apostrophe 
to  us. 

"  O  why  do  wretched  men  so  much  desire, 

To  draw  their  days  unto  the  utmost  date, 
And  do  not  rather  wish  them  soon  expire, 
Knowing  the  misery  of  their  estate, 

And 


And  thousand  perils  which  them  still  await, 
Tossing  them  like  a  boat  amid  the  main, 

That  every  hour  they  knock  at  deathes  gate  ? 
And  he  that  happy  seems,  and  least  in  pain, 
Yet  is  as  nigh  his  end,  as  he  that  most  doth  plain." 

Hippocrates,  who  was  perhaps  the  author 
of  this  apothegm,  extends  it  further,  "Vita 
brevis,"  he  says,  "  et  ars  longa,"  intimating 
that  the  longest  life  is  only  sufficient  to  enable 
us  to  acquire  a  moderate  portion  of  knowledge 
in  any  art  or  science ;  and  experience  shews 
the  justice  of  his  position,  for  even  assisted 
with  the  discoveries  of  our  predecessors,  neither 
medicine,  to  which  he  alludes,  nor  any  other 
art  has  arrived  at  perfection. 


Per  Ignem  incedis, 

Or,  as  Horace  gives  it, 

"  Iiicedis  per  ignes 

Snppositos  cineri  doloso." 

You  are  treading  on  hot  ashes.  You  are  en- 
gaged in  a  difficult  'and  hazardous  business. 
"Take  care,"  we  say,  "you  do  not  burn  your- 
self," or,  "  burn  your  fingers."  Johnson  uses 

the 


the  phrase,  when  entering  on  the  lives  of  the 
poets,  who  lived  near  his  time,  or  were  his 
contemporaries ;  meaning,  that  by  speaking 
freely  of  them,  and  giving  his  sentiments  of 
their  works  there  was  danger  of  offending  their 
friends  or  relatives.  The  adage  may  also  mean, 
as  you  are  treading  on  hot  ashes,  that  is,  are 
in  jeopardy,  get  out  of  the  business,  conciliate 
the  parties  whom  you  have  offended,  as  soon 
as  you  can,  as  you  would  run  or  hasten  over 
a  floor  that  is  burning  ;  the  flame  which  is  at 
present  smothered,  may  burst  out  and  destroy 
you.  That  this  is  also  intimated,  seems  pro- 
bable from  the  following. 

Non  incedis  per  Ignem. 

You  are  not  walking  over  a  furnace,  which 
was  used  to  be  said  to  persons  appearing  to 
be  in  great  haste,  but  who  had  no  urgent 
business. 


Ausculta,  et  perpcnde. 

Listen  and  consider.     Hear  what  is  said  to 

you,  and  weigh  it  in  your  mind,    before  you 

VOL.  ir.  i  give 


give  your  opinion.  Or  it  may  be  said  by  a 
person  speaking,  "  Listen  attentively  to  what 
I  am  about  to  relate,  you  will  find  it  deserv- 
ing your  serious  consideration." 


Non  statim  decernendum. 

Be  not  in  baste  to  give  your  opinion  on  any 
proposition,  though  pressed  to  it  ever  so  ear- 
nestly. But  be  ready  in  all  matters  of  moment 
to  say,  I  will  consider  of  it,  will  advise  with 
my  pillow.  A  wise  man  will  neither  give  his 
assent  nor  dissent  in  anv  matter  of  conse- 

w 

quence,  until  he  has  sufficiently  examined  it, 
and  discovered  its  tendency. 


Mortuus  per  Somnum,  vacabis  Curis. 

Having  dreamed  you  were  dead,  you  will 
now  be  free  from  care.  Such  was  anciently  a 
current  opinion  among  the  Grecians,  as  it  is 
now  in  some  parts  of  this  country.  The  Spa- 
niards sa}',  more  properly,  "  De  los  sueHos  no 
creas,  ni  malos,  ni  buenos,"  pay  no  credit  to 

dreams, 


(     119    ) 

dreams,  whether  good  or  bad ;  and  the  French, 
11  Tous  les  songes  sont  mensonges,"  all  dreams 
are  lies.  Hence,  perhaps,  an  opinion,  that  all 
dreams  are  to  be  construed  as  meaning  the 
contrary,  "  After  a  dream  of  a  wedding,"  we 
say,  "  comes  a  corpse."  But  this  is  equally  as 
idle,  as  taking  them  literally. 


Habet. 

He  hath  it.  He  has  obtained  what  he 
wished  for,  or,  he  hath  met  with  his  deserts, 
which  last  is  always  understood  in  an  ill  sense. 
The  expression  is  said  to  take  its  origin  from 
the  exclamation  of  the  spectators  in  the  amphi- 
theatre at  Rome,  who,  when  they  saw  a  gladi- 
ator wounded,  were  used  to  cry  out  "habet/' 
A  similar  expression  is  used  among  us,  and  we 
say,  when  a  man  in  fighting  receives  a  violent 
blow,  ''  he  has  got  enough,"  or,  "  he  has  got 
his  belly  full."  Simo  used  it,  when  speaking 
of  his  son  Pamphilus,  to  intimate  he  was  taken 
or  caught  by  the  fair  Andiian. 


1 2  Palpo 


(     120    ) 

Palpo  per  cut  ere. 

To  tickle  any  one  fnto  a  good  humour. 
"  To  get  on  the  blind  side  of  any  one,"  as  we 
do  of  a  horse  who  happens  to  have  one  eye 
defective,  when  we  are  about  to  bring  any 
thing  near  him  which  would  make  him 
startle;  also  to  flatter  or  cajole  any  one  by 
praising  the  qualities  of  a  favourite  horse  or 
dog,  or  any  part  of  his  family  to  whom  we 
observe  him  to  be  attached. 


Suam  quisque  Homo  Rem  meminit. 

Men  are  in  general  abundantly  attentive  to 
their  own  interest;  if,  therefore,  you  wish  them 
to  serve  you  with  diligence,  you  must  make  it 
their  interest  to  do  so  : 

"  Hoc  tibi  sit  argumentum,  semper  in  promptu  situm, 
Ne  quid  expectes  arnicos  facere,  quod  per  te  queas." 

Be  this  your  rule  through  life,  never  leave  to 
others  to  perform  any  business  for  you,  which 
you  can  do  yourself:  consonant  to  this  we 
say,  "  help  yourself  and  your  friends  will  love 

you." 


you."  The  lark,  that  had  made  her  nest  in  a 
cornfield,  was  in  no  haste  to  quit  her  habita- 
tion so  long  as  she  heard  that  the  farmer  de- 
pended upon  the  assistance  of  his  neighbours 
and  friends  to  get  in  his  harvest,  but  when  her 
young  ones  told  her  that  the  master  was  com- 
ing himself  with  his  sons  the  next  day ;  now 
it  is  time,  she  said,  to  be  gone,  for  the  business 
will  certainly  be  done.  A  Venetian  noble- 
man, we  are  told,  called  upon  Cosmo  de  Me- 
dicis,  to  inquire  of  him  by  what  means  he 
might  improve  his  fortune,  and  received  from 
him  the  following  rules ;  "  Never  to  do  that 
by  another  which  he  could  do  himself;  not 
to  defer  until  to-morrow  what  might  be  done 
to-day;  and  not  to  neglect  small  concerns." 


Qtice  dolent  ea  molestum  est  contingere. 

"  You  touched  him  in  a  tender  part,"  and 
brought  to  his  memory  some  instance  of  vice 
or  folly  he  would  gladly  have  forgotten.  This, 
however,  is  equally  a  breach  of  good  manners, 
as  it  would  be  of  humanity  to  tread  on  the 
i  3  foot 


(     122     ) 

foot  of  a  person  afflicted  with  corns  or  the 
gout,  or  to  handle  rudely  any  part  that  was 
diseased  or  wounded  :  "  No  se  ha  de  mentar 
la  soga,  en  casa  del  ahorcado,"  we  should  not 
mention  a  halter  in  the,  house  of  one  whose 
father  was  hanged. 


To  live  voluptuously  like  the  Greeks,  to 
be  great  topers.  The  phrase  seems  to  have 
been  used  by  the  Romans  to  express  their 
contempt  of  the  soft  and  effeminate  man- 
ners of  the  Grecians,  particularly  of  that 
portion  of  them  who  had  taken  up  their  resi- 
dence at  Rome,  and  were  probably  the  most 
worthless  of  the  country,  who  were  not  able  to 
get  a  living  at  home.  These  men,  we  are 
told,  had  the  art,  by  flattery  and  by  admi- 
nistering to  the  vices  of  the  great,  to  make 
themselves  so  acceptable  that  scarcely  any 
favour  could  be  procured,  or  even  any  access 
to  the  nobles  could  be  obtained  but  through 
them.  Juvenal  severely  censures  his  country- 
men for  their  attachment  to  these  vermin  : 

"All 


(     123    ) 

"  All  Greeks  are  actors,  and  in  this  vain  town, 
Walk  a  short  road  to  riches  and  renown. 
Smiles  the  great  man  ?  they  laugh  with  noisy  roar  ; 
Weeps  he?  their  eyes  with  bidden  tears  run  o'er. 
Asks  he  a  fire  in  winter's  usual  cold? 
The  warmest  rugs  their  shivering  limbs  enfold. 
Pants  he  beneath  the  summer's  common  heat  ? 
Lo !  they  are  batb'd  in  sympathetic  sweat. 
In  vain  the  Roman  would  contest  the  prize, 
For  native  genius  arms  the  Greek  with  lies ; 
He,  every  moment  of  the  night  or  day, 
Mimics  the  great  in  all  they  look  or  say; 
Loads  their  vain  ear  with  praise  that  never  tires, 
And  all  their  folly,  all  their  trash  admires." 

Hodgson's  Translation. 

Johnson,  in  his  imitation  of  the  same  satire, 
has  transferred  the  censure  to  the  French, 
who,  he  seems  to  think,  had  obtained  the 
same  influence  here,  the  Grecians  had  at 
Rome : 

"  Obsequious,  artful,  voluble  and  gay, 
On  Britons'  fond  credulity  they  prey. 
No  gainful  trade  their  industry  can  'scape, 
They  sing,  they  dance,  clean  shoes,  or  cure  a  clap ; 
AH  sciences  a  fasting  Monsieur  knows, 
And  bid  him  go  to  hell,  to  hell  he  goes," 


i  4  Minuit 


(     134     ) 


Minuit  Prcesentia  Famam. 

Intimacy  lessens  fame.  Authors,  like  kings, 
will  be  most  likely  to  excite  a  high  opinion  of 
their  capacities  by  being  seldom  seen,  or  only 
by  select  persons  ;  too  familiar  an  intercourse 
with  the  world  breaks  the  charm  which  the 
fame  of  their  works  had  perhaps  raised  ;  they 
are  found  to  be  mere  mortals,  and  often  with 
a  larger  portion  of  folly  than  falls  to  the  lot  of 
even  ordinary  men.  "  How  it  comes  to  pass," 
Montaigne  says,  "  I  know  not,  and  yet  it  is 
certainly  so,  there  is  as  much  vanity  and 
weakness  of  judgment  in  those  who  possess 
the  greatest  abilities,  who  take  upon  them 
learned  callings  and  bookish  employments, 
as  in  any  other  sort  of  men  whatever ;  ei- 
ther because  more  is  expected  and  re- 
quired from  them,  and  that  common  defects 
are  inexcusable  in  them ;  or  truly  because 
the  opinion  they  have  of  their  own  learning 
makes  them  more  bold  to  expose  and  lay 
themselves  too  open,  by  which  they  lose  and 
betray  themselves."  "  A  prophet,"  we  are 

told, 


(     125     ) 

told,  "  is  not  without  honour  save  in  his  own 
country,"  where  he  is  intimately  known,  and 
where  he  may  be  oppressed,  and  his  fame  in- 
jured by  the  errors  of  his  kindred  as  well  as 
by  his  own.  "  Is  not  this  the  son  of  the  car- 
penter Joseph?"  was  said  of  our  Saviour,  with 
the  view  of  lessening  him  in  the  estimation  of 
the  people,  when  they  could  find  nothing  in 
his  character  to  which  blame  could  be  at- 
tached. 


Quod  qiiis  Culpa  sua  contraxit,  majus  Malum, 
or,  Bis  inter  imitur  qui  suis  Armis  per  it. 

The  evil  which  has  been  occasioned  by  our 
own  error  or  misconduct  presseth  most  se- 
verely and  is  taken  the  most  heavily;  the 
sting  and  remorse  of  the  mind  accusing  itself 
doubling  the  adversity  :  on  the  contrary,  that 
which  is  occasioned  by  the  treachery  or  ma- 
levolence of  others  has  its  alleviation  ;  partly 
perhaps  from  the  mind's  being  diverted  from 
contemplating  it  intensely  by  searching  means 
of  avenging  it,  or  simply  pleasing  itself 

with 


(    126    ) 

with  the  expectation,  that  it  will  not  pass  un- 
punished. "  Remorse,"  as  Dr.  Smith  observes 
in  his  Theory  of  Moral  Sentiments,  "  is  the 
most  painful  sentiment  that  can  embitter  the 
human  bosom.  Any  ordinary  pitch  of  forti- 
tude may  bear  up  tolerably  well  under  those 
calamities,  in  the  procurement  of  which  we 
ourselves  have  had  no  hand ;  but  when  our 
own  follies  or  crimes  have  made  us  miserable, 
to  bear  up  with  manly  firmness,  and  at  the 
same  time  to  have  a  proper  sense  of  our  mis- 
conduct, is  a  glorious  effort  of  self-com- 
mand." 

"  Of  all  the  numerous  ills  that  hurt  our  peace, 

That  press  the  soul,  or  wring  the  mind  with  anguish, 
Beyond  comparison  the  worst  are  those 
That  to  our  follies  or  our  guilt  \ve  owe." 

But  the  Stoics  demand  from  us  more  intre- 
pidity; they  tell  us,  and  with  reason,  methinks, 
that  we  should  not  complain  of,  or  sink  under 
those  misfortunes  which  we  have  brought  upon 
ourselves;  "  Ferre  ea  molestissime  homines  non 
debent,  qua?,  ipsorum  culpa  contracta  sunt." 

Cleecam 


(     127    ) 

Clavam  extorquere  Herculi. 

Would  you  attempt  to  wrest  his  club  from 
the  hands  of  Hercules  ?  may  be  said  to  any  one 
undertaking  what  is  much  beyond  his  capacity 
to  perform.  Such  was  anciently  the  reverence 
paid  to  Homer,  that  to  imitate  his  verses  was 
thought  to  be  as  difficult  as  to  take  by  force  his 
club  from  Hercules,  or  the  thunderbolt  from 
the  hands  of  Jupiter.  The  adage  may  also  be 
applied  to  any  one  entering  into  a  contest 
with  persons  superior  to  him  in  fortune  and 
power.  "  You  may  as  well  take  a  bear  by  the 
tooth."  "  He  that  meddleth  with  strife  that 
doth  not  belong  to  him,  is  like  one  that  taketh 
a  mad  dog  by  the  ear." 


Tacitus  pasci  si  posset. 

If  he  had  eaten  quietly  what  he  had  ob- 
tained ;  if  he  had  not  boasted  of  his  good  for- 
tune, before  he  was  completely  in  possession 
of  it,  he  might  have  enjoyed  it  unmolested; 
but  by  proclaiming  it  he  has  stirred  up  rivals 

for 


(     128     ) 

for  the  situation,  with  whom  he  will  find  it 
difficult  to  contend,  and  who  may  probably 
supplant  him.  The  idea  is  taken  from  the 
fable  of  the  stag  who  had  escaped  the  hunters 
and  eluded  their  search  by  concealing  himself 
among  the  vines,  but  thinking  himself  safe, 
he  began  to  browse  upon  the  leaves ;  the  hun- 
ters, led  to  the  place  by  the  noise  and  by  the 
motion  of  the  boughs,  took  and  killed  him. 
Or  from  the  crow,  who,  overcome  by  the  flat- 
tery of  the  fox,  attempting  to  sing,  let  fall  the 
cheese  that  he  held  in  his  mouth,  which  the 
fox  seized  upon  and  devoured.  "  Can't  you  fare 
well,"  we  say,  "  without  crying  roast  meat  ?" 


Cedro  digna  Locutus. 

A  speech  deserving  to  be  embalmed,  to  be 
preserved  to  the  latest  period  of  time.  "  To 
be  written  in  letters  of  gold." 

"  An  erit  qui  velle  recuset 

Os  populi  meruisse  ?  et  cedro  digna  locutus 
Linquere." 
"  Who  lives,  we  ask,  insensible  to  praise, 

Deserves,  and  yet  neglects,  the  proffer'd  bays  ? 

Who 


(     129    ) 

Who  is  not  pleased  that  from  the  bookworm's  rage, 
The  juice  of  cedar  shall  preserve  his  page?" 

The  ancients  were  accustomed  to  varnish 
the  leaves  of  the  papyrus,  on  which  they  had 
committed  any  thing  to  writing,  with  an  oil 
extracted  from  the  cedar,  which  had  the  facul- 
ty of  preserving  them  from  becoming  putrid, 
as  well  as  of  driving  away  noxious  or  devour- 
ing insects  ;  the  oil  of  juniper  was  used,  it  is 
said,  for  the  same  purpose  and  with  equal  ef- 
fect. It  is  probable  that  Russia  leather,  used 
in  binding  books,  owes  its  power  of  killing  or 
driving  away  the  bookworm,  if  it  really  has 
that  property,  to  some  similar  ingredient  used 
in  its  preparation. 


Cura  esse  quod  audis. 

Endeavour  to  be  what  you  are  reputed  to 
be,  or  what  you  are  solicitous  to  be  esteemed. 
We  are  all  of  us  desirous  that  the  world  should 
think  well  of  us,  let  us  labour  then  to  deserve 
their  good  opinion.  Sycophants  and  flatte- 
rers might  be  of  use  to  us,  if,  when  we  hear 
ourselves  commended  by  them  for  qualities 

which 


(     130     ) 

which  we  are  conscious  we  do  not  possess,  we 
should  forthwith  set  about  to  acquire  them. 


Equi  et  PoetcE  alendi  non  saginandi. 

Poets  and  horses  should  be  fed,  not  pam- 
pered, was  an  apothegm  of  Charles  the  Ninth, 
of  France,  said,  perhaps,  rather  from  the  treat- 
ment poets  have  in  all  ages  met  with,  than 
from  his  own  opinion  of  their  merit.  Though 
he  said  it,  I  think,  to  justify  the  smallness  of 
the  present  he  had  directed  to  be  given  to  one 
of  them,  who  had  addressed  a  copy  of  verses 
to  him.  That  poets  are  in  a  particular  manner 
neglected,  can  hardly  be  said  with  propriety, 
as  literary  men  of  all  descriptions  almost,  pass 
equally  unnoticed.  This  seems  to  arise  from 
the  quiet,  retired,  and  unobtrusive  manner  in 
which  they  ordinarily  pass  their  lives,  so  that 
the  world  scarcely  knows  that  they  are  in  ex- 
istence. I  speak  of  the  most  valuable  and 
deserving  of  them,  for  there  are,  in  each  class, 
some  who  are  more  than  sufficiently  forward, 
and  the  little  that  is  bestowed  falls  principally 


among  them. 


Mel 


(     131     ) 

Flet  victus,  Victor  interiit. 

The  conquered  lament  their  hard  fate,  and 
the  conqueror  is  undone  :  a  no  uncommon 
consequence  of  war,  in  which,  though  the 
conqueror  may  not  be  reduced  to  the  low 
state  of  his  opponent,  yet  he  usually  finds  his 
country  so  weakened  by  the  conte'st,  so  drained 
of  men  and  money,  that  it  scarcely  recovers  it- 
self in  an  age.  The  same  often  happens,  on  the 
termination  of  a  suit  at  law.  The  adage  took 
its  rise  from  the  result  of  the  battle  at  Che- 
ronasa,  in  which  the  Athenians  and  Thebans 
were  destroyed;  and  Philip,  of  Macedon,  who 
conquered  them,  was  soon  after  assassinated, 
by  a  young  man  of  the  name  of  Pausanias. 


Sapientes  portant  Cornua  i?i  Pectore,  Stulti  in 
Front  e. 

"  Wise  men  wear  their  horns  in  their  breasts, 
in  their  pockets,"  we  say,  "  fools  on  their  fore- 
heads." The  Spaniards  to  the  same  purport 
say,  "  Los  locos  tienen  el  corazon  en  la  boca, 
y  los  cuerdos  la  boca  en  el  corazon,''  fools  have 

their 


(     132     ) 

their  hearts  in  their  mouths,  but  wise  men  keep 
their  mouths  in  their  hearts.  Fools  are  the 
first  to  proclaim  their  follies,  or  those  of  their 
families,  which  men  of  sense  are  careful  to 
conceal.  It  is  prudent  to  wink  at  some  irre- 
gularities in  your  children,  and  friends,  to  en- 
deavour by  private  admonition,  and  reproof, 
to  correct  and  amend  them  ;  and  though  these 
should  fail,  you  may  still  hope,  that  further 
experience,  and  knowledge  of  the  world,  may 
produce  that  change  in  their  conduct,  which 
your  labours  had  failed  in  procuring.  By  this 
means  you  will  often  have  the  satisfaction  of 
saving  a  person,  dear  to  you,  from  perdition. 


Qui  non  litigat,  Calebs  est. 

The  man  who  has  a  quiet  house,  has  no 
wife.  Certainly  many  of  the  Greek  writers 
appear  to  have  had  a  great  horror  of  matri- 
mony, to  which,  perhaps,  may  be  attributed 
the  high  colon  ring  thev  gave  to  the  character 

O  v      O 

of  Xantippe,  who  was  not,  it  is  probable,  so 
great  a  termagant  as  they  have  painted  her. 
Some  of  their  apothegms  follow. 

"  Mulier 


(     133     ) 

"  Mulier  in  aedibus  atra  tempestas  viro." 

A  wife,  like  a  tempest,  is  a  perpetual  distur- 
bance to  the  house. 

"  Incendit  omnem  feminaj  zelus  domutn." 

The  restless  spirit  of  the  woman  keeps  the 
house  in  a  perpetual  flame ;  and 

"Muliere  nil  est  pejus,  atque  etiam  bond." 
Nothing  is  worse  than  a  woman,  even  than 
the  best  of  them.  "  It  is  better,"  Solomon 
says,  "  to  dwell  in  the  wilderness,  than  with  a 
contentious  and  angry  woman ;"  and  in  an- 
other place,  "It  is  better  to  dwell  in  the  corner 
of  the  house-top,  than  with  a  brawling  woman, 
and  in  a  wide  house."  Montaigne  has  an  ob- 
servation equally  satirical :  "  The  concern," 
he  says,  "  that  some  women  shew  at  the  ab- 
sence of  their  husbands,  does  not  arise  from, 
their  desire  of  seeing  and  being  with  them, 
but  from  their  apprehension  that  they  are  en- 
joying pleasures  in  which  they  do  not  partici- 
pate, and  which,  from  their  being  at  a  distance, 
they  have  not  the  power  of  interrupting."  A 
similar  idea  pervades  the  following,  by  Bu- 
channan,  who  in  the  early  part  of  Montaigne's 
life,  was  one  of  his  preceptors. 

VOL.  ir.  K  *'  Ilia 


(     134     ) 

"  Ilia  mjhi  semper  praesenti,  dura  Neasra, 
Me  quoties  absum,  semper  abesse  dolet, 
Non  desiderio  nostri,  non  moeret  amore, 
Sed  se  non  nostri  posse  dolore  frui." 

Neasra,  who  treats  me  when  present  with  the 
greatest  cruelty,  yet  never  fails  to  lament  my 
absence;  not  from  the  affection  she  bears  me, 
but  she  grieves  that  sne  cannot  then  enjoy 
the  pleasure  of  seeing  me  wretched  ;  which 
may  be  better  liked,  perhaps,  in  the  following: 

"  Neasra  present,  to  my  vows  unkind, 

When  absent,  still  my  absence  seems  to  mourn ; 
Not  moved  by  love,  but  that  my  tortur'd  mind, 
With  anguish  unenjoyed  by  her,  is  torn." 

To  finish  the  bad  side  of  the  picture,  one  only 
of  our  adages  shall  be  given.  "  To  see  a 
woman  weeping,"  we  say,  "  is  as  piteous  a 
sight,  as  to  see  a  goose  go  barefoot."  From 
all  which  we  learn,  that  as  there  are  some  tur- 
bulent and  ill-disposed  women,  so  there  have 
not  been  wanting  men,  ill-natured  enough  to 
make  them  the  models,  from  which  they  chose 
to  characterize  the  sex.  Hesiod  more  justly 
and  more  reasonably  says, 

"  Sors  potior  muliere  proba,  non  obtigit  unquarn 
Ulla  viro,  contraque  malA  nil  tetrius  usquam  est. 

As 


As  the  possession  of  a  good  woman,  consti- 
tutes the  greatest  felicity  a  man  can  enjoy,  so 
the  being  yoked  to  a  bad  one,  is  the  greatest 
torment  that  can  be  inflicted  upon  him.  The 
Spaniards,  consonant  to  this,  say,  "De  buenas 
armas  es  armado,  quien  con  buena  muger  es 
casado,"  the  man  is  well  provided  who  is  mar- 
ried to  a  good  woman.  "  He  that  hath  no 
wife,"  Cornelius  Agrippa  sayeth,  "hath  no 
house,  because  he  doth  not  fasten  (live)  in  his 
house;  and  if  he  have,  he  dwelleth  therein  as 
a  stranger  in  an  inn ;  he  that  hath  no  wife, 
although  he  be  exceeding  rich,  he  hath  almost 
nothing  that  may  be  called  his,  because  he 
hath  not  to  whom  he  may  leave  it,  nor  to 
whom  to  trust,  all  that  he  hath  is  in  danger 
of  spoyle;  his  servants  rob  him,  his  companions 
beguile  him,  his  neighbours  despise  him,  his 
friends  regard  him  not,  his  kinsfolk  seek  his 
undoing;  if  he  hath  any  children  out  of  ma- 
trimonie,  they  turn  him  to  shame,  wherefore 
the  laws  forbid  him  to  leave  them  either  the 
name  of  their  familie,  the  armes  of  their  pre- 
decessors, or  their  substance ;  and  he  is  also, 
together  with  them,  put  back  from  all  public 
K  2  offices 


offices  and  dignities  by  the  consent  of  all 
law  makers :  this  finally  is  the  only  state  of 
life,  wherein  a  man  may  lead  the  happiest  life 
of  all,  in  loving  his  wife,  in  bringing  up  his 
children,  in  governing  his  familie,  in  saving 
his  substance  and  in  encreasing  his  offspring; 
wherein  if  any  charge  and  labour  happen,  and 
no  state  of  life  is  without  its  cross,  verily  this 
only  is  that  light  burden  and  sweet  yoke 
M'hich  is  in  wedlock." 

Mendico  ne  Parentes  quidem  Amid  sunt. 

Poverty  has,  at  times,  the  power  of  destroy- 
ing even  the  affection  of  a  parent  to  his  off- 
spring. "  When  poverty  comes  in  at  the  door, 
love  flies  out  at  the  window."  In  extreme 
poverty,  the  mind  is  too  intensely  employed 
in  procuring  sustenance,  to  have  leisure  to 
attend  to  the  wants  of  others,  even  our  nearest 
relatives.  When  Mrs.  Thrale  reproved  a  poor 
girl,  who  was  sitting,  while  her  mother  was  on 
her  legs,  and  employed  ;  Johnson  excused 
the  girl,  as  not  owing  that  attention  to  her 
mother,  from  whom  she  only  inherited  misery 

and 


(    137    ) 

and  want.  But  poverty  is  not  without  its 
advantages.  If  the  poor  man  has  not  the 
conveniences,  so  neither  has  he  the  cares  that 
riches  never  fail  to  hring  with  them.  His 
wants  are  few,  and  the  labour  necessary  to 
supply  them,  preserves  him  in  health,  and 
gives  him  that  composed  and  quiet  sleep, 
which  does  not  often  attend  the  pillow  of  the 
wealthy.  The  wise  man  therefore  says,  "give 
me  neither  poverty  nor  riches." 

"  Would  you  be  free  ?  'tis  your  chief  wish,  you  say; 
Come  on,  I'll  shew  thee,  friend,  the  certain  way. 
If  to  no  feasts  abroad  thou  lov'st  to  go, 
Whilst  bounteous  God  does  bread  at  home  bestow  ; 
If  thou  the  goodness  of  thy  clothes  dost  prize, 
By  thine  own  use,  and  not  by  others'  eyes; 
If  (only  safe  from  weather)  thou  jeanst  dwell 
In  a  small  house,  but  a  convenient  shell ; 
If  thou,  without  a  sigh,  or  golden  wish, 
Canst  look  upon  the  beechen  bowl  and  dish ; 
If  in  thy  mind  such  power  and  greatness  be, 
The  Persian  king's  a  slave  compared  to  thee." 


Bellum  inejcpertis. 

War  is  approved  by  the  young  and  incon- 
siderate, by  those  who  are  unacquainted  with 

K  3  the 


(     138     ) 

the  dreadful  waste  of  life  as  well  as  of  pro- 
perty that  it  occasions.  "  Expertus  metuit," 
by  men  of  knowledge  and  experience  it  is  de- 
precated. "  Iniquissimam  pacem  justissimo 
bello  antefero,"  I  prefer,  says  the  sagacious 
and  humane  Cicero,  the  most  impolitic  and 
disadvantageous  peace,  to  the  justest  war; 
and  yet  with  what  precipitancy  and  on  what 
trifling  occasions  do  countries  often  rush  into 
war  with  each  another  !  if  sovereigns  would 

O 

weigh  the  consequences,  M'ould  put  against  the 
object  contended  for,  the  numerous  lives  that 
must  necessarily  be  sacrificed  in  the  contest ; 
the  number  of  women  who  would  be  rendered 
childless,  or  would  lose  their  husbands  on 
whom  they,  and  perhaps  an  infant  family, 
depended  for  their  support,  they  would  sure- 
ly not  think  it  too  much  to  sacrifice  a 
small  portion  of  their  dignity  to  prevent  such 
accumulated  evils  ;  these,  however,  are  a  small 
part  only  of  the  miseries  of  war.  They  are,  in- 
deed, all  that  this  country  has  for  many  ages 
been  exposed  to  experience.  On  the  conti- 
nent, when  an  hostile  army  enters  a  country, 
what  massacres,  what  destruction  marks  its 

pro- 


(     139     ) 

progress !  whole  towns  pillaged  and  destroyed, 
and  the  miserable  inhabitants  put  to  the  sword, 
or  the  few  that  escape  driven  into  the  fields, 
without  shelter,  without  clothes,  and  without 
food,  only  preserved  for  a  short  time  to  die  a 
more  miserable  death  than  those  who  perished 
by  the  sword.  With  this  kind  of  destruction 
we  have  been  long  threatened,  and  who  can 
tell  how  soon  it  may  fall  upon  us  !  In  this 
state  of  things,  how  mortifying  must  it  be, 
to  the  grave  and  considerate  part  of  the  com- 
munity, to  see  the  time  and  energy  of  those 
who  have  the  care  of  the  government  of  the 
country,  employed  in  rebutting  the  attacks  of 
noisy  and  contentious  pseudo-patriots;  who 
appear  to  be  moving  heaven  and  earth  to  em- 
barrass the  proceeding  of  the  ministers,  solely, 
it  is  to  be  feared,  in  the  paltry  expectation  of 
getting  into  their  places  :  strange  infatuation  ! 
that  men  of  the  largest  property  in  the  state 
should  be  most  forward  in  occasioning  its  de- 
struction :  surely  so  monstrous  a  procedure 
must  portend  some  dreadful  catastrophe ! 
"  Quos  Deus  vult  perdere  prius  dementat/' 
God  first  deprives  of  their  reason  those  who 
K  4  are 


(     HO    ) 

are  doomed  to  be  destroyed.  "  And  God  har- 
dened Pharaoh's  heart,"  we  are  told,  "  blinded 
his  judgment,  that  he  would  not  let  the.chil- 
dren  of  Israel  go ;"  it  being  predetermined 
that  the  ^Egyptians  should  suffer  a  severe 
chastisement. 


Mors  omnibus  commums. 

We  must  all  die,  M'e  should,  therefore,  fre- 
quently meditate  on  this  our  common  destiny, 
which  is  equally  incident  to  the  young  and 
the  old,  the  strong  and  the  weak  ;  no  age,  no 
state  of  health  affording  security  against  the 
stroke  of  death.  Whence  is  it  then,  that  we 
treat  this  common  guest  as  a  stranger,  and 
appear  to  be  surprised  when  he  has  taken  from 
us  any  near  relative  or  friend  ?  In  this  town 
we  have  a  regular  yearly  account  of  the  num- 
ber of  deaths  that  occur  within  a  certain  dis- 
tance ;  this,  besides  the  purpose  of  recording 
the  diseases  which  occasion  the  greatest  de- 
struction, for  which  it  seems  to  have  been  ori- 
ginally formed,  should  have  the  further  use  of 
familiarizing  us  with  death,  and  as  it  appears 

that 


(     141     ) 

that  from  18  to  20,000  persons  die  yearly 
.within  the  compass  of  a  few  miles,  it  ought 
not  to  seem  extraordinary  that  ourselves,  or 
any  of  our  families  should  be  of  the  number; 
it  should  rather  be  expected.  A  friend,  con- 
doling with  Anaxagoras,  on  the  death  of  his 
son,  and  expressing  a  more  than  ordinary 
concern  on  the  occasion,  was  told  by  that 
philosopher,  "  Sciebam  mortalem  me  genuisse 
filium,"  "  that  he  had  never  thought  his  son 
to  be  immortal."  And  Xenophantes  receiving 
similar  intelligence,  hearing  that  his  son  died 
fighting  bravely  for  his  country,  said,  "  I  did 
not  make  it  my  request  to  the  Gods  that  my 
son  might  be  immortal,  or  that  he  should  be 
long  lived,  for  it  is  not  manifest  whether  this 
was  convenient  for  him  or  no ;  but  that  he 
might  have  integrity  in  his  principles  and  be 
a  lover  of  his  country,  and  now  I  have  my 
desire !" 

"  The  time  of  being  here  we  style  amiss, 
We  call  it  life,  but  truly  labour  'tis." 

These  men,  therefore,  it  may  be  presumed, 
had  well  considered  the  subject.  From  the 
aversion  that  many  persons  have  of  speaking 

or 


(     142     ) 

or  thinking  of  death,  it  would  seem  as  if  they 
thought  that  by  such  meditation  they  should 
accelerate  its  approach  ;  but  it  would  proba- 
bly have  the  contrary  effect,  for  as  a  large  por* 
tion  of  the  diseases  and  deaths  of  such  as  live 
to  an  adult  age  are  occasioned  by  intempe- 
rance, a  serious  contemplation  of  that  circum- 
stance might  wean  them  from  their  irregula- 
rities, and  so  prolong  their  lives;  or  if  it  did 
not  produce  that  effect,  it  might  enable  them 
to  meet  death  with  firmness  as  a  guest  that  was 
daily  expected : 

"  Fleres  si  scires  unum  tua  tempora  mensem, 
Rides,  cum  non  sit  forsitan  una  dies." 

You  would  weep  if  you  knew  you  had  only  one 
month  to  live,  yet  you  pass  your  time  in 
gaiety  and  folly,  though  perhaps  you  may 
not  live  a  single  day.  It  is  not  meant  by 
what  is  here  said,  that  we  should  not  have  a 
proper  relish  for  life,  or  that  we  should  be  in- 
different about  its  extinction ; 

"  For  who  to  dumb  forgetfulness  a  prey, 
This  pleasing  anxious  being  e'er  resigned, 
Left  the  warm  precincts  of  the  cheerful  day, 
Nor  cast  one  longing  lingering  wish  behind  ?" 

But 


(     143     ) 

But  as  we  know  we  must  die,  we  should  be  at 
all  times  ready  to  meet  our  fate  when  the  hour 
approaches. 


Inter  Pueros  Senev. 

Among  children  or  young  persons  he  may 
be  looked  upon  as  old  or  intelligent,  but 
among  elderly  people  he  is  considered  as 
young.  This  was  used  to  be  said  of  persons 
of  specious  or  imposing  manners,  who  wished 
to  appear  more  learned  or  wise  than  on  trial 
they  were  found  to  be.  "  A  doctor  among 
fools,  and  a  fool  among  doctors,"  is,  I  think, 
the  phrase  by  which  we  designate  such  cha- 
racters. 


Ne  Jupiter  quidem  omnibus  placet. 

It  is  of  importance  that  we  should  well  con- 
sider every  project  that  we  may  engage  in, 
that  there  be  a  reasonable  probability  of  its 
succeeding  and  that  it  receive  the  sanction 
of  such  prudent  and  sensible  friends  as  we  may 
think  it  right  to  consult;  but  no  measure 

however 


(     144     ) 

however  well  planned  should  be  expected  to 
meet  with  general  approbation ;  Jupiter  him- 
self not  being  able  to  please  every  one. 


Felix  Corinthus,  at  ego  sim  Teneates. 

The  Corinthian  may,  indeed,  boast  of  the 
splendour  of  his  city,  but  the  soft  and  rustic 
beauties  of  Tenia  please  and  satisfy  me;  may 
be  said  by  any  one,  on  hearing  the  praise  of 
rank  and  large  possessions  too  much  insisted 
on,  if  he  has  sense  enough  to  be  contented  and 
to  see  the  advantages  of  a  middling  station. 

Tenea  was  a  village  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Corinth,  remarkable  for  its  mild  and  salu- 
brious atmosphere,  and  for  the  beauty  of  its 
scenery. 


Mala  ultro  adsunt. 

Misfortunes  come  fast  enough,  we  need  not 
seek  them,  which  those  do  who  enter  into 
contests  in  which  they  have  no  concern ;  or 
who  "  meet  troubles  half  way,"  and  begin 
lamenting  before  they  arrive,  the  difficulty Js 

to 


(     145     ) 

to  get  rid  of  them  when  present  "Mischiefs 
come  by  the  pound,  and  go  away  by  the 
ounce,"  which  seems  a  very  indifferent  imita- 
tion of  "  Les  maladies  viennent  a  cheval,  re- 
tournent  a  pied,"  diseases  make  their  attack 
on  horseback,  but  retire  on  foot. 


De  te  Kxemplum  capit. 

What  wonder,  since  he  only  follows  your 
example,  may  be  said  to  parents  reproving 
their  children  for  irregularities,  or  faults,  of 
which  they  are  themselves  guilty. 

"  If  gaming  does  an  aged  sire  entice, 

Then  my  young  master  swiftly  learns  the  vice, 

And  shakes  in  hanging  sleeves  the  little  box  and  dice. 


In  sola  Sparta  expedit  senescere. 

* 

Sparta  is  the  most  convenient  residence  for 
aged  persons ;  age  being  in  a  peculiar  manner 
respected  and  honoured  in  that  country.  The 
following  story  from  Valerius  Maximus,  will 
illustrate  this  position.  It  is  here  given  from 
the  sixth  Number  of  the  Spectator. 

"It 


"  It  happened  at  Athens,  during  the  repre- 
sentation of  a  play,  that  an  old  gentleman 
came  too  late  for  a  place,  suitable  to  his  age 
and  quality.  Many  of  the  young  men,  who 
observed  the  confusion  he  was  in,  made  signs 
to  him,  that  they  would  accommodate  him,  if 
he  came  where  they  sat.  The  good  man 
bustled  through  the  crowd  accordingly,  but 
when  he  came  to  the  seat  to  which  he  was  in- 
vited, the  jest  was  to  sit  close  and  expose  him, 
as  he  stood,  out  of  countenance,  to  the  audi- 
ence. The  frolic  went  round  the  Athenian 
benches ;  when  the  good  man  skulked  towards 
the  boxes  appointed  for  the  Lacedemonians, 
that  honest  people  rose  up  to  a  man,  and  with 
the  greatest  respect  received  him  among  them. 
The  Athenians  being  suddenly  touched  with 
a  sense  of  the  Spartan  virtue,  and  their  own 
degeneracy,  gave  a  thunder  of  applause;  and 
the  old  man  cried  out,  "  The  Athenians  un- 
derstand what  is  right,  but  the  Lacedemo- 
nians practise  it."  So  the  poet, 

"  Credebant  hoc  grande  nefas  et  morte  piaudum, 
Si  juvenis  vetulo  non  assurrexerit,"  &c. 

Divitis 


(     147    ) 

Divitis  Seroi  mcurimk  Servi. 

Servants  to  rich  and  powerful  persons  are 
the  most  abject  of  all  servants.  On  account 
of  the  great  distance  there  is  between  them 
and  those  they  serve,  they  lose  all  estimation, 
"  as  the  shrubs  and  underwood,  that  grow 
near  or  under  great  trees,  are  observed  to  be 
the  most  scrubby  and  feeble  of  any  in  the 
field,  the  trees  engrossing  to  themselves  all 
the  nourishment."  "  Sirve  a  senor  y  sabras 
que  es  dolor,"  serve  a  great  man,  and  you  will 
know  what  sorrow  is.  "  Cabe  Senor,  ni  cabe 
igreja  no  pongas  teja,"  do  not  lay  a  tile,  that 
is,  do  not  build  a  house  near  a  lord,  nor  near 
a  church,  lest  they  pick  a  quarrel  with  you, 
and  dispossess  you  of  your  property. 

Malum  Vas  nonfrangitur. 

The  worthless  vessel  escapes  being  broken 
more  frequently  than  one  of  more  value. 
"  Naught,"  we  say,  "  though  often  in  danger, 
is  seldom  hurt,"  and  "  ill  weeds  grow  apace." 
The  opinion  that  the  virtuous  and  discreet  are 

more 


(     148     ) 

more  subject  to  accident  and  misfortune,  than 
the  vicious,  is  too  general  not  to  be  founded 
on  observation.  The  good  man,  conscious  of 
not  having  done,  or  intended  injury  to  any 
one,  is  not  easily  led  to  apprehend  mischief 
from  others,  or  to  use  precautions  against  the 
shafts  of  malice,  which  he  cannot  suppose  to 
be  levelled  at  him  ;  but  the  vicious  man, 
knowing  he  has  deserved,  is  constantly  on  his 
guard  against  the  enmity  of  those  whom  he 
has  injured  or  provoked.  This  habit  of  watch- 
fulness and  attention  to  his  safety,  occasions 
him  not  only  to  escape  the  injuries  which 
persons  less  wary  meet  with,  but  to  obtain  a 
larger  portion  of  the  goods  of  the  world,  than 
fall  to  the  lot  of  persons  more  deserving,  but 
who  are  less  active  and  vigilant  in  using  the 
means  necessary  for  acquiring  them.  Or  the 
adage  may  be  explained  in  this  way  :  we  set 
snares  for  the  Canarybird,  the  Groldfinch,  and 
other  birds  of  song,  and  having  taken  them, 
we  confine  them  in  cages  ;  but  the  Sparrow, 
the  Swallow,  and  many  others,  that  neither 
contribute  to  our  amusement,  nor  are  used  at 
our  tables,  are  suffered  to  enjoy  their  liberty. 

Malum 


(     149    ) 

Malum  Munus. 

An  unseasonable,  or  improper  gift,  tending 
to  the  injury,  not  to  the  profit  of  the  receiver: 
as  a  large  sum  of  money  to  voung  persons, 
which  they,  not  knowing  how  to  use  properly, 
often  apply  in  such  ways,  as  to  become  de- 
structive to  their  health,  their  morals,  and 
their  fortunes ;  authority,  to  ignorant  and  in- 
experienced, or  to  base  and  worthless  men, 
who  will  use  it  to  the  injury  of  those  whom 
they  ought  to  favour  and  protect ;  or  prefer- 
ment in  the  church,  to  ignorant  and  illiterate 
divines,  who,  like  the  ape,  only  become  the 
more  disgraced,  the  higher  they  rise. 


Vox  et  prceterea  nihil. 

Plutarch  in  his  apothegms  tells  us,  that  a 
nightingale  being,  among  other  things,  set 
before  a  Lacedemonian  for  his  dinner,  when 
he  was  about  to  eat  it,  observing  how  very 
slender  the  body  of  the  bird  was,  and  com- 
paring it  with  the  strength  and  beauty  of  hij> 

VOL,  ii.  i.  song, 


song,  he  exclaimed,  "  Vox  es  et  praterea 
nihil,"  you  are  all  voice;  the  expression  hence 
became  proverbial,  and  is  applied  to  persons 
\vho  abound  in  words,  but  have  little  sense, 
"  Q.ui  dant  sine  mente  sonum/'  Cicero  there- 
fore says,  "  Malo  indisertam  prudentiam  quam 
loquacem  stultitiam,"give  me  rather  a  prudent 
man,  who,  though  unlearned,  is  silent,  than  a 
loquacious  blockhead.  For  as  the  poet  ob- 
serves, 

"  Words  are  like  leaves,  and  where  they  most  abound, 
Much  fruit  of  sense  beneath,  is  rarely  found." 


Qui  nescit  dissimulare,  nescit  regnare. 

"  Chi  non  sa  fingere,  non  sa  vivere,"  who 
knows  not  how  to  dissemble,  knows  not  how 
to  reign,  or  to  live,  the  Italians  say.  This  was 
frequently,  it  is  said,  in  the  mouth  of  King 
James  the  First,  but  it  did  not  say  much  in 
favour  of  his  sagacity  ;  and  by  proclaiming  it 
as  a  principle,  it  must  have  defeated  his  pur- 
pose in  adopting  it;  as  it  must  have  made 
him  distrusted,  even  when  he  meant  what  he 
professed,  "  a  liar  not  being  to  be  believed, 

even 


even  when  he  speaks  the  truth."  Lord  Veru- 
lam  says,  "  Dissimulation  is  but  a  faint  kind 
of  policy  or  wisdom,  for  it  asketh  a  strong  wit, 
and  a  strong  heart,  to  know  when  to  tell  truth, 
and  to  do  it.  Therefore  it  is  the  weaker  sort 
of  politics  that  are  the  great  dissemblers." 


Pingere  sub  Gladio. 

To  paint  with  a  sword  hanging  over  one's 
head  ;  metaphorically,  to  perform  any  business 
requiring  thought  and  reflection  in  the  midst 
of  difficulty  and  danger,  or  in  the  hurricane 
and  disquiet  of  a  scolding  wife,  and  noisy 
children.  Protogenes  is  said  to  have  painted 
one  of  the  finest  of  his  pictures,  while  the  city 
in  which  he  dwelt  was  besieged,  and  in  daily 
expectation  to  be  taken  by  storm ;  a  rare  in- 
stance of  coolness  and  presence  of  mind,  and 
which  is  said  to  have  given  rise  to  the  adage. 


Tuts  te  pin  gam  Coloribus. 

I  will  paint  you  in  your  proper  colours, 

that  is,  I  will  describe  you  as  you  are,  that 

L  2  your 


your  friends  may  see  with  what  sort  of  man 
they  have  to  do  :  with  us,  the  expression  is 
always  used  in  a  bad  sense. 


Nil  act um  reputans,  si  quid  superesset 
agendum. 

Esteeming  what  is  done  as  nothing,  while 
any  thing  remains  to  be  performed.  It  is  a 
.mark  of  a  strong  and  vigorous  mind,  not  to 
tire  in  the  pursuit  of  an  object  we  have  deter- 
mined to  attain,  as  it  is  of  imbecility  to  give 
up  the  chace,  deterred  by  obstacles,  whicli 
perseverance  might  enable  us  to  surmount. 
Should  the  obstacles  opposing  the  completion 
of  our  design,  prove  to  be  insurmountable,  if 
they  are  such  as  could  not  be  foreseen  or 
known,  but  from  experience,  the  failure  will 
reflect  no  disgrace,  and  it  is  better  "  magnis 
excidere  ausis,"  to  fail  in  attempting  what  was 
great  and  noble,  than  by  a  too  timid,  and 
cautious  conduct,  to  continue  in  indigence 
and  obscurity. 

Nthil 


(     153     ) 

Nihil  de  Vitdlo. 

But  where  is  the  yolk,  was  used  to  be  said 
to  persons  reserving  to  themselves  the  best 
part  of  any  viands,  or  other  things,  of  which 
they  had  the  distribution.  A  man  dreamed 
he  had  found  an  egg.  A  soothsayer  who  was 
consulted  to  interpret  the  dream,  told  him 
that  it  portended  he  should  find  a  treasure, 
the  white  of  the  egg  representing  silver,  the 
yolk  gold.  The  event  corresponding  with  the 
prediction,  the  man  took  to  the  seer,  some  of 
the  pieces  of  silver ;  but  what,  said  the  seer, 
is  become  of  the  yolk  ?  which  thence  became 
proverbial. 

Astutior  Coccyce. 

More  crafty  than  the  cuckoo.  The  cuckoo 
is  never  at  the  pains  of  building  a  nest,  but 
having  found  one  belonging  to  some  other 
bird,  fit  for  her  purpose,  she  throws  out  the 
eggs  she  finds  in  it,  and  deposits  her  own  in 
their  place.  The  owner  of  the  nest,  not  per- 
ceiving the  fraud,  hatches  the  cuckoo's  egg, 
L  3 


and  nurtures  the  young  one,  thus  freeing 
its  mother  from  all  care  for  her  offspring. 
The  cuckoo  is  a  bird  of  passage  ;  it  appears 
in  this  country  in  the  month  of  April,  and 
leaves  it  in  June.  The  female  lays  only  a 
single  egg,  usually  in  the  nest  of  the  hedge- 
sparrow,  as  we  learn  from  the  following  distich. 

"  The  hedge-sparrow  fed  the  cuckoo  so  long, 
That  she  had  her  head  bit  off  by  her  young." 


Corinthiari. 

To  live  a  debauched  and  voluptuous  life, 
like  the  Corinthians.  Corinth  of  old,  like 
Venice  in  modern  times,  was  famed  for  enter- 
taining multitudes  of  courtezans,  and  for  the 
great  homage  that  was  paid  to  them.  They 
served  as  decoys  to  attract  to  the  city,  the 
most  wealthy  of  the  inhabitants  from  all  parts 
of  Greece,  to  the  great  emolument  of  the  ar- 
tizans  and  traders,  and  improvement  of  the 
revenue  of  the  state.  Lais,  one  of  the  cour- 
tezans, was  esteemed  to  be  the  most  beautiful 
and  accomplished  woman  of  the  age  in  which 
she  lived.  She  drew  visitors  from  the  most 

distant 


(     155     ) 

distant  countries,  to  whom  she  sold  her  fa- 
vours at  a  very  high  price.  Of  Demosthenes, 
who  wished  to  pass  an  evening  with  her,  she 
required  ten  thousand  drachmas.  Astonished 
at  the  boldness  and  largeness  of  the  demand, 
he  quitted  her,  "  not  choosing,"  he  said,  "to 
buy  repentance  at  so  dear  a  rate." 

Leporis  Vltam  vivit. 

He  lives  a  hare's  life.  He  is  full  of  care  and 
anxiety,  like  a  hare,  said  to  be  the  most  timid 
of  all  animals,  which  is  perpetually  on  the 
watch,  and  even  in  its  sleep  is  said  not  to 
shut  its  eyes,  lest  it  should  be  surprised  and 
taken  by  the  dogs.  The  hares,  tired  of  living 
in  a  state  of  constant  fear  and  anxiety,  were 
determined  to  put  an  end  to  their  existence, 
by  drowning  themselves.  With  this  resolution, 
they  rushed  clown  to  a  pool  of  water.  Some 
frogs,  who  were  near  the  pool,  alarmed  at  the 
noise,  leaped  into  the  water,  to  avoid,  the 
danger  which  they  supposed  threatened  them  ; 
this  being  noticed  by  some  of  the  most  for- 
ward of  the  hares,  they  stopped,  and  observing 
L4  to 


(     156    ) 

to  their  brethren,  that  their  condition  was  not 
worse  than  that  of  the  frogs,  they  desisted 
from  their  intention.  This  is  one  of  the  apo- 
logues of  JEsop,  and  \vas  meant  to  cure  men, 
labouring  under  misfortunes,  from  thinking 
that  they  are  more  unhappy  than  the  rest  of 
mankind  ;  there  being  few  so  miserable,  but 
they  may  find  others  equally,  or  more  wretched 
than  themselves. 


Dolium  volvitur. 

A  cask,  when  empty,  may  be  rolled  or  moved 
from  its  place,  by  a  slight  impulse,  but  when 
filled,  it  is  not  to  be  moved  but  by  the  exertion 
of  considerable  force.  The  weak  and  unin- 
formed man,  like  an  empty  vessel,  may  be 
turned  from  his  purpose,  by  the  most  trifling 
and  insignificant  arguments,  or  rather,  having 
no  fixed  principle  of  action,  he  is  perpetually 
wavering,  and  changing  his  designs.  But  the 
considerate  and  wise  man,  having,  on  mature 
reflection,  formed  a  plan  for  his  conduct,  like 
the  well  filled  cask,  he  is  not  easily  to  be  moved 
or  deterred  from  pursuing  his  object. 

"Though 


(     157    ) 

"  Though  the  whole  frame  of  nature  round  him  break, 
He  unconcerned  will  hear  the  mighty  crack." 

The  adage  is  said  to  have  taken  its  rise  from  a 
story  told  of  Diogenes,  the  cynic.  When  the 
city  of  Abdera,  in  which  he  lived,  was  threat- 
ened with  a  siege,  seeing  the  citizens  running 
about  confusedly,  without  order,  or  fixing  on 
any  plan  for  defending  the  place,  he  took  the 
tub  in  which  he  lived  into  the  market,  and 
rolled  it  about  with  great  vehemence,  intimat- 
ing that  until  they  quieted  the  tumult  and 
confusion  that  reigned  in  the  city,  they  were 
equally  insignificantly  and  unprofitably  em- 
ployed. 


Ne  priiis  Antidotum  quam  Venenum. 

Why  take  the  antidote  before  you  have 
swallowed  the  poison  ;  why  so  solicitous  to 
purge  yourself  from  the  imputation  of  a  crime, 
before  you  are  accused,  or  why  censure  the 
doctrines  of  a  book  before  you  have  read  and 
considered  it  ? 


Joe- 


Jactantlus  mcerent  qui  minus  dole.nt. 

They  weep  most  who  are  least  concerned. 
They  grieve  most  ostentatiously  for  their 
friends  when  dead,  who  regarded  them  least 
when  living.  "  Curas  leves  loquuntur,  in- 
gentes  stupent,"  light  griefs  are  noisy  and 
loquacious,  or  vent  themselves  in  tears;  those 
that  are  more  deeply  felt,  overwhelm  and  stu- 
pify  :  and  "  Hasredis  fletus  sub  persona  risus 
est,"  the  weeping  heir  laughs  under  his  mask. 
The  tears  of  those  who  are  greatly  benefited 
by  the  death  of  the  person  whose  loss  they 
seem  to  lament,  may  be  suspected  of  hypo- 
crisy ;  weeping  only  to  conceal  their  joy.  "  In 
our  age,"  Montaigne  says, "  women  commonly 
reserve  the  manifestation  of  their  good  of- 
fices and  their  vehement  affection  towards 
their  husbands  until  they  have  lost  them  ;  a 
too  slow  testimony,  and  that  comes  too  late  : 
we  should  willingly  give  them  leave  to  laugh 
after  we  are  dead,  provided  they  would  smile 
upon  us  whilst  we  are  alive.  Is  it  not  enough 
to  make  a  man  revive  in  spight,  thaj  she  who 

spit 


(     159    ) 

spit  in  my  face  whilst  I  was  living  with  her, 
shall  come  to  kiss  my  feet  when   I  am  no 


more  r 


Rore  vwit  more  Cicadce. 

He  feeds,  only  on  the  dew,  as  the  grasshop- 
per does,  "  like  the  cameleon  he  feeds  on  air," 
was  used  to  be  said,  jestingly,  of  persons  inor- 
dinately fat  and  florid,  particularly  if  they  pre- 
tended to  be  very  delicate  in  their  food,  and 
to  have  but  slender  appetites,  as  the  monks 
were  accustomed  to  do. 

"  Qui  Curios  simulant,  et  Bacchanalia  vivunt. 

"  You  may  read  it,"  Rabelais  says,  "in  their 
red  snouts  and  gulching  bellies  as  big  as  a 
tun." 


Gallus  in  suo  Sterquilinio  plurimum  valet. 

"  Cada  gallo  canta  en  su  muladar,"  "  every 
cock  will  crow  on  his  own  dunghill."  Every 
man  finds  himself  courageous  in  his  own 
house  where  he  is  surrounded  by  his  family 

and 


(     160     ) 

and  friends,  who  will  not  suffer  him  to  be  op- 
pressed. "  As  iron  sharpeneth  iron,  so  doth 
the  countenance  of  a  friend  his  neighbour." 


Prcestat  invidiosum  esse  quam  miserabilem. 

"  II  vaut  mieux  faire  envie  que  pitie*,"  it  is 
better  to  be  envied  than  pitied ;"  for  envy  is 
the  attendant  on  good  fortune,  as  pity  is  of 
distress  and  misery. 

"  Envy  will  merit  as  its  shade  pursue. 

Like  that  it  serves  to  show  the  substance  true." 


Quod  non  Opus  cst  Asse  carum  est. 

What  you  have  no  use  for  is  dear  at  the 
price  of  a  farthing.  "  Buy  what  thou  hast 
no  need  of,  and  ere  long  thou  shalt  sell  thy 
necessaries." 


Nunc  twin  Ferrum  in  Igni  est. 

Your  iron  is  in  the  fire,  \rork  it  now  that 
it  is  soft,  and  you  may  give  it  what  fashion 

you 


(    161    ) 

you  please ;  but  if  you  suffeT  it  to  become 
cold,  it  will  no  longer  yield  to  the  hammer. 
Having  begun  the  business,  it  must  be  dili- 
gently attended  to  or  it  will  not  succeed. 
"  Bisogna  battere  ii  ferro  mentre  e  caldo," 
"strike  while  the  iron  is  hot;"  "  make  hay 
while  the  sun  shines." 


Qualis  Hera,  tails  Pedisequce. 

Such  as  is  the  mistress  such  will  be  the  ser- 
vants. "  Like  master  like  man,"  "  Qual  la 
madre  tal  la  hija,"  like  mother,  like  daughter ; 
"  Qual  el  cuervo  tal  su  hue*  vo,"  as  is  the  crow 
so  is  the  egg.  It  is  therefore  becoming  those 
who  have  the  management  of  the  family  to  set 
good  examples.  "  Madre  piedosa  cria  hija 
merdosa,"  an  indulgent  mother  makes  a  sloth- 
ful and  sluttish  daughter. 


Etiamsi  Cato  dicat. 

In  Rome,  if  a  very  improbable  tale  was  told, 
it  was  usual  to  say,  "  I  would  not  believe  it, 
even  though  Cato  himself  should  tell  it  me," 
thus  shewing  the  reverence  paid  to  the  me- 
mory 


(     162    ) 

mory  of  that  great  statesman  and  philosopher. 
The  Athenians,  who  had  the  same  confidence 
in  the  integrity  of  Aristides  as  the  Romans 
had  in  Cato,  used  his  name  on  such  occasions. 
We  more  commonly  say,  "  though  an  angel 
should  affirm  it  we  would  not  believe  it." 


Destitutus  Ventis,  Remos  adhibe. 

When  it  is  calm  you  must  use  your  oars. 
If  one  project  prove  unsuccessful  you  must 
not  despair,  but  have  recourse  to  other  means 
which  may  prove  more  productive.  "  Post 
malam  segetem  serendum  est,"  though  the 
harvest  has  failed  this  year,  you  must  conti- 
nue your  exertions  in  the  hope  you  may  speed 
better  the  next ;  "  worse  luck  now,  better 
another  time  :"  though  the  Spaniards  say, 
"  Contra  fortuna,  no  vale  arte  ninguna,"  there 
is  no  use  in  striving  against  ill  fortune. 


Pariter  Remum  ducere. 

As  you  have  entered  into  the  same  vessel 

you 


you  must  row  together,  as  the  boat  will  not 
go  on  smoothly  and  regularly  unless  you  move 
your  oars  in  concert :  so  neither  must  you 
expect  any  business  in  which  you  are  engaged 
to  succeed,  unless  all  the  parties  concerned 
are  agreed  as  to  the  manner  of  proceeding, 
and  will  act  together. 


Ut  Lupus  Ovem  amat. 

He  loves  him  as  the  wolf  loves  the  sheep; 
or,  "  as  the  devil  loves  holy  water."  This  may 
be  said  of  any  one  pretending  a  regard  for 
the  interest  of  a  person  whom  he  is  endea- 
vouring to  undermine  and  would  destroy. 


Vlam  qui  nescit  ad  Mare,  eum  oportet  Amnem 
qucerere. 

Let  him  who  knows  not  the  way  to  the  sea 
take  a  river  for  his  guide;  that  is,  let  him  fol- 
low the  course  of  a  river,  which,  though  per- 
haps by  a  circuitous  route,  will  at  length  lead 
him  there ;  the  sea  being  the  common  recep- 
tacle 


(     164    ) 

tacle  or  reservoir  into  which  nearly  all  rivers 
pour  their  contents.  Or  let  those  who  wish 
for  information  on  any  subject  on  which  they 
are  ignorant  inquire  of  those  who  are  ac- 
quainted with  them,  however  humble  their 
situation  :  much  useful  knowledge  being  often 
to  be  obtained  by  conversing  with  the  very 
lowest  of  the  people ;  as  in  mechanics,  hus- 
bandry, gardening,  Sec. 


Presens  abest. 

Though  present  he  is  absent.  This  was  said 
of  persons  who,  engaged  in  thought,  paid  lit- 
tle or  no  attention  to  what  was  said  or  done 
in  their  company,  which  led  them  often  into 
great  absurdities.  M.  Bruyere  in  his  Carac- 
teres,  ou  Moeurs  de  ce  Siecle,  has  given  an  ex- 
cellent description  of  an  absent  man,  but  too 
much  in  detail,  though  perhaps  there  may  be 
but  few  of  the  instances  he  produces,  which 
may  not  have  occurred.  It  is  admirably 
abridged  in  one  of  the  papers  of  the  Spec- 
tator. 


J\fagis- 


(     165     ) 

Magistratum  gerens,  audi  et  justt  et  injustl. 

Being  in  office,  it  is  your  duty  to  hear  all 
that  can  be  said  on  the  business  before  you  by 
either  party,  before  you  decide  on  its  merit. 

"  Qui  statuit  aliquid,  parte  inaudita  altera, 
JEquum  licet  statuerit,  haud  aequus  est." 

He  who  determines  a  cause  without  hearing 
both  the  parties,  though  he  passes  a  just  sen- 
tence, acts  unjustly. 


Avarus  nisi  quum  moritur  nil  rectb  facif. 

The  covetous  man  begins  to  be  considered 
with  complacence  when  he  ceases  to  exist,  or 
never  does  well  until  he  dies;  they  are  like 
swine,  e<  which  are  never  good  until  they  come 
to  the  knife."  The  prodigal  who  dissipates 
his  fortune  by  living  voluptuously,  easily  con- 
ciliates to  himself  the  friendship  or  kindness 
of  the  persons  with  whom  he  associates ;  he 
contributes  to  the  support  of  those  who  fur- 
nish him  with  the  means  of  enjoying  his  di- 
versions and  amusements  ;  he  shares  his  for- 

VOL.  ii.  M  tune 


(     166    ) 

tune  with  his  friends,  his  servants,  and  his  de- 
pendants :  he  is  therefore  usually  spoken  of 
with  complacency.  "  He  is  a  generous,  liheral, 
open-hearted  fellow,  and  no  one's  enemy  but 
his  own ;"  and  when  his  fall  is  completed, 
even  those  who  suffer  mingle  some  regret  for 
his  misfortune,  with  the  concern  they  feel  for 
their  own  loss.  But  the  covetous  man  neither 
meets  with,  nor  is  entitled  to  the  same  consi- 
deration from  the  world :  even  the  most 
harmless  of  them,  those  who  either  came  to 
their  fortune  by  inheritance,  or  who  have  ac- 
quired it  by  fair  dealing,  as  they  use  it  exclu- 
sively for  their  own  benefit,  are  hardly  looked 
on  as  forming  a  part  of  the  community  in 
which  they  live ;  no  one  interests  himself  in 
their  welfare ;  their  success  is  not  congratu- 
lated, nor  their  losses  commiserated.  "  The 
prodigal  robs  his  heir,  the  miser  himself." 

"  When  all  other  sins  are  old  in  us,  and  go  upon  crutches. 
Covetousness  does  but  then  lay  in  her  cradle. 
Lechery  loves  to  dwell  in  the  fairest  lodgings, 
And  covetousness  in  the  oldest  buildings." 


Par 


(     167    ) 

Par  Pari  referre. 

"  Like  for  like,"  or  "  one  good  turn  deserves 
another;"  we  say  also,  "  give  him  a  Rowland 
for  his  Oliver."  Dionysius,  having  engaged  a 
musician  to  entertain  his  company,  to  induce 
him  to  exert  himself  he  promised  to  give  him 
a  reward  proportioned  to  the  amusement  he 
should  afford  his  guests  ;  the  singer,  in  the 
hope  of  obtaining  a  splendid  present,  selected 
some  of  his  choicest  pieces  of  music,  which 
he  performed  with  such  excellent  skill  as  to 
give  entire  satisfaction  to  the  audience :  on 
applying  for  his  pay,  he  was  told  he  had  al- 
ready received  "  par  pari,"  like  for  like.  The 
pleasure  he  had  enjoyed  in  expecting  the  re- 
ward, balancing  that  which  the  company  had 
received  in  hearing  him  sing;  he  had  also  the 
further  satisfaction  of  hearing  his  performance 
highly  extolled,  which  is  too  often  the  only 
emolument  that  men  of  genius  are  able  to  ob- 
tain for  their  labours. 


it  2  Volam 


(     168    ) 


Volam  Pedis  ostendere. 

"  To  shew  a  light  pair  of  heels."  The  phrase 
is  applied  as  a  reproach  to  persons  leaving 
their  posts  and  flying  from  the  enemy  instead 
of  fighting. 


JBona  Nemini  Hora  est,  quin  allcui  sit  mala. 

"  One*  man's  meat  is  another  man's  poi- 
son." One  man's  loss  is  another's  gain, 
or  one  man  makes  a  fortune  by  the  ruin  of 
another :  this  is  universally  the  case  in  war, 
and  not  unfrequently  in  law  likewise. 


Noli  Equi  Denies  inspicere  donati. 

"  A  caval  donato  non  guardar  in  bocca."' 
It.  "  A  cheval  donn6,  il  ne  faut  pas  regarder 
aux  dens."  Fr.  "  We  must  not  look  a  gift- 
horse  in  the  mouth."  Presents  are  not  to  be 
esteemed  by  their  costliness,  but  by  the  inten- 
tion of  the  donor.  "  Aliquando  gratius  est 

quod 


(     169    ) 

quod  facili,  quam  quod  plena  manu  datur," 
what  is  given  freely  and  without  solicitation, 
is  more  acceptable  than  a  more  Valuable  and 
expensive  present,  that  was  not  obtained  with- 
out great  entreaty. 


Munerum,  Animus  optimus  est. 

The  goodwill  and  intention  of  the  donor, 
constitutes  the  principal  value  of  the  gift. 
Xerxes  found  a  draught  of  water,  present- 
ed to  him  by  a  soldier  in  the  field  of  battle, 
of  inestimable  value. 


,  Fabarum  Arrosor. 

A  devourer  of  beans.  The  man  is  become  fat, 
was  used  to  be  said,  by  feeding  on  beans.  Ap- 
plying it  to  persons  who  had  accepted  a  bribe, 
to  put  in  his  bean,  which  was  their  mode  of 
voting,  in  favour  of  one  of  the  candidates  for 

O  ' 

a  public  office  or  magistracy.  The  manners 
therefore  of  the  present  times,  if  they  are  not 
mended  in  this  respect,  are  not  worse  than 
they  were  formerly. 

M  3  Undarum 


(     170    ) 


Undarum  in  Ulnis. 

Persons  were  said  to  be  up  to  the  elbows  in 
the  sea  and  striving  with  them  against  the 
Avaves,  who  were  contending  with  difficulties 
which  threatened  to  overwhelm  them.  A  sU 
milar  phrase  is  used  by  us,  speaking  of  persons 
who  have  more  than  sufficient  employment, 
"  he  has  his  hands  full,"  we  say,  or  "  he  is  up 
to  the  elbows  in  business." 


Hodie  nihil  succedit. 

Nothing  has  succeeded,  or  prospered  with 
me  this  day.  This,  many  among  the  com- 
mon people  were  apt  to  suppose,  proceeded  not 
from  their  having  omitted  some  necessary 
caution,  but  from  their  having  begun  the  work 
on  an  unlucky  day ;  and  there  are  now,  as 
there  were  formerly,  persons  who  esteem  cer- 
tain days  to  be  unfortunate  in  which  no  new 
business  should  be  attempted. 

Trochi 


(     171     ) 
Trochl  in  morem. 

Like  a  top  which  is  always  turning  round 
and  changing  its  situation.  The  adage  may 
be  applied  to  persons  of  versatile  dispositions, 
who  have  no  fixed  design,  or  intention,  they 
will  now  be  parsons,  lawyers,  soldiers;  or  as 
Andrew  Borde  describes  our  countrymen, 

"  I  am  an  Englishman,  and  naked  I  stand  here, 
Musing  in  my  inind,  what  raiment  I  shall  wear; 
For  now  I  will  wear  this,  and  now  1  will  wear  that, 
And  now  I  will  wear,  I  cannot  tell  what." 

Borde  lived  in  the  early  part  of  the  sixteenth 
century  ;  we  are  now  doubtless  changed,  and 
become  more  steady.  There  are  many  other 
apothegms  censuring  this  mutability  of  dis- 
position, from  which  the  following  only  is 
taken. 


Chamteleonte  mutabilior. 

More  changeable  than  the  chameleon, 
which  was  supposed,  though  not  truly,  to 
assume  the  colour  of  every  object  it  ap- 
proached. 

w  4  Us  us 


Usus  est  alt  era  Natura. 

"  Use,  or  custom,  is  a  second  nature."  It 
is  of  importance,  therefore,  in  the  education 
of  children,  to  prevent  their  acquiring  habits 
that  are  ungraceful  or  vicious  ;  as  whatever 
watchfulness  or  care  may  be  afterwards  used, 
it  will  be  almost  impossible  to  dispossess  them- 


Timidi  Mater  nonjlet. 

The  mother  of  the  coward  does  not  weep, 
that  is,  does  not  often  lament  the  untimely 
death  of  her  son,  or  that  he  has  met  with  any 
sinister  accident,  as  he  will  be  careful  to  keep 
out  of  the  way  of  danger,  which  the  brave 
and  courageous  is  continually  affronting,  and 
so  falls  early. 


Nemo  sibi  nascitur. 
"  Non  sibi  sed  toti  mundo  se  credere  natum." 

No  one  is  born,  or  should   think  himself 
born,  solely  for  himself.     The  helpless  state 


in 


(    173    ) 

in  which  we  are  produced  into  the  world, 
might  teach  us  this  maxim,  or  should  we 
happen  to  forget  it,  a  very  slight  fit  of  sick- 
ness would  be  sufficient  to  bring  it  back  to 
our  memories.  But  even  in  health  we  are 
none  of  us  able,  without  the  assistance  of 
others,  to  prepare  every  article  necessary 
for  our  comfort,  or  even  for  our  subsistence. 
Every  thing  we  wear,  and  every  thing  we  eat 
or  drink,  requiring  the  concurrence  of  several 
hands,  to  make  them  fit  for  our  use.  This 
doubtless  was  intended  by  Providence  to  en- 
courage mutual  benevolence.  As  we  were  in- 
debted in  early  life  to  our  parents,  teachers, 
and  friends,  for  our  maintenance,  and  for  all 
the  knowledge  that  was  instilled  into  us,  it 
becomes  our  duty  to  shew  our  sense  of  the 
obligation,  by  doing  every  thing  in  our  power 
that  may  contribute  to  their  comfort,  and  by 
giving  the  like  assistance  to  those  who  may 
have  similar  claims  upon  us.  The  chain  link- 
ing us  together,  is  by  this  means  kept  entire, 
and  we  become  what  nature  intended,  social 
beings.  Plato  is  said  to  have  first  promul- 
gated this  adage,  "Each  of  us  owing,"  he 

says, 


(     174     ) 

says,  "  a  portion  of  our  time,  and  of  our  exer- 
tions, to  our  country,  to  our  parents,  and  to 
our  friends." 


Quod  procedere  non  potest,  recedit,  and 
Non  progredi  est  regredi. 

Nothing  in  this  world  is  stationary,  every 
thing  tending  to  improvement,  or  deteriora- 
tion. The  land  that  by  culture  is  brought  to 
produce  a  plentiful  return  of  grain,  if  neglect- 
ed, soon  becomes  barren,  or  is  covered  with 
weeds.  The  skill  and  knowledge  that  is  ac- 
quired by  assiduous  study,  is  only  to  be  re- 
tained by  continued  application,  and  the  for- 
tune which  industry  has  accumulated,  to  be 
preserved  by  exertions  similar,  in  a  great  mea- 
sure, to  those  by  M'hich  it  was  obtained.  This 
seems  agreeable  to  the  scheme  of  Providence, 
inviting,  or  rather  impelling  us  to  a  life  of 
activity,  which  is  equally  necessary  for  the 
preservation  of  our  morals,  and  our  health. 
"  When  things  are  at  the  worst  they  will  mend," 
that  is,  a  change  will  take  place,  which,  in  that 
case,  cannot  but  be  for  the  better.  On  the 

other 


(     175     ) 

other  hand,  when  they  have  attained  the 
highest  state  of  perfection,  then  ought  we, 
from  the  known  mutability  of  human  affairs, 
to  fear  a  reverse,  for  "  what  can  no  further 
advance,  must  recede,"  as  it  is  expressed  in 
the  Latin  adage,  which  gave  birth  to  these 
reflections. 

Polycrates,  the  tyrant  of  Samos,  having 
been  for  many  years  successful  in  all  his  wars, 
and  transactions  of  every  kind,  and  acquired 
an  immense  increase  of  territory,  and  wealth, 
was  advised  by  Amasis,  the  king  of  Egypt, 
his  friend  and  ally,  from  a  persuasion  that 
such  unexampled  good  fortune  must  suffer  a 
reverse,  to  part  with  something  of  great  value, 
and  which  he  esteemed  highly,  to  avert  the 
disaster  which  he  believed  threatened  him. 
He  accordingly  threw  into  the  sea  a  ring, 
containing  the  richest  jewel  that  he  possessed. 
A  short  time  after,  a  fish  being  sent  to  him  as. 
a  present,  the  ring  was  found  in  its  stomach, 
and  restored  to  its  master.  Amasis,  being 
now  convinced  that  Polycrates  was  devoted 
to  destruction,  would  have  no  further  league 
with  him.  The  story  adds,  that  he  was  some 

time 


(    176    ) 

time  after  treacherously  murdered  at  Mag- 
nesia, by  the  order  of  Oroetes,  the  governor, 
at  whose  house  he  was  on  a  visit. 


Laudatur  et  alget. 

Though  he  is  abundantly  commended,  still 
he  is  suffered  to  live  in  indigence.  It  is  an 
old,  and  too  well  founded  complaint,  that  the 
good  man  frequently  fails  in  meeting  with 
that  encouragement  and  assistance,  to  which, 
by  his  worth,  he  seems  entitled  ;  nay,  that  he 
has  often  the  mortification  of  seeing  persons, 
of  no  very  nice  honour,  or  who  are  even  ma- 
nifestly deficient  in  moral  qualities,  intercept- 
ing those  emoluments,  which  should  be  the 
reward  of  uprightness  and  justice.  But  the 
man  who  is  thus  rewarded,  was  active  and  in- 
dustrious, and  had  merited  the  preference  that 
was  given  him,  by  performing  some  service 
that  was  grateful,  useful,  or  even  necessary  to 
the  person  through  whose  means  he  obtained 
his  advancement ;  while  the  good  man,  who 
was  overlooked,  might  probably  want  that 
assiduity,  or  ingenuity,  which  are  necessary 

to 


(     177    ) 

to  enable  us  .to-  be  useful  to  ourselves,  or 
others.  The  preference  that  is  said  to  be  given 
to  men  of  bad  characters,  is  not  given  them 
on  account  of  their  evil  qualities,  but  for 
having  cultivated  their  talents,  and  rendered 
themselves  serviceable ;  neither  are  the  good 
passed  over  on  account  of  their  virtues,  but 
for  not  having  acquired  those  qualities  which 
are  necessary  to  make  their  virtues  conspi- 
cuous, and  which,  if  possessed,  would  enable 
them  to  demand  the  assistance  they  complain 
is  withheld  from  them.  The  earth  yields  its 
productions,  not  in  proportion  to  the  good  or 
bad  characters  of  the  possessors,  but  to  the 
greater  or  less  degree  of  knowledge  and  in- 
dustry, that  have  been  displayed  in  its  culti- 
vation. 

"  The  lucky  have  their  days,  and  those  they  choose, 
The  unlucky  have  but  hours,  and  those  they  lose." 

Is  it  not  likely,  that  activity  and  ingenuity 
often  supply  the  place  of  kick,  or  fortune,  and 
that  those  who  complain  they  are  unfortunate, 
or  unlucky,  are  in  reality  only  stupid,  or  in- 
dolent ?  and  perhaps,  this  is  oftener  the  case, 
than  we  are  willing  to  confess. 

Barba 


(     173    ) 

Barbce  tenus  sapient es. 

You  know  them  to  be  wise  by  their  beards. 
This  was  used  to  be  applied  to  persons  who 
placed  all  knowledge  and  goodness  in  dress, 
and  external  appearance,  or  in  the  perform- 
ance of  certain  ceremonies.  "I  fast  twice  a 
week,"  said  the  Pharisee,  "  and  give  tithes  of 
all  I  possess,"  but  he  was  not  accepted.  "  Si 
philosophum  oporteat  ex  barba  metiri,  hircos 
primam  laudem  ablaturos,"  if  the  beard  made 
the  philosopher,  then  the  goat  would  have  a 
just  right  to  that  title,  or  as  the  Greek  epi- 
grammatist has  it, 

"  If  beards  long  and  bushy  true  wisdom  denote, 
Then  Plato  must  yield  to  a  shaggy  he-goat." 

"  At  non  omnes  monachi  sunt,  qui  cuculo 
onerantur,  nee  omnes  generosi,  qui  torquem 
gestant  auream,  aut  reges,  qui  diadernate  in- 
signiuntur;"  but  all  are  not  monks  who  wear 
a  cowl,  or  gentlemen  who  are  decorated  with 
golden  chains,  or  kings  who  are  crowned. 
Those  only  in  reality  deserve  the  titles,  who 
act  consistently  with  the  characters  they  as- 
sume. "  For  there  are  many  who  talk  of  Robin 

Hood, 


(     179    ) 

Hood,  who  never  shot  with  his  how."  "Diga 
barba  qua  haga,"  let  your  beard  advise  you ; 
that  is,  let  it  remind  you  that  you  are  a  man, 
and  that  you.  do  nothing  unbecoming  that 
character. 


Gallum  habeas  Amicum,  non  Vicinum* 

"Ayez  le  Francois  pour  ton  ami,  non  pas 
pour  ton  voisin,"  have  the  French  for  your 
friend,  not  for  your  neighbour.  But  at  this 
time,  viz.  1812,  it  is  as  dangerous  to  have 
them  for  friends,  as  for  neighbours,  nothing 
being  more  fatal  than  to  have  the  honour  of 
being  numbered  among  their  associates,  or 
allies,  as  under  that  title  or  pretence,  they  will 
take  upon  them  the  entire  management  of 
your  country.  The  Apennines  have  not  been 
found  a  sufficient  barrier,  to  prevent  their  fra- 
ternising (a  term  they  have  adopted)  with  the 
Spaniards.  In  1809,  they  invited  the  king  of 
Spain,  and  his  son,  to  their  camp,  pitched  on 
the  borders  of  the  country,  to  adjust,  as  they 
pretended,  some  matters  of  difference  between 
them,  but,  possessed  of  their  persons,  they 

trans- 


(     180     ) 

transported  them  to  the  interior  of  France, 
where  they  have  been  detained  ever  since.  In 
the  mean  while  they  have  been  carrying  on  a 
destructive  war  in  Spain,  treating  the  inha- 
bitants who  resisted  them  as  rebels,  and  oblig- 
ing many  thousands  of  them  to  enter  into 
their  armies,  and  to  fight  for  them  in  far  dis- 
tant countries.  They  have  likewise  given  to 
Spain,  as  king,  one  of  the  brothers  of  Buona- 
parte, the  present  governor,  or  emperor,  as  he 
has  forced  the  world  to  acknowledge  him,  of 
the  French.  The  Spaniards,  aided  by  the  forces 
of  this  country,  are  making  a  vigorous  oppo- 
sition to  them,  and  may  they  in  the  end  be 
successful  in  driving  them  from  their  terri- 
tories !  an  event,  which  is  rather  to  be  hoped 
than  expected. 


Beneficium  accipere  est  Libertatem  vendere. 

Remember,  when  you  receive  an  obligation, 
you  part  with  your  liberty.  To  admit  this  in 
its  full  extent,  would  be  to  destroy  the  most 
pleasing,  as  well  as  the  most  useful  intercourse 
among  men,  that  of  mutually  aiding  each 

other 


other  by  advice  and  other  good  offices.  It 
refers,  therefore,  only  to  those  who  receive 
favours,  without  endeavouring  to  make  any 
return;  to  persons  of  mean  and  grovelling 
dispositions,  who  would  live  on  the  bounty  of 
others,  without  using  any  exertions  to  procure 
sustenance  for  themselves.  Such  men  truly 
sell  themselves,  and  must  suffer1  all  the  morti- 
fications, and  insults,  that  those  on  whom  they 
are  dependent,  may  choose  to  inflict. 


Dos  est  magnet,  Parentum  Virtus. 

The  virtue  of  the  parent  is  a  passport  through 
life  to  the  child.  Parents  are  particularly  called 
upon  to  be  careful  of  their  conduct,  and  not 
to  do  any  thing  that  may  degrade  them,  or 
any  way  impeach  or  injure  their  moral  cha- 
racter :  not  only  that  the  minds  of  their  chil- 
dren may  not  be  corrupted  by  their  ill  ex- 
ample, but  that  the  estimation  in  which  they 
are  held,  may  procure  for  their  offspring,  the 
countenance  of  their  friends,  when  they  shall 
be  gone.  "  I  have  been  young,"  the  Psalmist 
s^ays,  "  but  now  am  old,  yet  never  saw  I  the 

VOL.  ir.  N  righteous 


(      182     ) 

righteous  forsaken,  nor  his  seed  begging  their 
bread." 


Dttlcis  inevpertis  Cultura  potent  is 
Expert  us  mctuit. 

To  the  inexperienced,  the  patronage  of  the 
great  and  powerful  is  desirable;  to  those 
better  acquainted  with  men  and  things,  it  is 
rather  to  be  dreaded  than  courted.  Youth  is 
flattered  by  the  attention  of  persons  of  supe- 
rior rank  and  fortune;  but  those  more  ac- 
quainted with  the  world,  know  that  the  great 
rarely  admit  their  inferiors  to  familiarity  with 
them,  but  with  a  view  to  their  own  interest. 
They  want,  it  is  likely,  their  assistance  in 
some  business  or  other,  and  the  intimacy  ge- 
neralty  lasts  only  so  long  as  they  are  able  to 
be  serviceable  to  them.  "  Eat  no  cherries  with 
great  men,  for  they  will  cast  the  stones  in 
your  eyes."  "  Like  fire,  at  a  distance  they  give 
warmth,  but  if  too  near  they  burn."  "  They 
forget,"  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  says,  "  such  as  have 
done  them  service,  when  they  have  obtained 
u'bat  they  wished  for,  and  will  rather  hate 

them 


(     183     ) 

them  for  having  been  the  means  of  their  ad- 
vancement, than  acknowledge  the  favour." 
Does  not  this,  however,  often  happen  through 
the  imprudence  of  the  client,  from  his  forget- 
ing  the  inferiority  of  his  situation,  and  affect- 
ing an  equality,  which  cannot  but  be  oifensive? 
and  our  proverb  avers,  that  "familiarity  breeds 
contempt." 


Necessitas  Magistra. 

"  Necessity  is  the  mother  of  invention,  and 
the  most  powerful  provoker  of  industry,  and 
ingenuity.  "  La  n^cessite"  n'a  point  de  loi," 
and  "  La  necessidad  carece  de  ley."  "  Neces- 
sity has  no  law,"  and  "  Hunger  will  break 
through  stone  walls." 

"  Ingenii  largitor  venter, 

Cautum  e  rudi  reddit  magistra  necessitas." 

Necessity  makes  the  dull  man  bright,  the 
sluggard  active,  the  unwary  cautious.  It 
sharpens  the  wit,  and  makes  men  more  apt 
for  instruction. 

"  Jejunus  raro  stomachus  vulgaria  terabit. 
Hunger  is  the  best  cure  for  daintiness,  "it  is 
N  2  the 


(     184    ) 

the  best  sauce;"  and  "  A  la  hambre,  no  ay  pan 
malo;"  "  A  hungry  dog  will  eat  dirty  pud- 
ding." To  these  may  be  added  the  following, 

"  Impletus  venter,  non  vult  studere  libenter." 

A  full  belly  does  not  excite  to  mental  labour 
or  exertion,  and  want  sharpens,  but  luxury 
blunts  the  disposition  to  study. 


Barbati. 

Men  with  beards.  The  term  was  applied 
by  the  Romans  to  persons  of  plain,  simple, 
and  rustic  or  primitive  manners,  who  still 
retained  the  customs  of  their  ancestors.  They 
had  not  learned  to  shave  their  beards,  which 
only  began  to  be  practised  among  them  four 
hundred  and  fifty  years  after  the  building  of 
the  city.  The  first  barbers,  Pliny  tells  us, 
were  introduced  there  from  the  island  of 
Sicily. 


Annosa  Vulpes  hand  capitur  Laqueo. 
An  old  fox  is  not  easily  to  be  taken  in  a 


snare; 


(     185     ) 

.snare;  age  has  made  him  cautious.  The 
proverb  may  be  applied  to  persons  attempting 
to  impose  upon  us,  and  to  excite  compassion 
by  the  relation  of  some  affecting  but  impro- 
bable story.  "  Quaere  peregrinum,"  tell  your 
tale  to  one  less  acquainted  with  you,  or 
with  the  circumstances  you  are  relating;  they 
will  gain  you  no  credit  here.  "  A  otro  perro, 
con  esse  huesso,"  throw  that  bone  to  another 
dog:. 


Quod  de  quoque  Viro,  et  cut  dicas  sape  ca-ceto. 

We  should  be  careful  not  to  speak  ill  of 
any  one  who  is  absent,  particularly  in  mixed 
companies,  as  some  of  the  parties  may  know 
the  person  who  is  censured,  and  may  either 
resent  the  affront,  or  report  to  his  friend  what 
had  been  said  to  his  discredit. 


Sat  cito,  si  sat  bene. 

"  Soon  enough,   if  well  enough,"  was   an 
apothegm  frequently  in  the  mouth  of  Cato. 
N  3  When 


(     186    ) 

"When  we  are  shown  any  work  of  art,  we  do 
not  inquire  bow  long  it  was  in  performing, 
but  how  well  it  is  executed.  If  it  is  com- 
plete, and  excellent  in  its  kind,  we  readily 
give  due  commendation  to  the  artist,  whether 
it  was  struck  off  at  a  heat,  or  effected  with 
much  labour,  thought,  and  attention. 


Non  est  Remedium  adversus  Sycophants 
Morsum. 

There  is  no  remedy  against  slander,  it 
shquld  therefore  be  borne  quietly,  and  treated 
with  contempt.  What,  if  1  have  not  deserved 
it  ?  Then  it  will  be  the  more  easily  borne. 
When  a  Roman  patrician  was  ordered  by  the 
Emperor  Tiberius  to  die,  his  friends  in  lament- 
ing his  doom,  dwelt  strongly  on  the  injustice 
of  the  sentence.  That,  said  he,  my  fi  iendsr  is 
my  greatest  consolation;  ye  do  not  surely 
wish  that  I  had  been  guilty. 

"  Latrantem  curatne  alta  Diana  canem  ?" 

Is  the  moon  disturbed  at  the  barking  of  a 
dog?  let  them  scoff,  slander,  abuse,  wrong, 

curse 


(     187    ) 

curse  and  swear,  feign  and  lye,  when  they 
have  done  all,  innocency  will  vindicate  itself, 
and  "  a  good  conscience  is  a  continual  feast." 


Bceotum  crasso  jurares  Acre  natum. 

You  would  swear  he  was  a  native  of  Bceotia, 
a  country  famed  for  its  thick  and  foggy  air, 
and  for  the  stupidity  of  its  inhabitants. 

"  Tales  sunt  hoininum  mentes,  quales  pater  ipse 
Jupiter,  auctifera  lustravit  lampade  terras." 

"  The  minds  of  men  do  in  the  weather  share, 
Dark  or  serene,  as  the  day's  foul  or  fair." 

That  most  men  find  themselves  in  some 
degree  affected  by  the  temperature  of  the 
atmosphere,  are  more  cheerful  and  sprightly, 
more  disposed  to  gaiety,  and  more  ready  to 
enter  on  any  business  requiring  mental  exer- 
tion, when  warmed  and  enlivened  by  a  bright 
sun,  and  a  clear  and  pleasant  state  of  the  air, 
than  when  that  luminary  is  obscured  by  thick, 
foggy,  and  moist  vapours,  has  not  often  been 
denied,  perhaps  by  no  one  formally  and  in 
writing,  but  "by  the  late  Dr.  Johnson,  who 
x  4  treated 


(     188     ) 

treated  the  opinion  with  contempt.  It  was  a 
mere  excuse  for  idleness,  which  every  one 
would  find,  he  says,  who  would  set  themselves 
doggedly,  that  is,  determinedly  to  work. 
But  this,  after  all,  is  only  saying  that  the  in- 
fluence or  effects  of  a  damp  and  gloomy  sky 
may  be  successfully  counteracted  hy  a  fixed 
and  vigorous  resolution,  not  to  give  way  to  it. 
"  Sapiens  dominahitur  astris."  "  The  wise 
man  will  controul  the  influence  of  the  stars." 


Poeta  nascitur,  nonfit. 

The  poet  must  be  born  such,  no  art,  care, 
or  instruction,  being  sufficient  to  make  a  man  a 
poet,  who  is  not  naturally  blest  with  a  genius, 
and  with  a  turn  for  that  divine  art,  the  harmony 
of  numbers.  Art  may  direct  and  improve 
genius,  but  it  cannot  create  it.  The  same 
may  be  said  of  every  other  species  of  science. 
By  study  and  practice,  any  man  may  acquire 
a  competent  knowledge  of  music,  of  painting, 
of  medicine,  and  in  mechanics,  but  if  he  has 
not  genius,  an  inventive  faculty,  or  power,  he 
will  never  reach  to  excellence  in  any  of  them. 

In 


(     139    ) 

In  this  way  only  can  we  account  for  the  slow 
progress  made  towards  perfection  in  every 
art  or  science.  Thousands  have  in  all  ages 
been  as  carefully,  and  as  completely  educated 
as  Newton,  but  the  whole  world  has  only 
produced  one  Newton.  The  same  may  be 
said  of  Bacon,  and  a  few  others  who  have 
shone,  and  still  continue  to  shine,  "  Veluti 
inter  ignes  luna  minores,"  like  the  moon  among 
the  smaller  lights  of  heaven.  The  Spaniards 
attribute  this  quality  to  valour.  "  Nace 
el  valor,  no  se  adquiere,"  valour  must  be 
born  with  us,  it  is  not  to  be  acquired  by 
instruction.  It  requires  indeed  to  be  re- 
strained, to  be  curbed  by  laws,  that  it  may 
not  degenerate  into  brutal  violence,  and  so  be 
employed  to  the  destruction  instead  of  the 
support  of  society.  Three  things  are  neces- 
sary, Aristotle  says,  to  enable  us  to  excel  in 
any  art,  "  Nature,  study,  and  practice;"  and 
the  Italians  say,  "  Nessuno  nasce  maestro," 
no  one  is  born  a  master,  or  perfect  in  any 
art.  Every  man  may  learn  to  write  verses,  to 
draw  or  paint  a  picture,  to  distinguish  or 
describe  diseases,  but  to  do  any  of  these 

exquisitely, 


(    190    ) 

exquisitely,  there  must  be  present,  the  higher 
qualities  of  the  mind;  a  superior  degree  of 
sagacity;  a  quickness  in  discerning  the  rela- 
tions objects  bear  to  each  other;  a  readiness 
in  comparing,  combining  and  discriminating 
actions  or  things,  not  possessed  by  persons  of 
common  understandings.  Let  a  person  not 
possessed  of  genius  write  a  poem.  His  verses 
will  be  correct,  but  there  will  be  no  invention, 
nothing  interesting;  no  brilliancy  of  thought 
or  expression,  nothing  to  surprise  or  dazzle. 
A  painter,  with  moderate  talents,  will  be  able 
to  produce  a  general  representation  of  the 
objects  intended  to  be  imitated,  you  will  be 
in  no  danger  of  mistaking  his  horses  for 
elephants.  But  there  will  be  no  character 
either  in  his  men  or  beasts,  or  none  according 
with  the  subject  His  pictures  will  want 
animation ;  you  \vill  see  them  without  emo- 
tion, and  part  from  them  with  indifference. 
A  physician,  though  not  possessed  of  an  extra- 
ordinary portion  of  sagacity,  may  soon  ac- 
quire a  knowledge  of  the  diseases  that  most 
frequently  occur,  and  of  the  common  routine 
of  practice  in  such  cases,  so  that  he  will  have 

the 


the  satisfaction  of  knowing,  when  he  fails, 
that  his  patient  died  "  secundum  artem."     In 
more  abstruse  cases,  and  in  those  that  are  less 
common,  he  will  he  very  likely  to  mistake  one 
disease  for  another,  and  not  perhaps  discover 
his  error,  until  the  mischief  is  irreparable.     It 
is  rarely,  however,  that  the  reputation  of  the 
physician  suffers  by  a  blunder  of  this  kind, 
which  is  buried  with  the  patients;  "  for  the 
earth   covers   the   errors   of  the   physician." 
Physicians  have  this  advantage  over  the  pro- 
fessors of  other  arts.     Medicine  is  held  to  be 
a  mystery,  into  which  it  would  be  a  sort  of 
impiety,    for  persons   not   initiated  to    pry. 
Like  the  Philistines  for  looking  into  the  ark, 
they  might  be  smitten  with  emrods,  or  some 
other  plague.     It   is    difficult  therefore   for 
persons  not  within  the   pale,    to   appreciate 
their  value,  or  knowledge.     The  art  abounds 
also,  beyond  all  others,  with  technical  terms, 
and  he  who  has  the  skill  to  lard  his  conversa- 
tion with  the  greatest  number  of  them,  will 
probably    be   esteemed   the   best    physician. 
There  seems  also  an  opinion,  more  prevalent 
than  we  are  individually  perhaps  disposed  to 

admit. 


admit,  that  there  is  something  of  a  fatality  in 
our  deaths;  or  in  other  words,  that  there  is  a 
time  fixed,  beyond  which  \ve  can  none  of  us 
continue  to  live.  This  is  extremely  con- 
venient to  the  professors  of  medicine,  as  it 
leaves  them  in  full  possession  of  the  credit  of 
curing  all  the  sick  that  may  happen  to  get 
well  while  under  their  care,  and  at  the  same 
time  it  takes  from  them  all  blame  or  responsi- 
bility when  they  die.  "  Dios  es  el  que  sana, 
y  el  medico  lleva  la  plata."  Though  it  is  God 
who  cures,  the  physician  gets  the  fee.  Thus 
we  find  the  Canon  in  Gil  Bias  saying,  "  Je 
vois  bien  qu'il  faut  mourir,  malgre"  la  vertu  de 
1'eau ;  etquoi  qu'il  ne  reste  a  peine  une  goute 
de  sang,  je  ne  m'en  porte  pas  mieux  pour  cela. 
Ce  qui  prouve  bien  que  le  plus  habile  medecin 
du  monde  ne  sauroit  prolonger  nos  jours, 
quand  leur  terme  fatal  est  arriveV'  I  know 
that  I  must  die  notwithstanding  the  great 
efficacy  there  is  in  water:  and  although  I 
have  scarcely  a  drop  of  blood  remaining  in 
my  veins,  I  still  find  myself  no  better,  a  clear 
proof  that  the  most  skilful  physician  cannot 
preserve  our  lives,  when  the  fatal  hour  arrives.. 

Bui 


But  leaving  this  digression,  this  seems  the 
most  rational  way  of  explaining  the  adage 
"  Poeta  nascitur."  It  is  prohable,  however, 
that  the  ancients  had  a  further  meaning. 
They  attached  something  of  divine  to  the  cha- 
racter of  the  poet,  who  was  also  called  vates, 
as  supposing  him  to  be  the  interpreter  of  the 
behests  of  the  deity.  The  custom  among  the 
poets  of  invoking  the  Muses,  and  calling  for 
their  assistance  in  the  beginning  of  their  works, 
without  doubt  contributed  to  strengthen  the 
delusion.  This  practice  has  been  long  since 
discontinued.  Prior,  alluding  to  the  opinion 
that  poets  received  their  verse-  by  inspiration, 
Says,  ludicrously  enough, 

"  If  inward  wind  does  truly  swell  ye, 
It  must  be  the  cholic  in  your  belly." 


Qui  Luccrna  egent,  infundunt  Okum. 

When  we  have  occasion  for  a  lamp,  we  trim 
it  and  fill  it  with  oil.  Anaxagoras  having 
been  often  consulted  by  Pericles,  and  very 
advantageously,  in  the  government  of  his  coun- 
try •  becoming  old,  and  finding  himself  en- 
tirely 


tirely  neglected  by  his  pupil  and  his  former 
services  forgotten,  determined,  by  a  total  ab- 
stinence from  food,  to  put  an  end  to  his  ex- 
istence ;  this  being  told  to  Pericles,  he  called 
upon  and  entreated  him  to  desist  from  his  pur- 
pose, as  he  had  business  requiring  his  assist- 
ance ;  but  the  philosopher  being  now  near 
dying,  answered,  "  O  Pericles,  et  quibus  lu- 
cerna  opus  est,  infundunt  oleum."  Thus  re- 
proving him  for  his  inattention,  when  he 
thought  he  should  have  no  further  occasion 
for  his  advice.  The  phrase  thence  became 
proverbial. 


* 
Dulce  est  Mlseris  Socws  habuisse  Dolor  is. 

It  is  a  comfort  to  the  wretched  to  have 
companions  in  their  misfortunes.  It  is  plea- 
sant, Lucretius  says,  standing  on  the  shore 
to  see  a  ship  driven  about  by  a  tempest ;  or 
from  the  window  of  a  castle,  to  see  a  battle; 
not  that  we  rejoice  in  the  sufferings  of  the  un- 
happy people  in  the  vessel,  who  all  of  them, 
perhaps,  after  long  struggling  with  the  dan- 
ger, perish  in  the  ocean  ;  or  at  the  fate  of 

those 


those  who  are  killed  or  wounded  in  the  bat- 
tle :  the  pleasure  arises  from  our  being  exempt 
from  the  danger  in  which  we  see  so  many  of 
our  fellow  creatures  immersed.  The  comfort, 
therefore,  that  we  experience  in  having  com- 
panions in  our  troubles,  in  finding  others  suf- 
fering pains  similar  to  those  with  which  we  are 
afflicted,  does  not  arise  from  seeing  them  in 
pain,  but  from  finding  that  we  are  not  singled 
out  in  a  particular  manner  to  bear  a  greater 
portion  of  evil  than  falls  to  the  lot  of 
others  :  whenever  this  does  happen,  it  adds- 
greatly  to  the  misery  of  what  kind  so  ever  it 
may  be.  Some  men  are  peculiarly  unhappy 
in  this  way  ;  in  all  public  calamities,  whether 
by  sickness-,  fire,  or  inundations,  a  much  larger 
than  their  proportion  of  the  evil,  being  sure 
to  fall  upon  them.  But  upon  what  principle 
are  we  to  account  for  the  avidity  with  which 
people  flock  to  be  present  at  executions?  here 
they  become  voluntary  spectators  of  one  of 
the  most  distressing  and  afflicting  scenes  that 
can  be  well  imagined;  particularly  when  the 
execution  is  attended  with  any  additional  cir- 
cumstances of  horror;  when  the  criminals  are 

made 


(     196    ) 

made  to  suffer  the  most  excruciating  torture 
before  death  relieves  them  from  their  misery, 
May  we  attribute  this  propensity  to  curiosity, 
to  a  desire  to  see  in  what  manner  human 
strength  or  courage  is  able  to  bear  such  an 
extremity  of  evil  r  It  were  much  to  be  wished, 
that  women,  whose  soft  and  delicate  frames 
seem  to  render  them  unfit  for  such  scenes,  did 
not  make  so  large  a  portion  of  the  spectators 
ou  such  occasions, 

".I  have  long  been  sorry,"  Mrs.  Montagu 
says,  Letters,  Vol.  IV,  "  to  see  the  best  of  our 
sex  running  continually  after  public  specta- 
cles and  diversions,  to  the  ruin  of  their  health 
and  understandings,  and  neglect  of  all  do- 
mestic duties  :  but  I  o\vn  the  late  instance  of 
their  going  to  hear  Lord  Ferrers's  sentence 
particularly  provoked  me:  the  ladies  crowded 
to  the  House  of  Lords,  to  see  a  wretch  brought 
loaded  with  crime  and  shame  to  the  bar,  to  hear 
sentence  of  a  cruel  and  ignominious  death ; 
which,  considering  only  this  world,  cast  shame 
on  his  ancestors  and  all  his  succeeding  family. 
There  was  in  this  case  every  thing  that  could 
disgrace  human  nature  and  civil  distinctions; 

but 


(     197     ) 

but  it  was  a  sight,  and  in  spite  of  all  pretences 
to  tenderness  and  delicacy  they  went  adorned 
with  jewels,  and  laughing  and  gay  to  see 
their  fellow  creature  in  the  most  horrid  situa- 
tion, making  a  sad  end  of  this  life,  and  in 
fearful  expectation  of  the  commencement  of 
another." 

Lord  Ferrers,  it  is  known,  was  hanged  for 
shooting  one  of  his  servants,  in  the  year  1760. 


Fuere  quondam  Milesii. 

The  Milesians  were  once  a  brave  and  hard}' 
people.     "  Troja  fuit."  The  magnificent  city 
of   Troy  once   existed,    though  no   vestiges 
even  of  the  ruins  of  its  walls  and  temples  now 
remain.     I  was  once  rich  and  powerful,  but 
am  now  poor,  miserable,  and  wretched ;  con- 
demned to  serve  where  I  formerly  command- 
ed ;  may  be  said,  particularly  at  this  moment, 
by  many  fallen  potentates ;    fallen,    most  or 
all  of  them,  by  their  own  misconduct   and 
mistaken  notions  of  government.  For  the  great 
changes  which  have  taken  place  in  the  condi- 
VOL.   IT.  o  tion 


tion  of  the  princes  of  Europe  could  never  have 
been  effected,  if  their   self-indulgences   and 
want  of  energy  in  the   exercise  of  their  high 
authorities,  frequently  the  consequence  of  a 
voluptuous  life  and  wrong  principles  of  action, 
had  not  co-operated,  unfortunately,  too  power- 
fully with  the  force  of  their  conqueror  and 
brought  on  their  ruin:  they  were  enslaved  by 
their  inordinate  passions  which  led  to  the  op- 
pression of  their  subjects,  and  was  ultimately 
the  occasion  of  losing  their  affections.     The 
people  were  in  the  situation  of  the  overloaded 
ass  in  the  fable,  who,  when  told  to  hasten  for 
there  were  robbers  at  hand,  answered,  it  mat- 
tered little  whom  he  served  since  he  must  still 
carry  his  panniers.     But  to  pursue  rny  theme: 
I  was  once  young,  strong,  and  vigorous,  may 
be  said,  but  am  now  old,  feeble,  and  decrepid. 
These  reflections,  though  trite,  may  still  have 
their  utility  ;  for  as  they  teach  us,  by  shewing 
what  has  happened,  to  expect  reverses  in  our 
state,  they  tend  to  enforce  upon  us  the  pro- 
priety of  using  our  prosperity  with  modera- 
tion. 

The  Milesians,  who  have  long  since  ceased 

to 


(     199    ) 

to  be  a  people,  were  not  conquered  by  their 
enemies,  until  they  had  left  off  to  be  strong 
and  courageous ;  until  luxury,  the  conse- 
quence of  their  success,  and  opulence,  had 
enervated  and  enfeebled  them. 


Massiliam  naviges. 

You  are  going  the  way  of  the  Massilians, 
may  be  said  to  inconsiderate  spendthrifts,  who 
are  dissipating  what  had  been  acquired  for 
them,  either  by  good  fortune  or  the  industry 
and  frugality  of  their  ancestors.  The  Massi- 
lians, once  a  brave  and  independent  people, 
having  by  their  commerce  acquired  great  afflu- 
ence, became  so  debauched,  extravagant  and 
effeminate,  as  to  fall  an  easy  prey  to  the 
neighbouring  states. 


Non  unquam   tacuisse  nocet,  nocet  esse 
loquutum. 

What  is  retained  and  kept  in  the  mind  can 

never  injure,  it  may  injure  us  to  have  divulged 

it.     "  Quien  calla,  piedras  apana,"  he  that  is 

o  2  silent 


(     200     ) 

silent  is  heaping  up  stones;  he  is  thinking 
how  he  may  profit  hy  what  others  are  saying; 
and  "  Oveja  que  bala  bocada  pierde,"  the 
sheep  loses  a  mouthful  when  it  bleats.  Silence 
is  the  sanctuary  of  prudence,  and  properly 
used,  it  is  one  of  the  most  valuable  attributes 
of  wisdom.  "  The  fool's  bolt  is  soon  shot,"  he 
has  little  in  him,  and  over  that  little  he  has  no 
controul;  he  is  always,  therefore,  saying  some- 
thing that  is  unseasonable  and  improper ;  he  is 
precipitate  in  his  judgment,  and  determines 
before  he  M7ell  knows  the  proposition  to  which 
his  assent  is  required.  But  the  wise  man  is 
reserved  and  cautious,  "  he  looks  before  he 
leaps,"  "  thinks  before  he  speaks/'  and  "  even 
of  a  good  bargain  he  thinks  twice  before  he 
says  done,"  for  he  knows  that  appearances 
are  often  deceitful,  and  that  "  all  is  not  gold 
that  glitters,"  "  he  has  wide  ears,  and  a  short 
tongue,"  therefore  more  ready  to  hear  the  opi- 
nions of  others,  than  to  proclaim  his  own. 
Augustus  Cassar  bore  a  sphinx,  an  emblem  of 
silence,  on  his  ring,  intimating  that  the  coun- 
sels of  princes  should  be  secret.  But  silence 
is  often  adopted  for  very  different  purposes 

and 


(     201     ) 

and  from  different  motives :  some  make  use 
of  it,  to  cover  their  ignorance ;  conscious  of 
their  inability  to  bear  a  part  in  the  conversa- 
tion, they  avoid  venturing  their  opinion,  and 
"  wisely  keep  the  fool  within,"  in  which  they 
shew  a  commendable  prudence  ;  "  even  a  fool 
when  he  holdeth  his  peace,  is  counted  wise, 
and  he  that  shutteth  his  lips  is  esteemed  a  man 
of  understanding."  "  Parla  poco,  ascolto 
assai,  et  non  fallirai,"  speak  little  and  attend 
to  what  falls  from  others,  and  you  will  commit 
no  error.  Others  again  are  silent  through 
craft,  fearful  lest  by  some  unguarded  expres- 
sion they  should  betray  the  part  they  had 
taken  in  some  transaction,  in  which  they 
would  not  be  thought  to  have  been  concern- 
ed ;  or  that  they  should  discover  their  opi- 
nion or  intention,  which  may  be  the  reverse 
of  what  they  publicly  profess  :  such  men, 
to  use  the  strong  language  of  Churchill, 

"  Lest  bokl  truth  to  do  sage  wisdom  spight, 
Should  burst  the  portals  of  their  lips  by  night, 
Tremble  to  trust  themselves  one  hour  in  sleep." 

Yet  there  is  an  instance  on  record,   where 
o  3  silence 


(     202     ) 

silence  is  said  to  have  occasioned  the  destruc- 
tion of  a  country,  whence  the  following  : 

Amyclas  perdidit  Silentia. 

Amyclas  was  lost  by  silence.  The  magis- 
trates of  this  city  having  been  frequently 
alarmed  by  some  of  the  more  timid  inhabi- 
tants, with  reports  of  an  enemy  being  at  hand 
when  no  danger  was  near,  ordered,  under  the 
penalty  of  a  severe  punishment,  that  no  one 
should  again  disturb  them  with  such  rumours. 
At  length,  when  an  enemy  was  actually  ap- 
proaching, the  people  not  daring,  on  ac- 
count of  the  law  to  give  the  necessary  in- 
formation, the  city  was  taken.  The  proverb 
may  be  applied  to  any  one  neglecting  the 
proper  opportunity  or  time  for  doing  any  ne- 
cessary business. 


Ubi  tres  Medici,  duo  Athei. 

Where  there  are  three  physicians,  there  are 
two  atheists.  Whence  could  a  censure  so 
senseless,  derive  its  origin  ?  since  physicians, 

whose 


(     203     ) 

whose  professions  led  them  in  a  particular 
manner  to  examine  into  the  properties  of  na- 
tural bodies,  must  have  been  among  the  first 
to  see  and  admire  the  order,  regularity,  and 
beauty  of  their  structure. 

"  Presentemque  refert  quajlibet  herba  deum." 

Every  herb  having  a  signature  of  the  divine 
Majesty  stamped  upon  it.    Need  it  be  added, 
that  the  anatomy  of  the  human,  or  of  any 
other  animal  body,  afforded  no  less  pregnant 
proofs  of  the  existence  of  an  all- wise  and 
powerful  Architect;  since  nothing  less  than 
such  a  being  could  have  contrived,  and  put 
together,  such  exquisite  pieces  of  mechanism. 
But  the  habit  of  inquiring,  and  looking  deeply 
into  the  nature  and  structure  of  the  bodies 
they  examined,  might  make  them  sceptical, 
and  not  ready  to  credit  what  could  not  be 
submitted  to  a  similar  test.    They  might  not, 
therefore,  be  disposed  to  treat  with  reverence, 
the  rabble  of  gods  that  disgraced   the  calen- 
dars of  Greece  and  Rome ;  and  this  might  be 
sufficient  to   induce   the  common  people  to 
brand  them  with  the  name  of  atheists.     Sir 
o  4  Thomas 


(     204     ) 

Thomas  Brown,  in  his  singular  book,  "Religio 
Medici,"  after  defending  the  profession  from 
the  imputation  of  atheism,  gives  his  own  creed, 
in  which,  on  all  material  points,  he  is  suffi- 
ciently orthodox,  but  in  matters  which  he 
conceived  not  to  be  essential,  he  carved  for 
himself.  Indeed,  he  seems  to  have  had  a  very 
extended  faith,  and  to  have  thought  that  the 
more  improbable  any  of  the  tenets  of  religion 
were,  the  more  merit  there  was  in  believing 
them.  He  was  a  perfect  convert  to  the  reso- 
lution of  Tertullian,  "credo  quia  impossible 
est,"  I  believe  it,  because  it  is  impossible.  "I 
desire  to  exercise  my  faith,"  he  says,  "in  the 
difficultest  points  ;  for  to  credit  ordinary  and 
visible  objects,  is  not  faith,  but  persuasion." 
He  joined  also  heartily  in  the  then  popular 
opinion  of  witchcraft.  "  I  have  ever  believed," 
he  says,  "  and  do  now  know  that  there  are 
witches,"  and  he  charges  those  who  disbelieve 
in  them,  "as  being  a  sort,  not  of  infidels,  but 
atheists."  Chaucer  does  not  speak  very  fa- 
vourably of  the  faith  of  the  medical  corps. 

"  Physicians  know  what  is  digestible, 
But  their  study  is  but  little  in  the  bible." 


•  (     205     ) 
And  another  Poet  says, 

"  I  have  heard,  how  true 


I  know  not,  most  physicians  as  they  grow 
Greater  in  skill,  grow  less  in  their  religion; 
Attributing  so  much  to  the  natural  causes, 
That  they  have  little  faith  in  that  they  cannot 
Deliver  reason  for." 

Time,  which  has  corrected  the  erroneous  opi- 
nion of  witches,  has  also  released  the  studious 
in  medicine,  from  the  reproach  of  infidelity, 
and  they  are  now  allowed  to  have  as  just  a 
sense  of  religion,  as  any  other  of  the  classes 
of  mankind. 


Multos  in  summa  Pericula  misit, 

Venturl  Timor  ipse  Mali. 

Men  are  often  through  the  dread  of  some 
misfortune  threatening  them,  so  disturbed,  and 
so  completely  deprived  of  judgment,  as  not  to 
see,  or  be  able  to  use  the  means,  which,  in  a 
more  easy  and  quiet  state  of  their  minds,  would 
have  been  sufficiently  obvious,  and  by  which 
they  might  have  avoided  the  evil,  so  that  to 
standers  by,  they  seem  to  have  acted  under 

some 


(     206     ) 

some  secret  impulse,  or  to  have  been  fascinated. 
It  is  fear  that  deprives  the  bird  of  the  power 
of  escaping  the  snake,  if  it  has  once  caught  its 
eye;  not  daring  to  turn  its  face  from  the 
frightful  object,  it  necessarily  every  step  it 
takes  approaches  nearer,  and  at  length,  depri- 
ved of  all  sense  and  power,  falls  into  its  jaws. 

"  Quo  timoris  minus  est,  eo  minus  ferme  periculi  est." 

Where  there  is  the  least  fear,  there  is,  for  the 
most  part,  least  danger;  though  the  Spaniards 
say,  "  Quien  obra  sin  miedo,  yerra  su  hecho," 
he  who  acts  without  fear,  aots  wrong;  but 
the  word  miedo,  fear,  in  this  sentence,  means 
only  care,  caution  or  attention. 


Rebus  in  adversis, facile  est  contenmere  Mortem, 
Fortius  ille  facit,  qui  miser  esse  potest. 

Men  of  strong  minds  contend  with  diffi- 
culties and  misfortunes,  and  frequently  suc- 
cessfully, or  if  they  cannot  be  completely 
averted,  bear  them  patiently,  by  which  means 
they  become  lighter,  and  their  sting  is 

blunted ; 


(     207     ) 

blunted;  it  is  the  coward  only  that  seeks  to 
escape  them  by  death. 

"  Hie  rogo,  non  furor  est  ne  moriare 
Mori?" 

Is  it  not  madness  to  kill  yourselves  lest  ye 
should  die  ?  to  suffer  the  greatest  misfortune 
that  can  befall  you  to  escape  a  less  ? — But, 
with  Martial's  leave,  this  is  not  a  right  state- 
ment of  the  position.  Men  do  not  kill 
themselves  to  escape  dying,  but  to  put  an  end 
to  a  thousand  cares  and  perplexities  which 
make  life  a  burthen  to  them.  Agis  being 
asked  which  way  a  man  might  live  free, 
answered,  "  by  despising  death." 

"  Emori  nolo,  sed  me  esse  mortuum  nihil  estimo." 

I  feel  no  difficulty  in  saying  I  wish  I  were 
dead,  but  I  have  not  courage  sufficient  to 
embrace  a  voluntary  death,  or  to  put  an  end 
to  my  existence. 


Quoniam  id  fieri  quod  vis  non  potetf, 
Id  veils  quod  possis. 

Since  you  cannot  effect  what  you  are  solici- 
tous 


(     208     ) 

tous  to  obtain,  be  contented  with  what  you 
have.  That  is,  we  should  not  suffer  the  want 
of  something  upon  which  we  may  have  impru- 
dently set  our  affection,  to  prevent  our  enjoy- 
ing, and  being  thankful  for  what  we  actually 
possess,  and  we  should  the  rather  do  this,  as, 
if  we  are  incapable  of  bounding  our  desires, 
the  object  we  are  in  pursuit  of,  would,  if 
obtained,  contribute  very  little  to  our  con- 
tentment. 

*'  Against  our  peace  \ve  arm  our  will, 
Amidst  our  plenty  something  still, 
For  horses,  houses,  pictures,  planting, 
To  me,  to  thee,  to  him  are  wanting. 
That  cruel  something  unpossess'd, 
Corrodes,  and  leavens  all  the  rest; 
That  something  if  we  could  obtain, 
Would  soon  create  a  future  pain." 


Venter  obesus  non  gignit  Mentem  subtilem. 

An  over  crammed  belly  does  not  produce  a 
quick,  and  ready  wit,  or  "  fat  paunches  make 
lean  pates."  The  Lacedemonians,  who  were 
remarkably  frugal  in  their  diet,  had  such  an 

abhorrence 


(    209     ) 

abhorrence  and  contempt  for  fat  and  corpu- 
lent persons,  that  they  were  about  to  banish 
from  their  city,  Auclides,  one  of  their  country- 
men, who,  by  a  course  of  indolent  and  volup- 
tuous living-,  had  swelled  himself  to  an  enor- 
mous bulk,  and  were  only  deterred  from  it  by 
his  engaging  to  live  for  the  future  more 
sparingly.  They  would  have  no  inhabitants 
but  such  as,  in  time  of  danger,  might  be 
assisting  in  repelling  an  enemy. 


Quid  ad  Farinas  ? 

What  profit  do  you  expect  from  this,  or 
how  will  it  conduce  to  provide  you  with 
bread,  to  which  your  attention  should  be 
principally  turned,  may  be  said  to  young 
persons,  who  are  seen  neglecting  their  busi- 
ness, and  spending  their  time  in  idle  pursuits, 
in  keeping  loose  company,  in  haunting  tavern  s? 
playhouses,  and  assemblies,  in  reading  novels 
and  romances,  or  in  taking  up  the  trade  of 
poetry,  without  any  better  call  than  their 
own  silly  conceit;  a  vice  now  very  prevalent. 

"  Quid  me  numeri  tantlem  ad  farinas  juverint?" 

Mortui 


(     210     ) 

Mortui  non  mordent. 

The  dead  do  not  bite,  cannot  hurt  you. 
This  apothegm  was  used  by  Theodore  Chius, 
master  in  rhetoric  to  Ptolemy  king  of  Egypt, 
when  consulted  by  him  whether  they  should 
grant  an  asylum  to  Pompey,  who  had  landed 
on  their  coast,  after  being  defeated  by  Julius 
Caesar.  He  advised  them  to  receive  him,  and 
put  him  to  death;  adding,  "  Mortuos  non 
mordere."  Our  more  common  phrase,  and 
which  is  probably  used  by  ruffians  who  deter- 
mine to  murder  those  they  rob,  is,  "  the 
dead  tell  no  tales." 


De  Calceo  solicitus,  at  Pedem  nihil  curet. 

Looking  more  to  the  fashion  of  the  shoe 
than  to  the  ease  of  the  feet,  which  those 
persons  were  said  to  do,  who  paid  more  atten- 
tion to  the  diet  than  to  the  education  of  their 
children. 


Verbum 


Verbum  Sapient i. 

"  A  buon  intenditore  poche  parole." 

"  Le  sage  entend  un  demi  mot." 

"  Al  buen  entendador  pocas  palabras. 

"  A  word  to  the  wise."  To  a  sensible  man, 
but  few  words  are  ordinarily  necessary,  and  a 
fool  will  not  understand  you,  though  you 
should  give  him  a  long  dissertation. 


Tanquam  meum  Nomen. 

TanqUam  Ungues,  Digitosque  suos. 

It  is  a  subject  I  am  as  well  acquainted  with, 
as  I  am  with  my  own  name,  or  with  my 
fingers,  was  used  to  be  said  to  persons  repeat- 
ing any  well  known  story  or  circumstance. 

"  Totis  diebus,  Afer,  hcec  mihi  narras, 
Et  teneo  melius  ista,  quam  meum  nomen." 

You  are  perpetually  teasing  me  with  a  repeti- 
tion of  this  story,  which  is  as  familiar  to  me 
as  my  own  name. 

Mittc 


(     212     ) 

Mitte  in  Aquam,  hoc  est,  Aufer  t  medio. 

A  phrase  for  which  we  have  no  direct  sub- 
stitute. Take  him  away,  to  the  river  with 
him.  To  the  pump  or  to  the  horse  pond,  is 
sometimes  the  cry  of  the  mob  in  this  country, 
when  they  take  upon  themselves  to  execute 
summary  justice  on  some  poor  wretch  taken 
in  the  act  of  picking  a  pocket,  or  in  the  com- 
mission of  some  crime  for  which  they  con- 
ceive them  properly  to  be  amenable  to  their 
tribunal.  But  among  the  ancients,  certain 
criminals  were  condemned  to  be  tied  in  a  sack 
and  drowned,  which  is  what  the  adage 
alludes  to,  and  this  kind  of  punishment  is  still 
used  in  Germany.  Parricides  in  Rome  were 
put  into  a  sack  with  a  cock,  a  monkey,  a  ser- 
pent, and  a  dog,  and  thrown  into  a  river  or 
into  the  sea,  to  which  Juvenal  alludes,  in  the 
following  lines,  as  translated  by  Hodgson. 

"  If  votes  were  free,  what  slave  so  lost  to  shame. 
Prefers  not  Seneca's  to  Nero's  name, 
Whose  parricides,  not  one  close  sack  alone, 
One  serpent,  nor  one  monkey  could  atone  ?" 

Xero 


Nero,  it  is  known,  caused  his  mother,  two 
of  his  wives,  and  Seneca  his  tutor  to  be  put  to 
death. 


Perdere  Naulum. 

"  Echar  la  soga  tras  el  caldero."  "  It  is 
throwing  the  rope  after  the  bucket,  the  helve 
after  the  hatchet,"  may  be  said  to  persons 
under  misfortunes,  who,  instead  of  exerting 
themselves  to  recover  what  they  have  lost, 
give  way  to  despair,  and  so  suffer  what  re- 
mains of  their  property  to  be  wrecked  likewise. 

"  Furor  cst  post  omnia  perdere  naulum." 

But  the  adage  is  more  immediately  appli- 
cable to  persons  who  have  made  an  unsuccess- 
ful venture,  \vho  have  taken  goods  to  a 
country  where  they  are  little  in  request,  or 
are  valued  at  a  very  low  price.  Do  not  let 
them  be  destroyed,  get,  at  the  least,  so  much 
for  them  as  will  pay  the  freight;  "  of  a  bad 
bargain  we  should  make  the  best,"  and,  "  half 
a  loaf  is  better  than  no  bread." 

VOL,  ir.  if  Turpz 


(     214     ) 

Turpe  siler  e. 

It  is  disgraceful  to  be  silent.  When  a  man 
is  conscious  that  he  is  capable  of  instructing 
his  fellow-citizens,  or  those  with  whom  he  is 
connected,  in  any  art  that  might  be  beneficial 
to  them,  it  is  disgraceful,  or  perhaps  criminal, 
to  withhold  it. 

"  Be  niggards  of  advice  on  no  pretence, 
For  the  worst  avarice  is  that  of  sense." 

It  may  also  be  said  by  any  one,  who  should 
find  others  not  so  well  qualified  as  himself, 
acquiring  honour  by  the  practice  of  any  art  or 
profession,  I  must  now  exert  myself,  and  shew 
these  men,  that  it  was  not  through  incapacity, 
that  I  have  hitherto  abstained,  "  It  would  be 
disgraceful  to  be  any  longer  silent,"  and  to  a 
circumstance  of  this  kind,  the  adage  is  said  to 
have  owed  its  origin. 


Medice,  cur  a  te  ipsum. 

Physician,  heal  thyself.  It  seems  but  just, 
that  those  who  profess  to  cure  the  diseases  of 
others,  should,  as  a  pledge  of  their  capacity, 
b§  able  to  preserve  themselves,  and  families, 

from 


(     215     ) 

from  the  ravages  of  them.  But  how  few  are 
able  to  give  this  pledge  !  Practitioners  in 
medicine,  are  neither  more  remarkable  for 
longevity,  nor  for  producing  or  rearing  a  more 
healthy,  or  a  more  numerous  progeny,  than 
those  who  are  out  of  the  pale  of  the  profession. 
This,  however,  does  not  arise  from  the  fault  of 
the  physician,  but  from  the  imperfection  of 
the  art ;  for  though  there  is  no  branch  of 
science  that  has  been  cultivated  with  more 
diligence,  than  this  of  medicine,  or  that  has 
had  the  advantage  of  being  practised  by  men 
of  greater  genius,  abilities,  and  learning,  or 
who  have  laboured  with  greater  industry,  per- 
severance, and  zeal,  to  bring  it  to  perfection; 
yet  they  have  been  so  far  from  attaining  their 
object,  that  there  are  many  diseases,  and 
among  them,  some  of  the  most  frequent,  for- 
midable, and  fatal,  for  which  no  adequate,  or 
successful  methods  of  treatment,  have  been 
discovered.  The  treatment  of  rheumatism  is 
at  this  time  as  various,  unsettled,  and  gene- 
rally as  inefficient,  as  it  was  £000  years  ago ; 
and  although  so  many  volumes  have  beeu 
written  on  asthma,  and  consumption,  it  is  to 
p<2  be 


(    216    ) 

be  lamented  that  no  satisfactory  proof  can  be 
given,  that  either  of  them  were  ever  cured  by 
medicine.  Much  might,  perhaps,  be  clone  to- 
wards the  improvement  of  the  practice,  if 
physicians  would  follow  the  model  which 
the  late  Dr.  Pleberden  has  left  them  in  his 
Commentaries  ;  in  my  judgment,  one  of  the 
best  books  which  this,  or  any  other  age,  or 
country,  has  produced  on  the  subject.  The 
College  of  Physicians  have  done  something 
towards  leading  practitioners  to  this  mode, 
by  abolishing  the  vain  titles  heretofore  given 
to  drugs  and  compositions,  attributing  to  them 
qualities  which  experience  by  no  means  war- 
rants us  in  believing  they  possess.  But  even 
in  the  complaints  mentioned  above,  and  many 
more  might  be  added,  the  physician  may  be 
often  able  to  give  directions  that  may  retard 
their  progress,  and  enable  the  patient  to  pass 
his  life  with  some  degree  of  comfort;  and 
he  who  limits  his  endeavours  to  procuring 
these  advantages,  will  well  deserve  their  grate- 
ful acknowledgments,  he  will  also  escape  the 
censures  so  frequently  thrown  on  the  profes- 
sors of  the  art.  "  Turba  medicorum  perii,"  a 

multitude 


(     217     ) 

multitude  of  physicians  have  destroyed  me, 
was  the  inscription  the  Emperor  Adrian  or- 
dered to  be  put  upon  his  monument.  It  would 
be  useless,  perhaps  in  some  degree  mischiev- 
ous, to  recite  the  many  sarcastic  speeches  that 
have  been  recorded  to  degrade  the   practice 
of  mediciue.     The  effect  they  should  have, 
and  which,  indeed,  they  have  had  on  the  more 
judicious  practitioners,  is  not,  on  every  occa- 
sion, to  load  their  patients  with  drugs,  which, 
when  not  absolutely  necessary,  deserve  a  dif- 
ferent name  than  that  of  medicines.    With  no 
great  impropriety  they  may  be  called  poisons; 
for,  although  they  may  not  kill,  yet  if  they 
nauseate,  and  destroy  the  tone  of  the  stomach, 
and  have  the  effect  of  checking  and  prevent- 
ing the  powers  of  the  constitution   in  their 
efforts  to  expel  the  disease,  they  cannot  fail 
of  doing  much  mischief.    Baglivi,  addressing 
himself  to  young  practitioners,  says,  "  Quam 
paucis  remediis  curantur  morbi !  Quam  pi u res 
e  vita  tollit   remediorum  farrago!"  and  Sy- 
denham  advises,  in  many  cases,  rather  to  trust 
to  nature,  it  being  a  great  error  to  imagine 
that  every  case  requires  the  assistance  of  art. 
P  3  It 


(     218    I 

It  should  be  considered,  that  as  there  are  some 
diseases  for  which  medicine  has  not  yet  found 
out  any  cure,  there  are  others  for  which  no 
medicines  are  required,  the  constitution  being 
of  itself,  or  only  aided  by  rest,  and  a  simple 
and  plain  diet,  sufficient  to  overcome  them. 
The  French  therefore  say,  with  much  good 
sense,  "Un  bouillon  dechoux  fait  perd re  cinque 
sous  au  medecin,"  a  mess  of  broth  hath  lost 
the  physician  his  fee.  That  this  adage  is  an- 
cient may  be  concluded  from  the  smallness  of 
the  fee  assigned  to  the  doctor.  The  Undertaker, 
in  the  Funeral,  or  Grief  a-la-mode,  among  his 
expenses,  mentions  ten  pounds  paid  for  a  Trea- 
tise against  Water-gruel,  "a  damned  healthy 
slop,  that  has  done  his  trade  more  mischief," 
he  says,  "  than  all  the  faculty."  The  Spaniards 
on  this  subject  say,  "  Al  enfermo  que  es  vida, 
el  agua  le  es  medicina,"  the  patient  who  is 
not  destined  to  die,  will  need  no  other  medi- 
cine than  water :  such  is  their  opinion  of  the 
efficacy  of  abstinence.  "  It  is  no  less  disgrace- 
ful,''" Plutarch  says,  "  to  ask  a  physician,  what 
is  easy,  and  what  is  hard  of  digestion,  and 
what  will  agree  with  the  stomach,  and  what 

not, 


(    219    ) 

not,  than  it  is  to  ask  what  is  sweet,  or  bitter, 
or  sour."  Our  English  adage,  which  is  much 
to  this  purport,  and  with  which  I  shall  close 
this  essay  is,  "  Every  man  is  a  fool  or  a  phy- 
sician, at  forty." 


Facilius  sit  Nili  Caput  invenire. 

It  Mrould  be  easier  to  find  the  source  of  the 
Nile.  This  has  in  all  ages  been  considered  as 
so  difficult,  that  the  proverb  was  used  to  re- 
present something  scarcely  possible  ever  to  be 
effected  :  this  opinion  was  not  formed  until 
after  a  variety  of  experiments  had  been  made 
with  a  view  to  its  discovery.  But  the  dis- 
tance of  its  head  or  source  from  any  of  the 
parts  of  Africa  that  had  been  visited  or  were 
known  to  Europeans,  or  to  the  inhabitants  of 
the  northern  parts  of  that  vast  continent,  is  so 
great,  and  the  countries  lying  between  them 
inhabited  by  such  numerous  tribes  of  savages, 
that  all  the  expeditions  formed  for  that  pur- 
pose had  failed,  and  so  many  lives  had  been 
lost  in  the  attempt,  that  the  project  had  for 
p  4  many 


(     220     ) 

many  ages  been  laid  aside.  That  one  of  its 
sources  is  now  known,  is  owing  to  the  genius 
or  industry  of  certain  Portuguese  missiona- 
ries. Mr.  Bruce,  indeed,  assumes  to  himself 
the  merit  of  having  made  this  discovery,  but 
it  had  been  very  circumstantially  described  by 
Lobo,  in  his  account  of  Abyssinia,  whose  work 
on  the  subject  was  translated  by  Dr.  Johnson, 
and  by  Sir  Peter  Wyche,  in  his  "  Short  Rela- 
tion of  the  River  Nile,"  translated  by  him 
from  the  Portuguese,  and  published  by  order 
of  the  Royal  Society  in  1673:  perhaps  a  short 
extract  from  this  little  tract,  which  is  not  com- 
mon, may  be  acceptable. 

"  One  of  the  provinces  of  Abyssinia,"  the 
•writer  says,  "  is  called  Agoas ;  the  inhabitants 
of  the  same  name,  whether  these  bestowed 
their  name  or  took  it  from  the  province.  The 
higher  part  of  the  country  is  mountainous 
and  woody,  yet  not  without  vallies  and  groves 
of  cedars,  for  goodness  and  scent  not  inferior 
to  those  of  Lebanus.  In  this  territory  is  the 
known  head  and  source  of  the  Nile,  by  the 
natives  called  Abani,  the  father  of  waters, 
from  the  great  collection  it  makes  in  the  king- 
doms 


doms  and  provinces  through  which  it  passeth; 
for  the  greatest  part  of  Ethiopia  being  moun- 
tainous and  the  torrents  swelled  in  the  winter, 
the  mountains  so  transmit  them  as  to  increase 
the  river,  which  falling  into  the  Nile  make  no 
little  addition  to  its  greatness,  causing  it  to 
run  with  such  a  stock  of  water  as  overflows  the 
plains  of  JEgypt.  This  is  the  river  the  Scrip- 
ture calleth  Gihon,  which  encompassed  the 
land  of  Ethiopia,  so  doth  the  Nile  with  its 
turnings  and  meanders.  The  head  rises  in  the 
most  pleasant  recess  of  the  territory,  having 
two  springs  called  eyes,  each  about  the  big- 
ness of  a  coachwheel,  distant  from  each  other 
about  twenty  paces:  the  pagan  inhabitants 
adore  as  an  idol  the  biggest,  offering  to  it 
many  sacrifices  of  cows  which  they  kill  there, 
flinging  the  head  into  the  spring,  eat  the  flesh 
as  holy,  lay  the  bones  together  in  a  place  de- 
signed for  that  purpose,  which  at  present 
make  a  considerable  hill,  and  would  make  it 
much  bigger,  if  carnivorous  beasts  and  birds 
of  prey  did  not,  by  picking  them,  lessen  and 
scatter  them." 

The  curious  reader  will  be  struck  with  ob- 
serving 


serving  how  very  nearly  the  account  given  by 
Mr.  Bruce  resembles  this,  which  is  here  laid 
before  him.  That  Mr.  Bruce  should  take  no 
notice  of  either  of  these  books,  though  it  is 
scarcely  possible  but  he  must  have  seen  or 
heard  of  them,  is  singular. 

Mr.  Rennel  has  however  shewn,  in  a  late 
publication  on  the  Geography  of  Herodotus, 
that  the  river,  the  head  of  which  has  been  here 
described,  is  only  one  and  an  inferior  source 
of  the  Nile,  and  that  the  largest  and  princi- 
pal source  of  that  celebrated  stream  rises  at  a 
great  distance  from  Agoas,  and  much  higher 
up  in  the  country,  and  which  has  probably 
never  yet  been  visited  by  any  European. 

The  principal  source  of  the  Nile,  therefore, 
remaining  still  undiscovered,  the  proverb  con- 
tinues in  full  force. 


Terram  video. 

I  see  land,  may  be  said  by  persons  getting 
nearly  to  the  end  of  a  long  and  troublesome 
business,  or  concluding  any  great  work  or  la- 
bour; more  directly,  and  to  this  the  adage 
owes  its  origin-,  by  those  who  have  been  a  long 

time 


(     223     ) 

time  at  sea,  and  perhaps  been  driven  about  by 
adverse  winds,  on  first  espying  the  shore, 
"  Thank  God,  I  once  more  see  land  1"  an  eja- 
culation which  some  of  my  readers  may  per- 
haps make  at  finding  they  have  got  to  the 
end  of  this  hook  ;  and  it  may  not  be  less  satis- 
factory to  them  to  learn,  that  the  writer  or 
collector  of  this  miscellany  is  too  far  advanced 
in  life,  to  be  likely  to  make  any  considerable 
addition  to  them. 


FINIS. 


INDEX. 


A a ERR A RE  a  Scopo                               — •  224 

Ab  Incunabulis     —                                   —  163 

Ab  Ovo  usque  ad  Mala    —  230 

ActiLabores  jucundi  —         281 

Ad  Amussim  131 

Ad  Concilium  ne  accesseris,  antequam  voceris  58 

Ad  felicem  inflectere  Parietem     —         —  66 

Ad  Fincm  ubi  perveneris,  ne  veils  rcverti  13 

Ad  pcenitendum  properat  cito  qui  judicat  vol.  ii.     95 

At!  Unguem  131 

Adversus  Solem  ne  loquitor  14 

yEdibus  in  nostris  quae  prava  aut  recta  geruutur  142 

jEgroto  dum  Anima  est,  spes  est  vol.  ii.     13 

/Equalis  aequaletn  delectat  43 

/Ethiopem  ex  Vultu  judico                       —  210 

A  Fabis  abstineto                                        —  f) 

Albas  Gallinae  Filius  31 

Album  Calculum  addere  122 

Alicnos  Agros  irrigas,  tuis  sitientibus       —  67 

Alii  sementcm  faciunt,  alii  metent  119 

AUorum  Medicus,  ipse  Ulceribus  scates  vol.  ii.     31 

Aliam 


•26  INDEX. 

Page 

Aliam  Quercum  excute    —  120 
Altera  Manu  fert  Lapidem,  altera  Panem  ostentat         177 

Altera  Manu  scabunt,  altera  feriunt        —  177 

Ama  tanquam  osurus,  oderis  tanquani  amaturus  252 

Amens  longus        —  —           54 

Amicorum  communia  sunt  omnia  —             1 

Amyclas  perdidit  Silentium  vol.  ii.  203 

Anicularum  Deliramenta  vol.  ii.  102 

Animo  aegrotanti  Medicus  est  Oratio       • —  vol.  ii.     90 

An  nescis  longas  Regibns  esse  Manus  ?    —  —           35 

Annosa  Vulpes  baud  capitur  Laqueo      —  209 

and  vol.  ii.  184 

Annosam  Arborem  transplantare              —  —           89 

Ansam  quaerere     —                                  —  105 

Ante  Barbam  doces  senes                          —  vol.  ii.     70 

Ante  hac  putabam  te  habere  Cornua       —  vol.  ii.     70 

Antequam  incipias,  consulto  288 

Annulus  aureus  in  Naribus  Suis               —  —         162 

Anus  Hircum  olet             —  vol.  ii.     93 

Anus  Simia  serd  quidem  vol.  ii.     22 

Aphya  ad  Ignem  vol.  ii.  103 

Apii  Opus  est        —                      —  vol.  ii.     59 

A  puro  pura  defluit  Aqua             —         —  vol.  ii.     66 

Aquilae  Senecta     —                     —         —  205 

Aranearum  Telas  texere                            —  89 

Arctum  Anulum  ne  gestato  —             9 

Are  varia  Vulpi,  ast  una  Echino  maxima  114 

Artem  qurcvis  alit  Terra                            —  163 

Asinum  sub  Frceno  currere  doces  89 

Asinus  inter  Simias           —        —         -•-  115 

Asinus 


INDEX.  227 

Page 

Asinus  in  Unguento                                   —  —         118 

Asperius  nihil  est  humili  cum  surgit  in  altum  — •         153 

Astutior  Coccyge                                        —  vol.  ii.  153 

A  teneris  Unguiculis  163 

Athos  celat  Latera  Lemniae  Bovis            —  vol.  ii.     64 

Avarus  uisi  quum  moritur,  nil  recte  facit  vol.  ii.  165 

Aureo  piscari  Hamo  265 

Auribus  Lupum  teneo       —  114 

Auro  loquenti  nihil  pollet  qusevis  Ratio  —  vol.  ii.     7 1 

Aurum  Tolosanum  243 

Ausculta  et  perpende        —  vol.  ii.   117 

Aut  bibat  aut  abeat  225 

Aut  Caesar  aut  nullus        —  6% 

Aut  Regem  aut  Fatuum  nasci  oportuit    —  62 

BARBJE  ten  us  Sapientes    —  60 

and  vol.  ii.  178 

Barbati       —  vol.  ii.  18-t 

Baeta  turn  Hyeme  turn  Estate  bona        —  vol.  ii.   105 

Belte  narras  250 

Bellura  inexpertis  vol.  ii.  137 

Bcneficium  accipere,  est  Libertatem  vendere  vol.  ii.     49 

and     180 

Bis  dat  qui  cito  dat  190 

Bis  interimitur  qui  suis  Armis  pent  vol.  ii.   125 

Bis  Pueri  Senes  100 

Bceotum  in  crasso  jurares  A  tire  natum  vol.  ii.  187 

Bona  k  Tergo  formosissirna  276 

Bona  magis  carendo  quain  truendo  sentimus  —         276 

.Bona?  Leges  ex  mails  Moribus  procreantur  231 

Bona 


.228  INDEX. 

Pagt 

Bona  nemini  Hora  est,  quin  alicui  sit  mala  vol.  ii.  16'8 

Boni  Pastoris  est  tondere  Pecus,  non  deglubere  vol.  ii.  103 

Bonis  vel  malis  Avibus     —  —  — 

Bonus  Dux  bonum  reddit  Comitem         —  -^— 

Bos  alienus  subincle  prospectat  Foras       —  — 

Bos  in  Linua        —  —  — 


caeco  Dux                                      —  —         180 

Camaelus  desiderans  Cornua  etiam  Aures  perdidit  44 

vol.  ii.  94 

Camelus  saltat       —  vol.  ii.     43 

Canes  Socium  in  Culina  nullum  amant    —  —           44 

Canes  timidi  vehementius  lalrant  vol.  ii.  109 

Canis  in  Praesepi  221 

Canis  festinans  caecos  parit  Catulos  257 

Canlabit  vacuus  coram  Latrone  Viator     —  77 

Cantilenam  eandem  canere  vol.  ii.     2S 

Captantes  capti  sumus      —                      —  210 

Catulae  Dominas  imitantes                        —  vol.ii.     55 

Caudaa  Pilos  equkiae  paulatim  evellere    —  192 

Cedro  digna  locutus  vol.ii.  128 

Certa  sunt  paucis  116' 

Chamaeleonte  mutabilior               —  vol.ii.   171 

Chius  Dominum  emit        —                     —  vol.  ii.       9 

Cibum  in  Matellam  ne  immittito  12 

Citius  quam  Asparagi  coquuntur  vol.  ii.   102 

Citra  Arationem,  citraque  Sementem       •  —  129 

Citra  Pulverem  129 

Clavam  extorquere  Herculi  vol.ii.   127 

Ccenare  me  doces              -r*        —  vol.  ii.    95 

Cosnatio 


IKDEX.  229 

Page 

Cognatio  rnovet  Invidiam              —  vol.  ii.     67 

Conscientia  mille  Testes  337 

Contra  Sfimulum  calces                —  69 

Contra  Torrentem  niti       • —  vol.  ii.     91 

Cor  ne  edito           —         —                     —  7 

Corinthiari                          - —  vol.  ii.  154 

Comix  Scorpium  rapuit    —  26 

Coronam  quidem  gestans  caeterum  Siti  perditus  26l 

Corrumpunt  Mores  bonos  Colloquia  prava  236 

Corycanis  auscultavit  voL  ii.     89 

Crambe  bis  posita,  Mors   —                     —  —         101 

Crehl  vel  Carbone  notare  123 

Croesi  Pecunioe  ter  unciam  addere  38 

Cui  placet  obliviscitur,  cui  dolet  meminit  154 

Cum  Lacte  Nutricss  163 

Cum  Larvis  luctari  47 

Cumini  Sector       —                                  —  247 

Cura  esse  quod  audis                     —         —  vol.  ii.  129 

Currus  Bovem  trahit         •—-;.'• —         - —  160 

DATE  mihi  Pelvim                         *—  vol.  ii.     6& 

Davus  sum  non  CEdipus    —                      —  —         109 

De  Asini  Umbra  71 

De  Calceo  solicitus,  at  Pedem  nihil  curet  vol.  ii.  210 

De  Fiece  haurire  2l6 

De  Filo  pendet       —  207 

De  Fructu  Arborem  cognosce  211 

De  Fumo  disceptare                                   »—  72 

De  Lana  cnprina  71 

ii.                               V  Delphiaurn 


230  INDEX. 

Page 

Delphinuai  natare  doces,  vel  Aquilam  volare  —          9* 

Deraulcere  Caput  vol.  ii.     55 

De  mortuis  nil  nisi  bonum                         —  —           47 

Den  tern  Den  te  rodere       • —                     —  vol.ii.     35 

Deorum  Cibus  est                         —  186 

De  Pilo  pendet     —  207 

Destitutus  Ventis  Remos  adhibe               —  vol.  ii.  l62 

De  te  Exemplum  capit     —                      —  vol.ii.  145 

Dies  adimit  ^Egritudinem  vol.  ii.     18 

Difficilia  qoae  pulehra       —  246 

Difficilius  est  sarcire  Concordiam  quam  rumpere  24-7 

Digitum  noft  porrexerim  67 

Dignum  Patella  Operculum  —         232 

Dii  Laneos  Pedes  habent  242 

Dimidium  facti,  qui  benc  cepit,  habet     —  45 

Dimidium  plus  toto           —                      —  —         257 

Divitis  Servi  niaxime  Servi  vol.  ii.   147 

Dives  aut  iniquus  est,  aut  iniqui  hrercs  199 

Dolium  volvitur     —  vol,  ii.  156 

Dos  est  magna  Parentuin  Virtus  vol.  ii.  181 

Duabus  sedcre  Sellis  151 

Dulce  est  miseris  Socios  habuisse  Doloris  vol.  ii.    194 

Dolcis  inexpertis  Culturu  potentis  Amici  vol.  ii.  ISO 

Duos  insequens  Lepores,  neutrum  capit  vol.  ii,  101 

Durum  ct  durum  non  faciunt  Murum     —  vol.ii.     72 

EANDEM  tumlerc  Incudem  —         2l6 

Ejusdem  Farinae     « —  l6l 

Elephantus  non  capit  Murem       —  207 

Elephantem  ex  Musca  facis  —     ,   208 

Erner* 


231 

Page 

Emere  inalo  quam  rogare  67 

E  multis  Paleis  paulura  Fructus  56 

Emuncta?  Naris  Homo  141 

Eodem  Collyrio  mederi  omnibus  vol.  ii.   114 

Equi  et  Poetae  alendi  mm  saginandi  vol.  ii.   130 

Equus  Sejauus       —         —  244 

E  quovis  Ligno  non  fit  Mercurius  vol.  ii.     24 

Et  meum  Telum  Cuspidem  habet  acuminatum  59 

Etiamsi  Cato  dicat  vol.  ii.   l6\ 

E  tardigradis  Asinis,  Equus  non  prodiit  vol.  ii.     45 

Eum  ausculta,  cui  quatuorsunt  Aures     —  65 

Ex  eodem  Ore  calidum  et  frigidum  effkire  —         177 

Exigit  et  e  Statuis  Farinas  vol.  ii.     64 

Exiguum  Maluin  ingens  Bonum  vol.  ii.     2t> 

Ex  Harena  I'uniculum  needs       —  10.9 

Ex  Pede  Herculem  214 

Ex  Quercubus  ac  Saxis  nati  189 

Extra  Lutum  Pedes  habes            —         — •  —           57 

Extra  Telorum  Jactum                 — •         —  81 

Extra  Scopum  jaculare  224 

Extremis  Digitis  attingere  — •         215 

Ex  Umbra  in  Solem          —  57 

Ex  uno  omnia  specta        —  57 

FABARUV  Arrosor  vol.  ii.  169 

Facile  quum  valemus,  recta  Consilia  .ZEgrotis  damns     138 

Facilius  sit  Nili  Capnt  invenire  vol.  ii.  219 

Fama;  laboranti  non  facile  succurritur     —  176 

Fames  et  Mora  BHem  in  Nastim  copciunt  vol.  ii.     46 

Q  2  Felix 


23*  INDRX. 

Page 

Felix  Corinthus,  at  ego  sim  Teneates  —  vol.  ii.  144 

Fenestram  vel  Januam  aperire  83 

Fervet  olla,  vivit  Amicitia     —  111 

Festina,  lente                                          —  244 

Festucum  ex  alterius  Oculo  ejiccre     —  144 

Ficum  cupit  274 

Ficos  dividere  243 

Ficus  Ficus,  Ligonem  Ligonem  vocat  275 

Fidelius  rident  Tuguria  77 

Figulus  Figulo  invidet  44 

Flamma  Fumo  est  proxima                  • —  —          97 

Flet  victus,  Victor  interiit  vol.  ii.   131 

Fluvius  cum  Mari  certas      —             —  —         213 

Fcenum  habet  in  Cornu         —  33 

Koines  ipsi  sitiunt  —         167 

Fortes  Fortuna  adjuvat         —             —  —           46 

Fortuna  nimium  quern  favet,  Stultum  facit  76 

Fortuna  obesse  nulli  contents  est  semel  vol.  ii.   1 14 

Frigidam  Aquam  effundere  228 

Frons  Occipitio  prior  42 

Front!  nulla  Fides  260 

Frustra  habet  qui  non  utitur  vol.  ii.     45 

Frustra  Herculi     —  vol.  ii.     35 

Fucum  facere                          —             —  121 

Fuere  quondam  Milesii  vol.  ii.  197 

Fuimus  Troes                          —  —         202 

Funem  abrumpere  nimium  tendendo  —         127 

Furari  Litoris  Arenas  vol.  ii.     50 

Furemque  Fur  cognoscit      —  287 

Galhis 


INDEX.  233 

Page 

Callus  in  suo  Sterquilinio  plurimum  valet  vol.  ii.  159 

Gall-urn  habeas  Amicum  non  Vicinum  vol.  ii.  179 

Gutta  Fortunae  prae  Dolio  Sapientiae  129 

Gutta  cavit  Lapidem                             —  65 

HABET  vol.  ii.  119 

Habet  et  Musca  Splenam     —  vol.  ii.     93 

Harena  sine  Calce  2So 

Ilarenae  mandas  Semina       —  90 

Hie  Funis  nihil  attraxit  200 

Hinc  illae  Lachryma?  26"4 

Hirundinem  sub  eodem  Tecto  ne  habeas  14 

Hodie  nihil  succedit  vol.  ii.  1?0 

Homines  frugi  omnia  recte  faciunt       —  269 

Homo  est  Bulla    —  2STI 

Homo  longus  raro  sapiens    —  56 

IGNAVIS  semper  Feriae  sunt  vol.ii.     29 

Ignem  ne  Gladio  fodito  8 

Ignis,  Mare,  Mulier,  tria  Mala  264 

Illotis  Pedibus  ingredi  203 

Jmi  Subsellii  Viri  vol.  ii.   109 

Incidis  in  Scyllam,  cupiens  vitare  Charybdim     —  95 

Indignus  qui  illi  Matellam  porrigat     —  132 

Injuriae  spretae  exolescunt    —  SO 

Inexplebile  Dolium  —         224 

Incudi  reddere       —  131 

Inimicus  et  invidus  VicinorumOculus  vol.ii.     96 

In  Acre  piscari      —  vol.  ii.     53 

Insanus,  medio  Flumine  queeris  Aquara  212 

Q   3  Illj 


234  INDEX. 

Page 

Illi  Mors  gravis  incubat,  qui  notus  nimis  omnibus 

ignotus  moritur  sibi       —             —  vol.  ii.     84 

In  Annulum,  Dei  Figuram  ne  gestato  —           15 

In  Aqua  vel  in  Saxis  Sementem  facis  — ^           90 

In  caducum  Parietem  inclinare            —  vol.  ii.     37 

In  Coelum  jaculare  vol.ii.     69 

In  eburna  Vagina  plumbeus  Gladius  162 

Inest  et  Formicas  sua  Bilis  vol.  ii.     93 

In  Flammam  ne  Manum  injicito  vol.  ii.    98 

In  Herba  esse        —  —         272 

In  Laqueos  Lupus  • —         166 

In  Mare  venari      —  vol.  ii.     53 

In  Mari  Aquam  quasris  212 

In  Nocte  Consilium               —             —  —         258 

In  Portu  navigare  24 

In  Quudrum  redigere  —         217 

In  Re  mala,  Animo  si  bono  utare,  adjuvat  vol.  ii.     96 

In  se  descendere                    —             —  143 

In  sola  Sparta  expedit  senescere  vol.  ii.  145 

In  Sylvam  Ligna  ferre           —             —  l6S 

In  Saltu  uno  duos  Apros  capere           — -  vol.  ii.  101 

Inter  indoctos  etiam  Corydus  sonat      —  273 

Inter  Malleum  et  Incudem  16 

IntraTelorum  Jactum                            — <•  82 

Intra  tuam  Pelliculam  te  confine  145 

In  tuo  Regno  es     —                             —  166 

In  Vado  esse  24 

In  Vino  Veritas     —  156' 

In  vita  Minerva       —  —           20 

In  utramvis  dormire  Aurem  175 

Ipse 


INDEX.  235 

Page 

Ipse  semet  canit    —  vol.  ii.     27 

Iracundior  Adria                                    -  —  220 

Ira  brevis  Furor     —                              —  •  —         154 

Ira  omnium  tardissime  senescit             —  •  —         154 

Irritare  Crabrones                                   —  26 

JACTANTIUS  raoerent  qui  minus  dolent  vol.ii.   158 

Jejunus  raro  Stomachus  vulgaria  temnit,  vol.  ii.  183 

Jungere  Vulpes,  aut  mulgere  llircum  —         110 

Juxta  Fluvium  Puteum  ibdit  vol.ii.     48 


Brachio       —  37 

Laterem  lavas        —  .91 

Latet  Anguis  in  Ilerba  87 

Latum  Unguem     —  110 

Laudatur  et  alget  vol.ii.   176 
Laureum  Baculum  gesto       — 

Leberide  caecior    —  74 

Lentiscum  mandere  179 

Leonem  stimulas  27 

Leonem  ex  Unguibus  estimare  214 

Leonem  Larva  terres  133 

Leporis  Vitam  vivit  TO!,  ii.  155 

Lingua  Amicus      —  vol.  ii.     77 

Lingua  bellare       —  vol.  ii.     56 

Lingua  non  redarguta  vol.  ii.     78 

Lingua,  quo  vadis  ?  257 

Li  tern  parit  Lis,  Noxa  item  Noxam  parit  195 

Lucri  bonus  est  Odor  ex  Re  qualibet  vol.  ii.  104 

Lucrum  malum  aequale  Dispendio       —  vol.  ii.     97 

Q  4  Lucrum 


236'  INDEX. 

Page 

Lucrum  Pudori  praestat  vol.  ii.  105 

Lumen  Soli  mutuum  das      —  ]68 

Lupi  ilium  priores  viderunt  —  1/3 

Lupus  Pilum  mutat  non  Mentem  vol.  ii.  42 

Luscus  Convitia  jacit  in  caecum            —  —  274 

Lyd i  us  Lapis,  si  ve  Heracli us  Lapis       •*-  —  130 

MAGIS  gaudet  quam  qui  Senectam  exuit  vol.  ii.  108 

Magis  magni  Clerici,  non  sunt  magis  Sapientes  165 

Magister  Artis,  Ingeniique  Largitor  Venter  —  99 

Magistratum  gerens,  audi  et  juste  et  injustk  vol.  ii.  165 

Magistratus  Virum  indicat                     —  •*•-  339 

Magis  mutus  quam  Pisces     —  —  115 

Mala  ultro  adsunt                  —             —  vol.  ii.  144 

Male  parta,  male  dilabuntur                 —  —  171 

Malis  mala  succedunt           —             —  vol.  ii.  114 

Malo  accepto,  Stultus  sapit                  -^  *— -  18 

Malo  Nodo  malus  quzerendus  Cuneus  —  36 

Malum  Consilium  Consultori  pessimum  vol.ii.  87 

Malum  bene  conditum  ne  moveris       — •  —  27 

Malum  Munus      —             —             —  vol.  ii.  .149 

Malum  Vas  non  frangitur     —  vol.ii.  147 

Mandrabuli  More  Res  succedit  —  -^51 

Manibus  Pedibusque             • —             —  -^-  84t 

Manliana  Imperia                  —             —*•  «*—  240 

Manum  non  verterira             —             —  67 

Manum  de  Tabula                                   —  -*—  102 

Manus  Manum  fricat             -r-  ]9 

Massiliam  naviges                                   -—  vol.  ii.  199 

Mature  fias  senex,  si  diu  velis  esse  senex  52 

MaturaSatio  sacpe  decipit,  sera  semper  mala  est  206 


INDEX.  237 

Page 

Meclice,  cura  te  ipsum  vol.  ii.  214 

Mendacem  memorem  esse  oportet'      —  vol.  ii.       1 

Mendico  ne  Parentes  quidem  Amici  sunt  vol.  ii.  136 

Messe  tenus  propria  vivere  100 

Merx  ultronea  putet              —             —  —         201 

Alinutula  Pluvia  Imbrem  parit             —  —           64 

Minuit  Prassentia  Famam     —             —  vol.  ii.  124 

Mitte  in  Aquam,  hoc  est  aufer  e  medio  vol.  ii.  212 

Molli  Brachio        —                              —  37 

Mons  cum  Monte  non  miscebitur        — -  —           45 

Mordere  Labrum                   —             —  vol.  ii.  108 

Mors  omnibus  communis      —             —  vol.  ii.   140 

Mortui  non  mordent              —             —  vol.  ii.  210 

Mortutnn  flagellas                 —             —  —         106 

Mortuus  per  Somnum  vacabis  Curis     —  vol.  ii.  118 

Mulier  turn  bene  olet,  ubi  nihil  olet    —  vol.  ii.     73 
Multa  novit  Vulpes,  sed  Felis  unum  magnum     —         112 

Multa  cadunt  inter  Calicem  supremaque  Labra               94 

Multas  Amicitias  Silentium  diremit     —  —         249 

Multa;  Manus  Onus  levius  reddunt       —  vol.  ii.       9 

Multae  Regum  Aures  atque  Oculi       —  —           35 

Multis  Ictibus  dejicitur  Quercus          —  —         186 

Multos  in  summa  Pericula  misit 

Venturi  Timor  ipse  Mali       —             —  vol.  ii.  203 

Munerum,  Animus  optimus  est            —  vol.  ii.  169 

Muris  in  Morem                                     —  vol.  ii.  100 

Mustelam  habes     —             —             —  —           55 

NAM  tuaRes  agitur  Paries  cum  proximus  ardet  vol.  ii.  102 

Naribus  trahere     — •             —            —  —         251 

Naturam 


J38  IXDEX. 

Page 

Naturam  expellas  Furca,  tamen  usque  recurret   vol.ii.     42 

Ne  ad  Au res  quiclem  scalpendas  Ociom  est  —         277 

Ne  .iEsopum  quidem  trivit            —  vol.ii.     31 

Ne  cuivis  Dextram  injeceris  5 

Nee  quovis  Ligno  Mercurius  fiat  vol.  ii.     24 

Ne  Gladium  tollas  Mulier  vol.  ii.     25 

Ne  gustaris  quibus  nigra  est  Cauda  —             4 

Ne  Hercules  quidem  adversus  duos  1  l6 

Ne  in  Nervum  erumpat     —  vol.  ii.     36 

Ne  Jupiter  quidem  omnibus  placet  vol.  ii.   143 

Ne  Malorum  memineris    —  254 

Nee  Oboluin  habet  unde  Ilestim  emat     —  70 

Ne  prius  Antidotum  quam  Venenum           —  vol.  ii.   157 

Ne  quid  nimis        —  148 

Ne  Sus  Minervam  19 

Ne  Sutor  ultra  Crepidam              —  21 

Ne  Verba  pro  Farina         —  vol.ii.     29 

Necessitas  Magistra                                    —  vol.  ii.   183 

Neglectis  uremia  Filix  innascitur  Agris   —  vol.  ii.     54 

Nemini  fidas   nisi    cum    quo    prius  Modium  Salis 

absumpseris   —         • —  248 

Nemo  me  impune  lacessit  60 

Nemo  sibi  nascitur  vol.  ii.  172 

Neque  Mel,  neque  Apes  —  137 

Neque  natare,  neque  Literas        —  vol.  ii.     32 

Nequicquam  sapit  qui  sibi  non  sapit        —  136 

Nervis  omnibus      —  —           85 

Nescis  quid  serus  Vesper  vehat     —  152 
Nil  actum  reputans,  si  quid  superesset  agendum, 

vol.  ii.  152 

Nihil  ad  Fides       —  118 

NibiJ 


INDEX.  239 

Page 

ad  Versum   —  — •         — 117 

Nihil  de  Vitello     —                                               vol.  ii.  153 

Nimia  Familiaritas  parit  Contemptum     —  49 

Nocte  latent  Menda?  171 

Noctua  inter  Cornices       —         —  119 

Noctua  volavit       —  29 

Nocumentum  Documentum  107 

Noli  Equi  Denies  inspicere  donati                       vol.  ii.  168 

Non  attingere  Scopum      —         —  224 

Non  bene  imperat,  nisi  qui  paruerit  Imperio        -—  15 

Non  cuivis  Homini  contingit  adire  Corinthum    —  82 
Non  esse  Cupidum  Pecunia  est,  non  esse  emacera 

Vectigal                      —  77 

Non  est  e  Terris  mollis  ad  Astra  Via        • —  247 

Non  estejusdem  et  multa,  et  opportuna  dicere  —  6l 

Non  est  miht  cornea  Fibra                                     vol.ii.  33 
Non  est  Rernedium  adversus  Sycophantse  Morsum 

vol.  ii.  33,  &  185 

Non  incedisper  Ignem      —                                 vol.ii.  117 

Non  omnes  possumus  omnia                                  vol.  ii.  6l 

Non  omnis  fert  omnia  Tellus        —                     vol.  ii.  6l 

Non  progredi  est  regredi  —                                  vol.ii.  174 

Non  statim  decernendum                                       vol.  ii.  118 

Non  sunt  Amici  qui  degunt  procul  249 

Non  tarn  Ovum  Ovo  simile  110 

Non  unquam  tacuisse  nocct         —         —         vol.  ii.  199 

Non  uti  libet,  sed  uti  licet,  sic  vivimus   —  181 

Nosce  te  ipsum      —  146 

Nosce  Tempus      —  169 

Novacula  in  Cotem  17 

Nuces 


240  INDEX. 

Page 

Nuces  relinquere  —  108 

Nulla  Dies  sine  Linea      —  84 

Nullus  illis  Nasus  est        —  —         141 

Nullus  sum            —  —                       70 

Num  vobis  tinniebant  Aures         —  —         vol.  ii.     l6 

Nunc  tuum  Ferrum  in  Igni  est     —  vol.  ii.   l6Q 

OBTIU'DKRE  Palpum  —         vol.  m  100 

Occasio  facit  Furein  vol.  ii.     75 

Occultze  Musices  nullus  Respectus  —                      172 

Oculus  dexter  mihi  salit    -<—         —  —         vol.  ii.     16 

Oderint  modo  metuant      —  vol.ii.     51 

Ocli  memorem  Compotorem  225 

OditCane  pejus  et  Angue  vol.  ii.     52 

Odium  Vatinianum  275 

CEstro  percitus       —  — .         vol.ii.     44 

Oleo  tranquilior     —         —  220 

Oleum  Camino  addere      —  37 

Oleum  et  Operam  perdere  105 

OletLucernam      —  —     142  and   170 
Olitorem  odi  qui  radicitus  Herbas  excidat         'vol.  ii.   103 

Ollae  Amicitia        —  111 

Omne  ignotum  pro  magnifico  est  •  50 

Omnes  attrahens  ut  Magnes  Lapis  164 

Omnes  sibi  melius  malunt  quam  alteri  —                        80 

Omnia  bonos  Viros  decent  vol.  ii.     53 

Omnia  idem  Pulvis    -  l6l 

Omnem  movere  Lapidem              —  85 

Omnium  Horarum  Homo  78 

Opera  Sylosontis  ampla  Regio     —  242 

Oportet 


INDEX.  24rl 

Page 

Oportet  Testudinis  Carnes  aut  edere,  aut  non  edere       229 

Optimum  aliena  Insania  frui        280 

Optimum  Condimentum  Fames   vol.  ii.     43 

Optimum  non  nasci  282 

Optimum  Obsonium  para  Senectuti  vol.  ii.     81 

Orci  Galeam  habet   vol.  ii.     58 

Ovem  Lupo  commisisti  83 

PALINODIAM  canere  204 

Palpo  percutere         vol.  ii.  120 

Pannus  lacer                                                            vol.  ii.  8 

Pariter  Remum  ducere                                           vol.  ii.  162 

Par  Pari  referre                                                       vol.  ii.  167 

Parturiunt  Montes,  nascetur  ridiculus  Mus 198 

Patriag  Fumus  Igni  alieno  luculentior  39 

Paupertas  Sapientiam  sortita  est  99 

Pecunias  obediunt  omnia  75 

Pennas  incidere  alicui  160 

Percontatorem  fugito,  nam  idem  garrulus  est  14- 

Perdere  Naulum        •                 vol.  ii.  233 

Pergnccari                                                                vol.  ii.  122 

Per  Ignem  incedis     vol.  ii.  116 

Pingere  sub  Gladio   vol.  ii.  155 

Piscator  ictus  sapit    — —             19 

Pluris  est  unus  ocufatus  Testis,  quara  auriti  decem 

vol.  ii.  36 

Poeta  nascitur  non  fit                    vol.ii.  188 

Polypi  Mentem  obtine  34. 

Post  Festum  venisti    203 

Praemonitus  prsemunitus  280 

Praesens 


£42  INDEX. 


vol.  ii. 
qui 
vol.  ii. 
vol.  ii. 

Page 
J64 

59 
160 

279 
45 
108 
76 
76 
143 
245 
66' 
250 
50 

121 
140 
113 
11 
52 
16'  I 
20 

0' 

123 

W9 
65 
107 
127 
19 
Qui 

Praestat   habere  acerbos  inimicos,  quam  eos 

Praestat  invidiosum  esse  quam  miserabilem 

vol.  ii. 
vol.  ii. 
vol.  ii. 

Principium  Dimidium  totius         
Priusquam  Callus  iterum  cecinerit 

Prospectandum  vetulo  latrante  Cane 

vol.  ii. 
vol.  ii. 
vol.  ii. 

Pulverem  Oculis  effundere 
Qujfc  dolent  ea  molestum  est  cbntingere 

vol.  ii. 

opti- 
vol.  ii. 

vol.  ii. 
vol.  ii. 
vol.  ii. 

Quam  quisque  norit  Artem,  in  hac  se  excrceat 
Qui    bene   conjiciat,   Yatem    hunc    pcrhibeto 

Quicquid  in  Buccam,  vel  in  Linguam  vcncrit 

Quid  Coeco  cum  Speculo 

Quid  nisi  victis  Dolor 

vol.  ii. 

IXDEX. 


24$ 


Qui  jacet  in  Terra,  non  liabet  unde  cadat  vol.  ii.     37 

Qui  Lucerna  egent,  infuiulunt  Oleum  vol.ii.   193 

Qui  nescit  dissimulare,  nescit  regnare  vol.  ii.  150 

Qui  nimis  p  rope  re,  minus  prospere  ---         245 

Qui  non  litigat  Cselubs  est  vol.  ii.  132 

Qui  Nucler.m  esse  vult,  Nucem   frangat  oportet 

vol.  ii.     47 

Qui  vital  Molam,  vital  Farinam     -  vol.ii.     79 

Quarta  Luna  nati      -  30 

Quod  alibi  diminutum,  exequatur  alibi  vol.  ii.     6'l 

Quod  de  quoque  Viro  et  cui  dicas,  saepe  cavcto  vol.  ii.   185 
Quod  in  Corde  sobrii,  id  in  Lingua  ebrii  156 

Quod  licet  ingratum  est,  quod  non  licet  acrius  erit         2(>3 
Quod  non  Opus  est,  Asse  carum  est  vol.  ii.  l60 

Quod  procedere  non  potest  recedit  vol.  ii.   174 

Quod  quis  Culpa  sua  contraxit,  majus  malum     vol.  ii.  125 
Quod  supra  nos,  nihil  ad  nos  139 

Quo  seme!  est  imbuta  recens  servabit  Odorein  Testa 

din  -  vol.  ii.     14 

Quoniam  id  fieri  quod  vis  non  potest, 

Id  velis  quod  possis  --  vol.  ii.  207 

Quot  Servi  tot  Hostes  273 

RADIT  usque  ad  Cutem  vol.ii.     .91 

Rara  Avis  250 

Rebus   iiv  adversis  facile  est  contemnere   Mortem 

vol.ii.  206 

Red  ire  ad  Nuces  309 

RefricareCicatricem  ;  -  141 

Refricare-  Memoriam  141 

Refii- 


244  INDEX. 

Pag* 

Refutantis  Laudem  immodicam    -  vol.  ii.  58 

Rem  Acu  tetigisti      -  vol.  ii.  18 

Remis  Velisque                               -  -  -  85 

Reperire  Rimam        -  vol.  ii.  66 

Reperit  Deus  Nocentem               —  —  vol.  ii.  54 

Res  in  Cardine  est    -  16 

Res  indicabit  17 

Rore  vixit  More  Cicadas  vol.  ii.  159 


etiam  est  Holitor  valde  opportuna  loquutus  132 

Saepe  etiam  Stultus  fuit  opportuna  loquutus  133 

Salem  et  Mensam  ne  praetereas    —  —             -  134 

Salem  lingere             -             -                 vol.ii.  106 
Sapientes  portant  Cornua  in  Pectore,  Stulti  in  Fronte 

vol.ii.  131 

Sapientum  octavus     -             -  -  "  188 

Sat  cito  si  sat  ben£     -             -  245  and  vol.  ii.  185 

Satius  estlnitiis  mederi  quam  Fini  45- 

Satius  est  recurrere  quam  currere  male  21  1 

Sat  pulchra  si  sat  bona                  -  POP 

Saxum  volntum  non  obducitur  Muscho              vol.  ii.  92 

Scindere  Glaeiem      -                                      vol.  ri.  Qft 

Segnius  Homines  bona  quam  mala  sentiunt     --  154 

Semper  tibi  pendeat  Hamus                              —  -  20t 

Senem  juventus  pigra  Mendicum  creat            -  •  52 

Senis  mutare  Linguam                                        —  ;  —  53 

Septennis  quum  sit.nondum  edidit  Denies      -  256 

Sequitur  \'er  Ilyemem                                           vol.  ii,  l6 

Sera  in  Fundo  Parcimonia  256 

Sero  Clypeum  post  Vulnera          -  46 

Sero 


INDEX.  245 

Page 

Sero  sapiunt  Phryges  •• 18 

Serpens  ni  edat  Serpentem,  Draco  non  fiet         vol.  ii.     78 
Si  juxta  claudum  habites,  subclaudicare  disces  233 

Simia  Simla  est,  etiamsi  aurea  gestat  Insignia  153 

Simile  gaudet  Simili  43 

Similes  habent  Labra  Lectucas • •         231 

Simul  sorbere  et  flare,  difficile  est  271 

Sincerum  est  nisi  Vas,  quodcunque  infundis  acescit 

vol.  ii.     15 

Sine  Cortice  nalare  181 

Sine  Pennis  volare  haud  facile  est  vol.  ii.     99 

Spartam  nactus  es,  lianc  orna       vol.  ii.     23 

Spem  Pretio  emere  •  vol.  ii.     JO 

Sponde,  Noxa  est  praesto  149 

Stultum  est  timere  quod  vitari  non  potest        — —         280 

Stultus  qui,  Patre  occiso,  Liberos  relinquat     • 229 

Stultus  semper  incipit  vivere         vol.ii.     68 

Stylum  vert  ere          123 

Stia  Munera  mittit  cum  Hamo     vol.ii.   Ill 

Suam  quisquc  Homo  Rem  meminit  vol.  ii.  20t 

Sub  Cultro  liquit       vol.ii.     6'0 

Sub  omni  Lapide  Scorpius  dormit  86 

Sublata  Lucerna  nihil  interest  inter  Mulieres      vol.  ii.     72 

Sum  bonus  et  frugi    26'9 

Summis  Labris  • 215 

Summis  Naribus  olfacere  216' 

Summum  Jus,  summa  Injuria       221 

Suo  Jumento  Malum  accersere    2<j 

Surdo  Canis  92 

Sustine  et  abstine       — -  —  vol.ii.     40 

vou  II.  u  Suum 


£46  INDEX. 

Page 

Suum  cuique  pulchrum  38 

Suum  cuique  Decus  Posteritas  rependet  50 

Sylosontis  Chlamys    241 

TACITUS  pasci  si  posset  vol.  ii.  127 

Talpa  cascior                                   74 

Tanquam  Argivum  Clypeura  abstulerit,  ita  glo- 

riatur                  vol.  ii.     44 

Tanquam  meum  Nomeu  vol.  ii.  211 

Tanquam  Suber                              vol.  ii.  100 

Tanquam  Ungues  Digitosque  suos  vol.  ii.     18 

Taurum  toilet  qui  Vitulum  sustulerit  48 

Te  cum  habita                                145 

Te  ipsum  non  alens,  Canes  alis     vol.  ii.     27 

Tempus  edax  Rerum  vol.  ii.     14 

Tempus  omnia  revelat  vol.  ii.     13 

Terram  video             vol.  ii.  222 

Tertius  Cato  187 

Testudineus  Gradus vol.  ii.     99 

Thesaurus  Carbones  erant  198 

Thus  Aulicum  •  69 

Timidi  Mater  non  flet  vol.  ii.  172 

Timidi  nunquam  statuerunt  Trophoeum  vol.  ii.     30 

Timidus  Plutus                               .         vol.  ii.  112 

Tollenti  Onus  auxiliare,  deponenti  nequaquam  10 

Toto  Coelo  errare       25 

Toto  Pec  tore  85 

Trochi  in  Morem       « vol.  ii.  171 

Tua  Res  agitur  Paries  quum  proximus  ardet       vol.  ii.  102 

Tuis  te  pingum  Coloribus  vol.  ii.  151 

Tunica 


247 

Page 

Tunica  Pallio  propior  est  81 

Turdus  ipse  sibi  malum  cacat 25 

Turpe  silere               • •  vol.  ii.  214- 

Turtura  loquacior     111 

Tuum  tibi  narro  Somnium            vol.  ii.     47 

VEL  casco  appareat  189 

Velocem  tardus  assequitur           169 

Vclut  Umbra  sequi   vol.  ii.  107 

Venter  obesus  non  gignit  Mentem  subtilem  vol.  ii.  208 

Ver  Hyemem  sequitur                  vol.  ii.     l6 

Verbura  Sapienti       — — •  vol.  ii.  211 

Verecundia  inutilis  Viro  egenti    vol.  ii.     39 

Veritatis  simplex  est  Oratio         •  — —          79 

Veterem  Injuriam  ferendo,  invitas  novam        103 

Viam  qui  nescit  ad  Mare  — —         163 

Vicistis  Cochleam  Tarditate  vol.  ii.     99 

Vino  vendibili  suspensa  Hedera  nihil  Opus  vol.  ii.     21 

Virtutem  etSapientiam  vincunt  Testudines     159 

Virum  improbum  vel  Mus  mordeat  189 

Vis  unita  fortior        •  113 

Vita  Mortal! um  brevis                  • vol.  ii.  114 

Volam  Pedis  ostendere  vol.  ii.  168 

Vox  et  Preterea  nihil  vol.  ii.  149 

UBI  Amici,  ibi  Opes  68 

Ubi  Mens  plurima,  ibi  minima  Fortuna  76 

Ubi  quis  dblet  ibi  et  Manum  frequens  habet  — —         2o"2 

Ubi  tres  Medici,  duo  Athei  vol.  ii.  202 

Ultra  Vires  nihil  aggrediendum    — —  vol.  ii.  110 

Ululas 


24S  INDEX. 

Page 

Ululas  Athaenas  portare  38 

Urabram  suam  metuere  26 1 

Una  Domus  non  alit  duos  Canes 44 

Una  Hirundo  non  efficit  Ver        174 

Undarum  in  Ulnis    vol.  ii.  170 

Unico  Digitulo  scalpit  Caput       178 

Ungentein  pungit,  pungentem  Rusticus  ungit  vol.  ii.    67 

Unus  Vir,  nullus  Vir  •        117 

Usque  ad  Aras  Amicus                 vol.  ii.    65 

Usus  est  altera  Natura  vol.  ii.  172 

Ut  Canis  e  Nilo  212 

Ut  Lupus  Ovem  amat  vol.  ii.  l6S 

Ut  possumus,  quando  ut  volumus  non  licet     181 

Ut  Sementem  feceris,  ita  et  metes  184 

ZEN  ox  E  moderator  243 


ERRATA,  VOL.  II. 

Page  31.  1.  7.  for  it  is  instruct,  read  it  is  to  instruct. 
60.       4.  after  the  word  said,  a  comma. 

14.  for  hatchet,  read  hatches. 
67.       4.  for  angit,  read  ungit. 
71 .     14.  for  its,  rtad  Ins. 
88.       last  line  but  one,  for  auspices,  rtad  aruspices. 


London:  Printed  by  C.  Rowortli,  BeU-vard,  Temple-bar. 

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191989 


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